PLANT KINGDOM

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science, biology, plant kingdom

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PLANT KINGDOM:

PLANT KINGDOM

Plant Kingdom:

Plant Kingdom Characteristics - • Eukaryotic • Photosynthetic • Multicellular • Sexually reproducing • Life History involves an alternation of a haploid phase (Gametophyte) with a diploid phase. Classification- Artificially grouped into Nonvascular or Vascular Plants

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Non Vascular Plants – "Bryophytes" • Disperse by spores • Require H2O for sexual fertilization • Small • No vascular tissue • Grow in clumps or masses • Many capable of prolonged dehydration • Most lack cuticle (protective surface layer) • Three Divisions of Bryophytes Three Phyla Bryophyta – Mosses Hepatophyta – Liverworts Anthocerophyta – Hornworts

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Vascular Plants • Vascular tissue • Cutin or suberin on aerial parts • Body an axis (stern) • Large surface/volume ratio common • Much survival value for terrestrial habitat with water deficit – increase in size by conducting tissue – especially xylem • Many subdivision and classes • Each textbook varies, but – patterns are visible as increase in complexity of body structure • Vascularization ( Microphylls vs megaphylls in leaves) • Dispersal {spore (Single cell) vs seed} • Sperm transport H2Ovs pollen grain)

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Lower (spore–dispersing) Vascular Plants Mostly predominant in fossil eras Important in coal–formation. Fossil Phyla Rhyniophyta Zosterophyl lophyta Trimerophytophyta

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Extant Phyla -> Lycophyta ( Lycopodiophyta ) – Ground Pines, Club Mosses and Quillwort Three Extant Classes (Orders) (Families ) are- Lycopodiae ( Lycopodiaes ) ( Lycopodiaceae ) Selaginellae ( Selaginellales ) ( Selaginellaceae ) Isoetae ( Isoetales ) ( Isoetaceae )

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Monilophyta or Pteridophyta Ferns ( Pterophyta ) Five Orders Ophioglossales – Eusporangiate Marattiales – Eusporangiate Filicales – Homosporous and Leptosporangiate Salviniales – Heterosporous and Leptosporangiate Marsileales – Heterosporous and Leptosporangiate Horsetails or Equisetum – One Order Equisetales ( Sphenophyta ) Whisk Ferns – One Order Psilotales ( Psilotophyta )

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Higher (seed-dispersing) Vascular Plants Disperse by multicellular seeds - Embryo head–start in seed package Transport sperm in pollen grain - Freedom from H 2 O for fertilization. Two Broad Groups plus the Fossils Fossil Phyla Progymnospermophyta

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