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Files and Streams : Files and Streams Program Input Stream Output Stream Files I/O Streams : I/O Streams Stream Description cin Standard input stream cout Standard output stream cerr Standard error stream File I/O Streams : File I/O Streams Stream classes required for File I/O : ifstream ofstream fstream ifstream : ifstream Input file stream class Open() is a member function of the class ifstream Inherited functions of ifstream class from the class istream are: get() getline() read() seekg() tellg() Ofstream : Ofstream Output file stream class. Open() is a member function of the class ofstream. Inherited functions of ofstream class from the class ostream are put() write() seekp() tellp() fstream : fstream Supports files for simultaneous input and output. fstream is derived from ifstream ofstream iostream They are all parent class and fstream is the child class Fstream : Fstream Member functions for fstream are: open close closeall seekg seekp tellg tellp Opening a File : Opening a File A file can be opened by using any of the following two ways: Using the constructor function of the class Using the member function open() of the class OPENING A FILE USING CONSTRUCTOR: : OPENING A FILE USING CONSTRUCTOR: As we know a constructor is used to initialize an object while it is being created. Same as we can open a file by supplying the name of the file to the constructor of the file stream as follows: Example: ofstream obj(“abc.jpg”); ifstream file(“LETTER.TXT”); fstream fileio(“answers.txt”); OPENING A FILE USING OPEN() : OPENING A FILE USING OPEN() As we know the function open() is the member function in all the file streams ( ifstream,ofstream & fstream). We can open a file of a particular type of file stream with its default mode or by providing the other modes explicitly, as follows: Example: ifstream obj; obj.open(“STORY.TXT”); ofstream file; file.open(“product.dat”); fstream abc; abc.open(“xyz.dat”,ios::binary|ios::io|ios::out); CLOSING A FILE: : CLOSING A FILE: A file is closed using the member function close(), as follows: Example: ifstream obj; ----------- ----------- obj.close(); FILE MODES: : FILE MODES: The file mode parameter in open() and constructor function specifies the purpose for which the file is opened. If we don’t supply the mode parameter when we open a file it uses the default values in the absence of the actual value. The default values are as follows: ios::in for ifstream functions meaning open for reading only. ios::out for ofstream functions meaning open for writing only. OTHER FILE MODES & THEIR MEANING: : OTHER FILE MODES & THEIR MEANING: Parameter Meaning ios::app - Append to end of file. ios::ate - Go to end of file on opening ios:binary - Binary file ios::in - open file for reading only ios:nocreate - open fails if the file does not exist ios::noreplace - open fails if the file already exists ios::out - open file for writing only ios::trunc - delete the contents of the file if it exists SEQUENTIAL INPUT AND OUTPUT OPERATIONS: : SEQUENTIAL INPUT AND OUTPUT OPERATIONS: 1.The file stream classes support a number of member functions for performing the input and output operations on files. There are two pair of functions for this purpose-put() & get() functions : these functions are designed for handling a single character at a time. syntax: obj.put(ch); obj.get(ch); SEQUENTIAL INPUT AND OUTPUT OPERATIONS: : SEQUENTIAL INPUT AND OUTPUT OPERATIONS: 2. write() & read() functions: these functions are designed to write and read blocks of binary data. syntax: obj.write((char*)&var, sizeof(var));obj.read((char*)&var, sizeof(var)); Here var is an variable of either class or structure. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.