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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Indian Biodiversity : A brief outline -Prepared by Manisha Nanda Indian Biodiversity Biodiversity : What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity means the variety of life on Earth. It is measured as the variety within species— or genetic diversity—the variety between species, and the variety of ecosystems. Biodiversity Importance of Biodiversity : – Diversity is the key to ensuring the continuance of life on earth – Evolved through millions of years of evolution – Higher the diversity = greater stability !! – Provides Invaluable Ecosystem services It is the essence of life on earth Importance of Biodiversity Ecosystem services : – Oxygen and water – Detoxification and decomposition of wastes – Conserve soils and their fertility – Pollination of flowers & Dispersal of seeds – Protection from the ultraviolet rays – Maintenance of biodiversity – Moderation of weather extremes and their impacts – Provision of aesthetic beauty and intellectual and spiritual stimulation for the human spirit Ecosystem services Biodiversity Global : Biodiversity Global – No. of total species - ???? – estimated total at about 5 million - 30 million – The number of described species 1.4 million; – It has taken 3.5 billion years for this biodiversity to evolve, – We are rapidly destroying it India - Biodiversity : – 8.1% of all biodiversity in 2.4% of worlds area – Origin of 30,000 cultivated Plants – 6,33,000 km2 of forest cover (~19% of the land) – 4.5% of area of India is protected – 84 National Parks and 447 WLS – 12 BRs and 23 Tiger Reserves – High endemicity (5150 species (33%) of plants are endemic)** Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island, habitat type, nation or other defined zone India - Biodiversity India – biodiversity : – 45,000 plant species (15,000 flowering plants) – 75,000 species of animals, including 50,000 insects 4,000 mollusks, 2000 fish, 420 reptiles, 140 amphibians, 1200 birds and 340 mammals India – biodiversity Medicinal plants : – India has 2,500 medicinal plants – Of these, 2000 to 2,300 species are used in traditional medicines – Only around 150 species are used commercially (Tulsi, Neem Turmeric, etc. ) Medicinal plants Every single day …. : We are losing – 300 km2 of rainforest, (1 acre / second) – 40 to 100 species Already lost 1 million species, – Natural rate of extinction – 1 species/ year, – The present rate is 1 species/hour (10,000 times higher) Every single day …. Endangered Indian Wildlife : Endangered Indian Wildlife Why to Conserve ? : Every one has a right to live on this planet Every species has its own role to play in the ecosystem Values of many species (and even the species itself) are still unknown ! Every single species is an integral part of the vast chain of life No chain is stronger than its weakest link ! Why to Conserve ? Biodiversity -threats : Habitat Degradation All Natural habitats are under threat from human activities Over-exploitation, deforestation, reclamation, Pollution Biological Invasion Biological invasion by alien species is another major threat to native species and ecosystems as alien species flourish at the cost of local species Biodiversity -threats Alien Species (exotic/ introduced) : Alien species are those that occur outside their natural range. Alien species those threaten the existence of native plants and animals or other aspects of biodiversity are termed alien invasive species. Alien invasive species occur in all groups of plants and animals. As competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites, they have invaded almost every type of native ecosystem, and caused hundreds of extinctions. Alien Species (exotic/ introduced) Copy this link on your browser for a film by UNESCO on biodiversity : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1VYmpTikgw&feature=related Copy this link on your browser for a film by UNESCO on biodiversity You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.