Aries

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ARIES Recovery Algorithm : 

ARIES Recovery Algorithm ARIES: A Transaction Recovery Method Supporting Fine Granularity Locking and Partial Rollback Using Write-Ahead Logging C. Mohan, D. Haderle, B. Lindsay, H. Pirahesh, and P. Schwarz ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 17(1), 1992 Slides prepared by S. Sudarshan

Recovery Scheme Metrics : 

Recovery Scheme Metrics Concurrency Functionality Complexity Overheads: Space and I/O (Seq and random) during Normal processing and recovery Failure Modes: transaction/process, system and media/device

Key Features of Aries : 

Key Features of Aries Physical Logging, and Operation logging e.g. Add 5 to A, or insert K in B-tree B Page oriented redo recovery independence amongst objects Logical undo (may span multiple pages) WAL + Inplace Updates

Key Aries Features (contd) : 

Key Aries Features (contd) Transaction Rollback Total vs partial (up to a savepoint) Nested rollback - partial rollback followed by another (partial/total) rollback Fine-grain concurrency control supports tuple level locks on records, and key value locks on indices

More Aries Features : 

More Aries Features Flexible storage management Physiological redo logging: logical operation within a single page no need to log intra-page data movement for compaction LSN used to avoid repeated redos (more on LSNs later) Recovery independence can recover some pages separately from others Fast recovery and parallelism

Latches and Locks : 

Latches and Locks Latches used to guarantee physical consistency short duration no deadlock detection direct addressing (unlike hash table for locks) often using atomic instructions latch acquisition/release is much faster than lock acquisition/release Lock requests conditional, instant duration, manual duration, commit duration

Buffer Manager : 

Buffer Manager Fix, unfix and fix_new (allocate and fix new pg) Aries uses steal policy - uncommitted writes may be output to disk (contrast with no-steal policy) Aries uses no-force policy (updated pages need not be forced to disk before commit) dirty page: buffer version has updated not yet reflected on disk dirty pages written out in a continuous manner to disk

Buffer Manager (Contd) : 

Buffer Manager (Contd) BCB: buffer control blocks stores page ID, dirty status, latch, fix-count Latching of pages = latch on buffer slot limits number of latches required but page must be fixed before latching

Some Notation : 

Some Notation LSN: Log Sequence Number = logical address of record in the log Page LSN: stored in page LSN of most recent update to page PrevLSN: stored in log record identifies previous log record for that transaction Forward processing (normal operation) Normal undo vs. restart undo

Compensation Log Records : 

Compensation Log Records CLRs: redo only log records Used to record actions performed during transaction rollback one CLR for each normal log record which is undone CLRs have a field UndoNxtLSN indicating which log record is to be undone next avoids repeated undos by bypassing already undo records needed in case of restarts during transaction rollback) in contrast, IBM IMS may repeat undos, and AS400 may even undo undos, then redo the undos

Normal Processing : 

Normal Processing Transactions add log records Checkpoints are performed periodically contains Active transaction list, LSN of most recent log records of transaction, and List of dirty pages in the buffer (and their recLSNs) to determine where redo should start

Recovery Phases : 

Recovery Phases Analysis pass forward from last checkpoint Redo pass forward from RedoLSN, which is determined in analysis pass Undo pass backwards from end of log, undoing incomplete transactions

Analysis Pass : 

Analysis Pass RedoLSN = min(LSNs of dirty pages recorded in checkpoint) if no dirty pages, RedoLSN = LSN of checkpoint pages dirtied later will have higher LSNs) scan log forwards from last checkpoint find transactions to be rolled back (``loser'' transactions) find LSN of last record written by each such transaction

Redo Pass : 

Redo Pass Repeat history, scanning forward from RedoLSN for all transactions, even those to be undone perform redo only if page_LSN < log records LSN no locking done in this pass

Undo Pass : 

Undo Pass Single scan backwards in log, undoing actions of ``loser'' transactions for each transaction, when a log record is found, use prev_LSN fields to find next record to be undone can skip parts of the log with no records from loser transactions don't perform any undo for CLRs (note: UndoNxtLSN for CLR indicates next record to be undone, can skip intermediate records of that transactions)

Data Structures Used in Aries : 

Data Structures Used in Aries

Log Record Structure : 

Log Record Structure Log records contain following fields LSN Type (CLR, update, special) TransID PrevLSN (LSN of prev record of this txn) PageID (for update/CLRs) UndoNxtLSN (for CLRs) indicates which log record is being compensated on later undos, log records upto UndoNxtLSN can be skipped Data (redo/undo data); can be physical or logical

Transaction Table : 

Transaction Table Stores for each transaction: TransID, State LastLSN (LSN of last record written by txn) UndoNxtLSN (next record to be processed in rollback) During recovery: initialized during analysis pass from most recent checkpoint modified during analysis as log records are encountered, and during undo

Dirty Pages Table : 

Dirty Pages Table During normal processing: When page is fixed with intention to update Let L = current end-of-log LSN (the LSN of next log record to be generated) if page is not dirty, store L as RecLSN of the page in dirty pages table When page is flushed to disk, delete from dirty page table dirty page table written out during checkpoint (Thus RecLSN is LSN of earliest log record whose effect is not reflected in page on disk)

Dirty Page Table (contd) : 

Dirty Page Table (contd) During recovery load dirty page table from checkpoint updated during analysis pass as update log records are encountered

Normal Processing Details : 

Normal Processing Details

Updates : 

Updates Page latch held in X mode until log record is logged so updates on same page are logged in correct order page latch held in S mode during reads since records may get moved around by update latch required even with page locking if dirty reads are allowed Log latch acquired when inserting in log

Updates (Contd.) : 

Updates (Contd.) Protocol to avoid deadlock involving latches deadlocks involving latches and locks were a major problem in System R and SQL/DS transaction may hold at most two latches at-a-time must never wait for lock while holding latch if both are needed (e.g. Record found after latching page): release latch before requesting lock and then reacquire latch (and recheck conditions in case page has changed inbetween). Optimization: conditional lock request page latch released before updating indices data update and index update may be out of order

Split Log Records : 

Split Log Records Can split a log record into undo and redo parts undo part must go first page_LSN is set to LSN of redo part

Savepoints : 

Savepoints Simply notes LSN of last record written by transaction (up to that point) - denoted by SaveLSN can have multiple savepoints, and rollback to any of them deadlocks can be resolved by rollback to appropriate savepoint, releasing locks acquired after that savepoint

Rollback : 

Rollback Scan backwards from last log record of txn (last log record of txn = transTable[TransID].UndoNxtLSN if log record is an update log record undo it and add a CLR to the log if log record is a CLR then UndoNxt = LogRec.UnxoNxtLSN else UndoNxt = LogRec.PrevLSN next record to process is UndoNxt; stop at SaveLSN or beginning of transaction as required

More on Rollback : 

More on Rollback Extra logging during rollback is bounded make sure enough log space is available for rollback in case of system crash, else BIG problem In case of 2PC, if in-doubt txn needs to be aborted, rollback record is written to log then rollback is carried out

Transaction Termination : 

Transaction Termination prepare record is written for 2PC locks are noted in prepare record prepare record also used to handle non-undoable actions e.g. deleting file these pending actions are noted in prepare record and executed only after actual commit end record written at commit time pending actions are then executed and logged using special redo-only log records end record also written after rollback

Checkpoints : 

Checkpoints begin_chkpt record is written first transaction table, dirty_pages table and some other file mgmt information are written out end_chkpt record is then written out for simplicity all above are treated as part of end_chkpt record LSN of begin_chkpt is then written to master record in well known place on stable storage incomplete checkpoint if system crash before end_chkpt record is written

Checkpoint (contd) : 

Checkpoint (contd) Pages need not be flushed during checkpoint are flushed on a continuous basis Transactions may write log records during checkpoint Can copy dirty_page table fuzzily (hold latch, copy some entries out, release latch, repeat)

Restart Processing : 

Restart Processing Finds checkpoint begin using master record Do restart_analysis Do restart_redo ... some details of dirty page table here Do restart_undo reacquire locks for prepared transactions checkpoint

Result of Analysis Pass : 

Result of Analysis Pass Output of analysis transaction table including UndoNxtLSN for each transaction in table dirty page table: pages that were potentially dirty at time of crash/shutdown RedoLSN - where to start redo pass from Entries added to dirty page table as log records are encountered in forward scan also some special action to deal with OS file deletes This pass can be combined with redo pass!

Redo Pass : 

Redo Pass Scan forward from RedoLSN If log record is an update log record, AND is in dirty_page_table AND LogRec.LSN >= RecLSN of the page in dirty_page_table then if pageLSN < LogRec.LSN then perform redo; else just update RecLSN in dirty_page_table Repeats history: redo even for loser transactions (some optimization possible)

More on Redo Pass : 

More on Redo Pass Dirty page table details dirty page table from end of analysis pass (restart dirty page table) is used and set in redo pass (and later in undo pass) Optimizations of redo Dirty page table info can be used to pre-read pages during redo Out of order redo is also possible to reduce disk seeks

Undo Pass : 

Undo Pass Rolls back loser transaction in reverse order in single scan of log stops when all losers have been fully undone processing of log records is exactly as in single transaction rollback

Undo Optimizations : 

Undo Optimizations Parallel undo each txn undone separately, in parallel with others can even generate CLRs and apply them separately , in parallel for a single transaction New txns can run even as undo is going on: reacquire locks of loser txns before new txns begin can release locks as matching actions are undone

Undo Optimization (Contd) : 

Undo Optimization (Contd) If pages are not available (e.g media failure) continue with redo recovery of other pages once pages are available again (from archival dump) redos of the relevant pages must be done first, before any undo for physical undos in undo pass we can generate CLRs and apply later; new txns can run on other pages for logical undos in undo pass postpone undos of loser txns if the undo needs to access these pages - ``stopped transaction'' undo of other txns can proceed; new txns can start provided appropriate locks are first acquired for loser txns

Transaction Recovery : 

Transaction Recovery Loser transactions can be restarted in some cases e.g. Mini batch transactions which are part of a larger transaction

Checkpoints During Restart : 

Checkpoints During Restart Checkpoint during analysis/redo/undo pass reduces work in case of crash/restart during recovery (why is Mohan so worried about this!) can also flush pages during redo pass RecLSN in dirty page table set to current last-processed-record

Media Recovery : 

Media Recovery For archival dump can dump pages directly from disk (bypass buffer, no latching needed) or via buffer, as desired this is a fuzzy dump, not transaction consistent begin_chkpt location of most recent checkpoint completed before archival dump starts is noted called image copy checkpoint redoLSN computed for this checkpoint and noted as media recovery redo point

Media Recovery (Contd) : 

Media Recovery (Contd) To recover parts of DB from media failure failed parts if DB are fetched from archival dump only log records for failed part of DB are reapplied in a redo pass inprogress transactions that accessed the failed parts of the DB are rolled back Same idea can be used to recover from page corruption e.g. Application program with direct access to buffer crashes before writing undo log record

Nested Top Actions : 

Nested Top Actions Same idea as used in logical undo in our advanced recovery mechanism used also for other operations like creating a file (which can then be used by other txns, before the creater commits) updates of nested top action commit early and should not be undone Use dummy CLR to indicate actions should be skipped during undo

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