principles of effective communication

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Principles of Effective Business Writing : 

Principles of Effective Business Writing Aim The aim of this presentation-cum-discussion is to familiarise the students with the principles of Business writing. Relevance Managers indulge in lots of written communication. This could be in the form of reports, memos, business proposals, technical reports and a host of other forms of written communication Large volumes of records and reports are also reduced to the written form so that they can be referred to at a later stage. Hence it is very important to practice and master the skills of effective writing. 1

Principles of Communication : 

2 Principles of Communication Clarity Completeness Conciseness Consideration Courtesy Correctness These principles are fundamental importance and relevant to all media but they are most important to written communication.

Clarity :1.Clarity of thought : Communication must be clear about 3 points: 1.What is the objective of communication ? 2.What is to be communicated ? 3.Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose ?Clarity of expression ; 1. Use of simple words E.g.: Avoid them Use them Demonstrate Show Terminate End 2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although will you be kind enough please : 

3 Clarity :1.Clarity of thought : Communication must be clear about 3 points: 1.What is the objective of communication ? 2.What is to be communicated ? 3.Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose ?Clarity of expression ; 1. Use of simple words E.g.: Avoid them Use them Demonstrate Show Terminate End 2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although will you be kind enough please

2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although Will you be kind enough please3.Avoid double entry E.g.: previous experience experience during the year 1997 during 1997 my personal opinion my opinion period of one week one week revert back revert end result result actual fact fact : 

4 2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although Will you be kind enough please3.Avoid double entry E.g.: previous experience experience during the year 1997 during 1997 my personal opinion my opinion period of one week one week revert back revert end result result actual fact fact

Completeness: 1. See if you have answered all the questions 2. Check for 5 W questions – who, what, where, when and whyConciseness:1. Only relevant facts2. No repetition3. Proper organization of the messageConsideration:1. Avoid gender bias : 

5 Completeness: 1. See if you have answered all the questions 2. Check for 5 W questions – who, what, where, when and whyConciseness:1. Only relevant facts2. No repetition3. Proper organization of the messageConsideration:1. Avoid gender bias

Consideration: : 

Consideration: Use of gender biased words “In case a student fails in the English language test, he will not be eligible for placement assistance.” Non-gender biased words 1. “In case a student fails in the English language test, he/she will not be eligible for placement assistance. Or 2. Those students who fail in the English language test shall not be eligible for placement assistance. However, use these with caution, as sometimes they make awkward reading. 6

Consideration: : 

Consideration: Some examples of non-gender biased words as follows. Gender biased Non-gender biased Chairman Chairperson Spokesman Spokesperson Batsman Batter Policeman Police officer 2. Emphasis positive, pleasant facts Let us see how these sentences can be played around with. This year the sales increased, however the cumulative losses increased. Even though the sales increased, the cumulative losses increased. The cumulative losses increased, in spite of an increase in sales. So, what emerges is that, emphasis dictates structure. 7

3. Write only what you sincerely feel to be correct.Courtesy:1. Answer / acknowledge the letter promptly2. Do not use irritating / offensive expression3. Apologize sincerely for any omissions4. Thank profusely for any favoursCorrectness:1.Give correct facts2.Appropriate time3.In a suitable style. : 

8 3. Write only what you sincerely feel to be correct.Courtesy:1. Answer / acknowledge the letter promptly2. Do not use irritating / offensive expression3. Apologize sincerely for any omissions4. Thank profusely for any favoursCorrectness:1.Give correct facts2.Appropriate time3.In a suitable style.

Use Specific Words to Bring Vitality and Exactness : 

Use Specific Words to Bring Vitality and Exactness One must use specific words, which are unambiguous in preference to abstract words, which are subjective and therefore judgmental. Some examples are given below: - Abstract words Specific words 1. Major losses 75% percent loss. 2. As early as possible by 10th of June 2003. 9

Use Active Voice in Preference to Passive Voice : 

Use Active Voice in Preference to Passive Voice Active voice conveys force and focus. Passive voice conveys half-heartedness and defensiveness. Some examples are given below: Passive voice Active voice 1. You are requested to get the following arranged. You are requested to arrange the following. 2. The sessions of the faculty members shall be attended and reviewed by the dean. The dean shall attend and review the sessions of the faculty members. However there are occasions where passive voice suits well. When an action cannot be attributed to anybody in particular or when it is intended not to reveal identities, passive voice is preferred. 10

Use of Action VerbsUse of action verbs conveys the force of your personality and your sense of purpose. : 

Use of Action VerbsUse of action verbs conveys the force of your personality and your sense of purpose. Flow The structure of correspondence should be cohesive and smooth flowing. The implication is that sentences must blend into paragraphs and paragraphs must blend together to form a homogenous entity. This entails unity of thought and expression. Sentence Each sentence should convey a single thought. This provides clarity. Paragraphs Each paragraph discusses an idea, which could comprise a number of thoughts. Therefore a sentence containing a single thought merges into a paragraph, which contains a number of thoughts of the same topic. A group of paragraphs can further discuss a group of topics, which merge into a major idea. In such a composition, one can see a smooth flow or build up; a transition of a single thought into something bigger. 11

Consistency and Continuity : 

Consistency and Continuity Each correspondence should deal with only one subject. Otherwise, there will be no intelligent articulation. The contents would appear disjointed and abrupt. Similarly, paragraphs or a group of paragraphs should deal with one topic of the subject. Each sentence, in its own turn, should deal with one idea only. Examples of an incoherent sentence: 1. “I am very busy; tomorrow is a holiday, I can relax”. 2. “I am single, do not have any family and am keen entering the basketball team.” 12

Allotment of SpaceOne of the most important factors of communication is the space allotted for it. So depending upon the emphasis required on each piece of communication, the writer should allot space accordingly.There are other means by which attention can be drawn to : 

Allotment of SpaceOne of the most important factors of communication is the space allotted for it. So depending upon the emphasis required on each piece of communication, the writer should allot space accordingly.There are other means by which attention can be drawn to particular portions of the letter, which require emphasis. These include, underscoring, use of italics, use of capitals, colours, etc. But these methods must be used sparingly; otherwise, they may lose their effect. Attachments Attachments are those documents or items, which are attached to the main document (including letters). Various types of attachments are discussed now. 13

AppendixAn appendix is an attachment, which amplifies a portion of the main text. An example is give below:“The various criteria for assessment of students’ performance during their presentations are given in Appendix to this letter.” An example of an appendix is shown in Appendix B.Now, in this example, it is obvious that, had the compete criteria been listed, then the main body of the document would have been very long and boring. The appendix in which the criteria is shown, amplifies the content in the main body of letter. : 

AppendixAn appendix is an attachment, which amplifies a portion of the main text. An example is give below:“The various criteria for assessment of students’ performance during their presentations are given in Appendix to this letter.” An example of an appendix is shown in Appendix B.Now, in this example, it is obvious that, had the compete criteria been listed, then the main body of the document would have been very long and boring. The appendix in which the criteria is shown, amplifies the content in the main body of letter. Listing of Appendices Each appendix is numbered in an alphabetical order. They should be listed in the order of their appearance in the main text. Hence, the first appendix referred to in the main text, is listed as Appendix A, the second will be listed as Appendix B, etc. The order of attachment is also in the alphabetical order. In case, there is only one appendix, it need not be numbered at all. 14

Attachment of Appendices : 

Attachment of Appendices The appendices may be attached at the end of the complete document or at the end of the relevant part of the document, as is convenient. Annexure An annexure is a document, which serves two purposes. It could be an amplification of a portion of the appendix. This means that, an annexure is to an appendix, what an appendix is to the main body. Thus an annexure becomes an attachment to the appendix. An appendix could have a number of annexures. An annexure could be an independent document, which is complete by itself. Application of these Principles The principles discussed in this section are applicable to all forms of writing. In addition to these principles there would be some guidelines, which should be followed in case of different forms of writing. As we become more experienced, we can develop our own individual style of writing, by emphasizing or modifying any one or more of the principles. 15

As professional, you receive or create many types of documents that support your work so… : 

16 As professional, you receive or create many types of documents that support your work so… What you write will ultimately define you as a professional to your colleagues and superior Match the appropriate communication method Eliminate excessive or unnecessary communication Mastering these skills will improve your ability and enhance your career.

Communication Vs Personality1. What you write and how you write it could reflect a positive and negative image.2. Sloppy and / or poorly written communications could be perceived as a lack of communication. : 

17 Communication Vs Personality1. What you write and how you write it could reflect a positive and negative image.2. Sloppy and / or poorly written communications could be perceived as a lack of communication.

Keep it short.....Don’t write ……If there is any points that you require explanation or any further particulars you required, we shall be glad to furnish such additional details as may be required by telephone… : 

18 Keep it short.....Don’t write ……If there is any points that you require explanation or any further particulars you required, we shall be glad to furnish such additional details as may be required by telephone…

Instead say… …….If you have any queries please ring… : 

19 Instead say… …….If you have any queries please ring…

Thank You… : 

20 Thank You…

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