Introduction to Anatomy

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Introduction to Anatomy

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Anatomy & Physiology for PreMed Students :

Anatomy & Physiology for PreMed Students Introduction to Update (24.04.2013)

Anatomical Position:

Anatomical Position The anatomical position is standing upright, legs and feet together, arms at sides with palms facing forward, feet flat on the floor.

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms In anatomy it is very important to be able to tell others about the spatial relationships that exist between different anatomical structures.

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms Superior (above) / Inferior (below) Useful for describing structures in the torso in which one structure is either above or below another structure. These terms are rarely used in the upper and lower extremities. The heart is superior to the diaphragm The diaphragm is inferior to the heart Anterior (in front) / Posterior (behind) Useful for describing structures that are in front of, or behind each other. The trachea is anterior to the esophagus The esophagus is posterior to the trachea Medial (closer to midline) / Lateral (further from midline) Useful for describing two structures relative to the midline of the body. The radius is lateral to the ulna. The ulna is medial to the radius. The heart is medial to the lungs. The lungs are lateral to the heart.

Directional Terms (cont.):

Directional Terms (cont.) Proximal (closer to origin) / Distal (further from origin) Useful for describing positions relative to attachment points or starting points of tubes or vessels. The stomach is proximal to the colon. The metacarpals are distal to the carpals. The esophagus is proximal to the stomach. Intermediate (between related structures) Useful for describing relative positions of counted structures. The 3 metacarpal is intermediate to metacarpals 2 and 4. Deep / Superficial Useful for describing positions relative to the surface of the body. The epidermis is superficial to the dermis. The hypodermis is deep to the dermis. Contralateral (opposite side of body) / Ipsilateral (same side of the body) Useful for describing positions relative to which side of the body they are on. The liver is contralateral to the spleen The gall bladder is ipsilateral to the liver.

Sectional Planes:

Sectional Planes Frontal (coronal) plane Divides the body in anterior and posterior sections Midsagittal plane Divides the body into equal left and right sections Sagittal plane Divides the body into unequal left and right sections Horizontal (transverse) plane Divides the body into superior and inferior sections

Review:

Review The radius is _?_ to the ulna.

Review:

Review The radius is lateral to the ulna.

Review:

Review The ulna is _?_ to the humerus.

Review:

Review The ulna is distal to the humerus.

Review:

Review The heart is _?_ to the diaphragm.

Review:

Review The heart is superior to the diaphragm.

Review:

Review The stomach is _?_ to the esophagus.

Review:

Review The stomach is distal to the esophagus.

Review:

Review The prostate is _?_ to the urinary bladder.

Review:

Review The prostate is inferior to the urinary bladder. It might be tempting to say the prostate is distal to the urinary bladder, however, the prostate gland is not considered part of the urine flow pathway. However, the prostatic urethra is part of the pathway and you COULD say: The prostatic urethra is distal to the urinary bladder.

Review:

Review The cecum (bottom line) is _?_ to the ascending colon (top line).

Review:

Review The cecum is proximal to the ascending colon. Note the direction of the flow of food through the large intestine. First it enters the cecum and then moves into the ascending colon.

Review:

Review The lungs are _?_ to the esophagus.

Review:

Review The lungs are lateral to the esophagus.

Review:

Review The sternum is _?_ to the heart.

Review:

Review The sternum is anterior to the heart.

Final Review of Anatomical Directional Terms:

Final Review of Anatomical Directional Terms The head is _?_ to the heart The fibula is _?_ to the tibia The leg is _?_ to the thigh The brain is _?_ to the skull The skin is _?_ to muscle The arm is _?_ to the forearm The hand is _?_ to the shoulder The left ear and left eye are _?_ to each other. The ears are _?_ to each other The heart is _?_ to the arms

Final Review of Anatomical Directional Terms:

Final Review of Anatomical Directional Terms The head is superior to the heart The fibula is lateral to the tibia The leg is inferior to the thigh The brain is deep to the skull The skin is superficial to muscle The arm is proximal to the forearm The hand is distal to the shoulder The left ear and left eye are ipsilateral to each other. The ears are contralateral to each other The heart is medial to the arms

Review of Anatomical Planes:

Review of Anatomical Planes What plane was used to produce the image to the right?

Review:

Review Mid-sagittal plane

Review:

Review What plane was used to produce the section seen in the image?

Review:

Review Frontal (coronal) plane.

Review:

Review What plane was used to create the section seen in the image?

Review:

Review Horizontal (transverse) plane.

Review:

Review What plane was used to create the section seen in the image?

Review:

Review Frontal (coronal) plane

Review:

Review What plane was used to create the image seen.

Review:

Review Horizontal (cross sectional) plane

Body Cavities:

Body Cavities The torso can be subdivided into several body cavities. Dorsal cavity Vertebral (spinal) Cranial Ventral cavity Thoracic Mediastinum Pleural Pericardial Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic

Body Cavities:

Body Cavities The cavities contain the various internal organs. The thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity are separated by the diaphragm (seen as the faint line crossing the ventral cavity)

Body Cavities:

Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity Contains the brain (cranial cavity) and spinal cord (vertebral or spinal cavity) Ventral cavity Contains the heart and lungs (thoracic) Contains the organs of the digestive system (abdominal) Contains the organs of the urinary and reproductive systems (pelvic)

Body Cavities Special thoracic cavities:

Body Cavities Special thoracic cavities Mediastinal Located in the center of the thoracic cavity and extends from sternum to the vertebral column. The area contains the heart, pericardium and large blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland Pleural cavities Sack-like spaces that surround each lung. One surface of the sack is attached to the inner thoracic wall or mediastinum while the other is attached to the surface of the lung. The sack contains a few milliliters of pleural fluid that lubricates the surface of the lungs and prevents friction between the lungs and thoracic wall.

Body Cavities Special thoracic cavities:

Body Cavities Special thoracic cavities Pericardial cavity Sack-like structure that surrounds the heart. One surface of the sack (outer surface) is attached to the tissues of the mediastinum, the other (inner surface) is attached to the outer surface of the heart (visceral epicardium). The space between the two layers contains several (10 – 20 ml) milliliters of fluid that serves as a lubricant and reduces friction between the surface of the heart and the surrounding structures.

Review:

Review Identify items 1 – 10 .

Review -- Answers:

Review -- Answers Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Mediastinum Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Ventral body cavity

Abdominopelvic Regions:

Abdominopelvic Regions The abdominopelvic exam is an important part of a overall physical exam. In order to accurately describe pain or other symptoms, nine regions have been defined. As you can see from the figure, the regions correlate with internal organs or parts of internal organs.

Abdominopelvic Regions:

Abdominopelvic Regions The area is divided into 9 regions (see figure). Right hypochondriac (RH) Right lumbar (RL) Right inguinal (RI) Epigastric region (ER) Umbilical region (UR) Hypogastric region (HR) Left hypochondriac (LH) Left lumbar (LL) Left inguinal (LI)

Abdominopelvic Quadrants:

Abdominopelvic Quadrants A second system for dividing the abdominopelvic region involves division into four quadrants. The two lines that create the quadrants cross at the umbilicus. Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

Basic Anatomical Regions:

Basic Anatomical Regions

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching:

Practice with Anatomical Regions Matching Shoulder Wrist Ankle Buttocks Thigh Heel Neck Hip Chest Arm Tarsals Gluteal Coxal Calcaneal Pectoral Acromion Brachial Femoral Cervical Carpals

Anatomical Structures Previously Discussed:

Anatomical Structures Previously Discussed Liver Skin Hypodermis Epidermis Dermis Spleen Radius Ulna Carpals Thigh Leg Esophagus Pericardium Pleura Peritoneum Pelvis

Medical Prefixes and Suffixes (to this point):

Medical Prefixes and Suffixes (to this point) Prefixes Hypo- = below Epi- = on / upon / above Peri- = around Cardi(o)- = heart Uni - = one Bi- = two Ipsi- = same Contra- = opposite suffixes -itis = inflammation -ase = enzyme -i –asis = condition

Introduction to Physiology:

Introduction to Physiology Diffusion Osmosis

Diffusion:

Diffusion Fick’s Law Q = ΔC * P * A / MW * ΔX ΔC = C 2 – C 1 ΔX = X 2 – X 1 Diffusion Coefficient D = P / (MW) 1/2 Restated Q = ΔC * A * D / ΔX Q = diffusion rate ΔC = concentration difference P = permeability A = surface area for diffusion MW = molecular weight ΔX = diffusion distance D = diffusion coefficient

Diffusion:

Diffusion Diffusion Coefficient D = P / (MW) 1/2

Diffusion:

Diffusion High altitude Pneumonia Lung cancer Decreased concentration gradient Increased distance for diffusion Decreased surface area for diffusion

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