III B Pharm Ph.Cognosy of crude drugs

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NH-7 NAMAKKAL-KARUR MAIN ROAD NAMAKKAL D.T. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS III B.PHARMACY 2018 - 2019 PHARMACOGNOSY PHYTOCHEMISTRY PREPARED BY Dr.S.THENMOZHI M.Pharm.Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Pharmacognosy PGP College of Pharmaceutical Science Research Institute Namakkal Tamil Nadu India.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 1 S.No Name of the drug Synonym Biological source Family Chemical constituents Chemical tests Medicinal uses Adulterants CARBOHYDRATE AND THEIR DERIVED PRODUCTS 1. AGAR SYN: Agar-agar Japanese-Isinglass Vegetable gelatin Dried gelatinous substance obtained from Gelidium amansii Fam:Gelidaceae and several other species of red algae like Gracilaria Fam: Gracilariaceae and Pterocladia Fam: Gelidaceae It consists of two polysaccharides: agarose and agaropectin. agarose is responsible for gel strength of agar agaropectin is responsible for the viscosity of agar solution 1. Boil 1.5gm of agar with 100ml H 2 O. Cool the solution gives stiff jelly. 2. Mount a small quantity of powder in ruthenium red solution and examine microscopically → The particles acquire pink colour. 3. To little of the substance add N/50 Iodine solution → Deep crimson to brown color is formed. 4. Add 0.5ml of dilute HCl to 10ml of 5 aqueous solution of drug and heated on water bath for 30 minutes and divided into two parts a To the first part add 3 ml of 10 caustic soda solution and 2 ml of Fehling’s solution and heat on water bath → Reduction takes place. b Add 10 barium chloride solution to the second part → White precipitate of barium sulphate is formed. 5. Agar is incinerated to ash then dilute HCl is added and observed under microscope → Skeletons and sponge spicules 1. Emulsifying agent and bulk laxative 2. used in the preparation of jellies 3. used in the preparation of bacteriological culture medium -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 2 of diatoms are seen. 6. As agar does not contain nitrogen the following tests are negative: a. Heating with soda lime → No ammonia is evolved. b. Million’s reagent is added → No precipitate is formed. c. Treated with 10 tannic acid solution → No precipitate is formed. 2. GUM ACACIA SYN: Indian Gum Gum Arabic Dried Gummy exudation obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia arabica FAM: Leguminosae It consist of arabin which is a mix of calcium magnesium and potassium salts of arabic acid. Arabic acid on hydrolysis → L-arabinose L-rhamnose D- galactose and D- glucuronic acid. It also contains an enzyme oxidase and peroxidase 1. To the aqueous solution add strong lead subacetate → A flocculent white precipitate is formed. 2. Dissolve 0.25 gm in 5 ml of water by shaking in cold add 0.5 ml of hydrogen peroxide solution and 0.5 ml of 1 solution of benzidine in alcohol. Shake well and allow to stand → A deep blue colour is formed which is unstable. due to enzyme oxidase. 3. Mount a small quantity of powder in ruthenium red solution and examine microscopically → The particles do not acquire pink colour. 4. To the given substance add dilute HCl boiled cooled add few drops of Fehling’s solution 1. Demulcent 2. suspending agent 3. Emulsifying agent 4. Binding agent 5. used in the preparation of lozenges pastilles and compressed tablets Acacia Senegal Leguminosae. Indian gum is adulterated with gum ghatti.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 3 AB and heat on a water bath → Red precipitate. 3. TRAGACANTH SYN: Gum Tragacanth Tragacantha Dried gummy exudation obtained by incision from stems and branches of Astragalus gummifer and other species of Astragalus FAM: Leguminosae It contains two fractions: 1. H 2 O Soluble portion called Tragacanthin 2. H 2 O insoluble portion called Bassorin 1. To 4ml of 0.5w/v solution add 0.5ml of Hcl and heat for 30 minutes on a water bath. Divide the liquid into 2 parts. a To one part add 1.5ml of sodium hydroxide solution and Fehling’s solution and warm on water bath → Red precipitate. b To the second part add 10 barium chloride solution → No precipitate. 2. To 0.5 w/v solution of gum add 20 w/v solution of lead acetate → A voluminous flocculent precipitate. 3. Mount a small quantity of powder in ruthenium red and examine microscopically → Particles do not acquire pink colour. 4. To 0.1g of powder add N/50 Iodine → Olive green color. 5. Powder is warmed with 5 aqueous caustic potash KOH → Canary yellow colour. 1.Demulcent 2.Emollient in cosmetics 3.thickening agent 4.suspending agent 5.binding agent 6.tragacanth powder are used as an adhesive lotions for external use 1. Sterculia gum also called Indian gum or karaya gum 2. Chitral gum obtained from Astragalus strobiliferous 3. Chatti gum 4. HONEY SYN: Madhu honey purified Mel It is a sugar secretion deposited in honey comb by the bees Apis mellifera Apis It is an aqueous solution of glucose 35 fructose 45 and sucrose 2. The other 1. FIEHE’S TEST: Honey is shaken with petroleum or solvent ether then the upper ethereal layer is separated and evaporated in 1. Demulcent 2 .Sweetening agent 3. Antiseptic 4. ingredients for cough mix cough Artificial invert sugar

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 4 dorsata and other species of Apis FAM : Apidae constituents are maltose gum succinic acid acetic acid dextrin formic acid colouring matters enzymes invertase diastase inulase and vitamin. china dish. On addition of 1 solution of resorcinol in HCL → A transient pink colour is formed which fades in 30 seconds in natural honey while in artificial honey the colour persists for some times. 2. SELIWANOFF’S TEST: Sample + H 2 O + Seliwanoff’s reagent → cherry red color drops 5. preparation of creams lotions soft drinks candies 5. ISAPGOL SYN: Ispaghula Isabgul Indian Psyllium. It is a dried seeds of plant known as Plantago ovata the dried seed coats known as ISAPGOL HUSK FAM: Plantaginaceae It contains Carbohydrates Mucilage pentosans and aldobionic acid. Fixed oils and proteins. 1. SWELLING FACTOR: 1gm of drug in the measuring cylinder in 20 ml water with occasional shaking. The volume occupied by the seeds after 24 hours of wetting is measured. Swelling factor for seed is 10 to 14. 2. Isapgol gives pink color with the solution of ruthenium red due to mucilage. 1. Demulcent 2. Laxative 3. Emollient 4. preparation of tablets 5. stabilizers 1. Plantago purshii 2. Plantago aristata 6. PECTIN It is a purified carbohydrate obtained from inner portion of the rind of citrus peels Citrus Simon or Citrus aurantium FAM: Rutaceae Pectin on hydrolysis → D- galacturonic acid methyl alcohol small amount of galactose and arabinose 1. 10 aqueous solution of sample on cooling → stiff gel. 2. 5ml of 1 solution + 1ml of 2 KOH Then wait for 15mins → a transparent gel or semi-gel. Acidify gel + dilute Hydrochloric acid and shake well → A voluminous colourless gelatinous precipitate forms which when boiled → white and flocculent. 1. Adsorbent in the treatment of diarrhoea. 2. Haemostatic for internal or external haemorrhage. 3. Emulsifying agent 4. Gelling agent 5. Thickening agent 6. Cosmetics preparation -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 5 7. STARCH SYN : Amylum It consists of polysaccharides granules obtained from grains of Maize Zea mays rice Oryza sativa Wheat Triticum aestivum FAM: Gramineae From tubers of potato Solanum tuberosum FAM: Solanaceae It contains two different polysaccharides: 1. Amylose β- amylose 2. Amylopectin α- amylose 1:2 Amylose is H 2 O soluble and Amylopectin is H 2 O insoluble. 1. Boil 1g of starch 15 ml of water for 2 min and cool → Translucent viscous jelly is produced. 2. To the above portion of jelly add few drops of dilute solution of iodine → Immediately blue colour was formed. 3. Above solution is warmed on water bath → Blue colour is disappeared and reappears on cooling. 1. Nutritive 2. Demulcent 3. Protective 4. Absorbent 5. preparation of dusting talcum powder 6. Antidote in iodine poisoning 7. Emollient Tapioca starch or Cassava or Brazilian arrowroot. This is obtained from Manihot esculenta Euphorbiaceae TANNINS 8. BLACK CATECHU SYN : Kattha Cutch Khadir-catechu Catechu It consists of dried aqueous extract prepared from the heart-wood of Acacia catechu and Acacia chundra FAM: Leguminosae 1. It contains 10 of Acacatechin known as acacia catechin. 2. Catechu red 3. Quercetin 4. Gum 5. Quercitrin 1. Black catechu + vanillin + hydrochloric acid → pink or red colour 2. Catechin + Hydrochloric acid → phloroglucinol which burns along with lignin → purple or magenta color. 3. Lime H 2 O +aqueous extract of black catechu → brown color to red precipitate on standing for some time. 4. Diluted solution of black catechu +ferric ammonium sulphate → green colour. By addition of NaOH the green color turns purple color. 5. GAMBIER-FLUORESCIN TEST: Negative 1. Astringent 2. Skin eruptions 3. Ulcers 4. Cough 5. Cooling digestive property 6. Dyeing and colouring 7. Protective agent for fishing net -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 6 9. PALE CATECHU SYN : Gambier Gambir Catechu It is a dried aqueous extract of the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria gambier FAM: Rubiaceae 1. Catechins 2. Catechutannic acid 3. Catechu red 4. quercetin 5. gambier fluorescin 1. GAMBIER- FLUORESCIN TEST: Drug +alcohol + NaOH +light petroleum shake well → Green fluorescence is observed in light petroleum layer. 2. Drug is warmed with chloroform filtered in a porcelain dish evaporate to dryness → Greenish yellow colour. 3. Drug + vanillin hydrochloric acid → pink or red colour. 1. Astringent in the treatment for Diarrhoea 2. Dyeing 3. Tanning industries 4. Protecting the fishing nets - 10. MYROBALAN SYN : Chebulic myrobalan Harde Haritaki It consist of dried ripe and fully matured fruits of Terminalia chebula FAM : Combretaceae 1. Myrobalan on hydrolysis → Chebulic acid and d- galloyl glucose. 2. Other contents are Chebulagic Chebulinic ellagic acid glucose and sorbitol - 1. Astringent 2. Laxative 3. Stomachic tonic 4. Anthelmintic 5. Piles and external ulcer - 11. TANNIC ACID SYN: Tannic Gallotannic acid Acidum tannicum It is extracted from fermented oak galls which are grown on young twigs of Quercus infectoria oak tree FAM: Fagaceae 1. It is a hydrolysable tannin corresponding to complexity of pentadigalloyl glucose composed of gallic acid and glucose. Tannic acid + freshly prepared FeCl 3 → bluish-black colour 1. Astringent 2. Treatment of Piles in the form of suppositories. 3. Antidote for poisoning due to alkaloids heavy metals and some glycosides. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 7 PROTEINS 12. GELATIN SYN: Gelatina Gel foam puragel Gelatin is a protein extracted by partial hydrolysis of animal collagenous tissue like skins tendons ligaments and bones derived from domestic animals such as Ox Bos taurus Sheep Ovis aries Fam: Bovidae with boiling water. It contains amino acids majorly lysine but it does not contain tryptophan. Gelatin is composed of glutin protein. 1. Heat a small quantity of sample with soda lime → Ammonia is evolved. 2. Biuret test: To 5ml of the sample add 1ml of 0.5 sodium hydroxide solution and copper sulphate solution → Blue to violet color is formed. 3. Dissolve 0.5gm in 100ml of water by heating and use this solution for following test: a To a few ml of solution add few drops of 10 tannic acid solution → white precipitate is produced but not dissolve on heating. b Addition of Million’s reagent to a few ml of the solution → white precipitate is produced on heating becomes red colour. c Addition of 10 picric acid solution → yellow precipitate is produced. 1. used in the manufacturing of hard and flexible capsule shell. 2. Preparation of pessaries pastes pastiles and suppositories. 3. Absorbable gelatin sponge is used as haemostatic. 4. Preparation of bacteriological culture media. 5. Vehicle for certain injections. - 13. SPIRULINA It is blue green algae obtained from spirulina platensis or spirulina maxima. FAM: Oscillatoriaceae Proteins 50-70 proteinous nitrogen 11.36 total organic nitrogen 13.35 nitrogen from nucleic acid - 1. Helps to solve the water pollution. 2. Best material for bio-degradations. 3. It can fix atmospheric Chlorella and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae which are also blue- green algae.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 8 1.9 lipids 5- 6 vitamin F mineral content 3-6. nitrogen during its growth so used as nitrogenous fertilizer. 14. SOYA It is obtained from fully matured dried seed of the plant Glycene-soja and Glycine max. FAM: Leguminosae Carbohydrates fats vitamins and minerals like calcium iron magnesium and potassium. It has high contents of high quality proteins. - It prevents osteoporosis breast and prostate cancer. It also lowers the blood cholesterol level. - LIPIDS 15. NEEM OIL SYN: Margosa oil It is a non-edible fixed oil obtained from fully matured seeds of Azadirachta indica. FAM: Meliaceae 1. It contains glycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 2. The main fatty acids are Oleic acid 50 and stearic acid 20 3. The oil contains 2.0 of bitters which are sulphur containing compounds nimbidin nimbin nimbinin nimbidol. The unsaponifiable - 1. Nimbin Nimbidin and related compounds possess anti-viral activity. 2. As a non-edible oil it is used for soap-making and for manufacture of oleic and stearic acids. 3. It is indicated in rheumatism and also as a pesticide and in medicated soaps for skin diseases. 4. It is also -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 9 part contains nimbosterol 0.03 spermicidal. 16. RICE BRAN OIL SYN: Rice oil Rice bran is the cuticle existing between the rice and the husk of the paddy and consists of embryo germ and endosperm of the seeds of Oryza sativa FAM: Gramineae 1. Rice bran oil contains 20-25 of saturated 80-85 of unsaturated fatty acids as glycerides. 2. Main fatty acids are oleic linoleic palmitic acids. 3. The oil contains squalene and antioxidants like tocopherols. - 1. used in the preparation of cosmetics and as an emollient. 2. It is an edible oil and used in preparation of vegetable ghee. - 17. COD LIVER OIL SYN: Oleum morrhi It is processed from fresh liver of cod fish Gadus morrhua and other species of Gadus. FAM: Gadidae 1. Vitamin A D 2. The oil contains glyceryl esters of oleic linoleic gadoleic myristic palmitic and other acids. - The oil is used as source of vitamins as a nutritive and in treatment of rickets TB - 18. CASTOR OIL SYN: Ricinus oil Castor oil is the fixed oil obtained by the cold expression of the seeds of Ricinus communis. FAM: Euphorbiaceae 1. Ricinoleic acid about 80 2. fatty acids are represented by isoricinolic linoleic stearic isostearic acid 1. It mixes with half its volume of light petroleum ether 60- 40 ◦ C but insoluble in double the volume of petroleum ether 2. Add to the oil an equal volume of ethanol clear liquid is obtained. On cooling at 0 ◦ C and on storage of 3 hours the liquid remains clear. 1. Cathartic 2. Lubricant 3. Used in the preparation of paints enamel varnishes grease polishes printing ink ect. - 19. SHARK LIVER OIL It is a fixed oil obtain from the fresh and carefully 1.Vit A 2. glycerides of the saturated and 1. Dissolve 1gm of shark liver oil + 1ml of chloroform + 0.5ml of H 2 SO 4 → Light violet 1. used in the deficiency of vitamin A.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 10 SYN: Oleum selachoids Antixeropthalmic oil preserved livers of various shark species mainly Hypoprion brevirostris FAM: Carcharhinidae and Galeorhinus zyopterus FAM: Triakidae. unsaturated fatty acids along with alkyl glycerol 3.Squalene and omega-3-fatty acids color changing to purple and finally to brown due to vitamin A. 2. Dissolve 1ml of shark liver oil + 10 ml of chloroform + saturated solution of antimony trichloride and shaken well → Blue color due to vitamin A. 2. Nutritive 3. used in burn and sunburn ointments. - 20. WOOL FAT SYN: Hydrous wool fat Lanolin Adeps lanae It is the purified fat- like substance obtained from the wool of the sheep Ovis aries. FAM: Bovidae 1. esters of cholesterol and isocholesterol with caranubic oleic myristic palmitic lanoceric lanopalmitic acids. Dissolve 0.5 gm of hydrous wool fat in chloroform + 1ml of acetic anhydride + 2 drops of H 2 SO 4 → A deep green colour presence of cholesterol 1. used as water absorbable ointment base 2. Base for several water soluble creams and cosmetic preparations. - 21. BEES WAX SYN: Yellow bees wax Cera-flava It is purified wax obtain from the honey comb of bees Apis mellifera FAM: Apidae 1. Myricin 80 2. Free cerotic acid 3. small quantities of melissic acid 4. Aromatic substance cerolein. Saponification claud test: 0.5 gm of bees wax + 20ml of aqueous Caustic soda solution → Boil for 10 mins → Cool it → No tubidity is produced. 1. Preparation of ointments plasters polishes 2. Manufacture of candles and moulds 3. In dental and electronic industry 4. Preparation of lipstick and face creams. 1. Adulterated with colophony hard paraffin stearic acid Japan wax spermaceti carnauba wax. VOLATILE OIL 22. DILL SYN: Dill fruits Dill consists of dried ripe fruits of Anethum graveolens Linn. 1. It contains 2.4 - 4 of volatile oil 20 of fixed oil and proteins. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 1.Aromatic 2.Stimulant 3.Carminative 4. Flavouring agent Indian dill obtained from Anethum sowa.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 11 Anethum European dill. FAM: Umbelliferae. 2. The chief constituent of volatile oil is carvone 43- 63 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil 5. Dill oil is used in the preparation of dill water and gripe water. 23. CLOVE SYN: Caryophyllum Clove flower Clove buds. It consists of dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus. FAM: Myrtaceae. 1. It contains 15- 20 of volatile oil 2.10-13 of tannin resin chromone and eugenin. The volatile oil of drug contains eugenol 70 - 90 eugenol acetate caryophyllenes. 1. Thick section of hypanthium + 5 KOH solution → Needle shaped crystals of potassium eugenolate are observed under microscope. 2. Chloroform extract + 3 NaOH → Crystals of sodium eugenolate. 3. Alcoholic extract of drug + Ferric chloride solution → Blue color. 1. Dental analgesic 2. Carminative 3. Stimulant 4. Flavouring agent 5. An aromatic 6. antiseptic 1. Mother cloves 2. Blown cloves 3.Clove stalks 4. Exhausted cloves. 24. FENNEL SYN: Fennel fruits Fructus foeniculum. It consists of dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. FAM: Umbelliferae. 1. It consists of 3- 7 volatile oil 20 proteins and fixed oil. 2. The chief active constituents of the volatile oil is a ketone fenchone 20 and a phenolic ether anethole 50. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil 1. Carminative 2. Aromatic 3. Stimulant 4. Expectorant. 5. Flavouring agent. Exhausted fennel fruits. 25. NUTMEG SYN: Myristica Nux moschata. It consists of dried kernels of the seeds of Myristica fragrans. FAM: Myristicaceae 1. It contains the 5- 16 of volatile oil and 30 of fat. 2. The volatile oil contains 4-8 myristicin elimicin and saffrole. - 1. Aromatic 2. Stimulant. 3. Carminative 4. Flavouring agent. 5. It used in treatment of rheumatism. 1. Exhausted nutmeg 2. Myristica malabarica 3. Myristica argentea.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 12 3. It contains myristic palmitic oleic lauric and other acids. The fat of nutmeg is also known as nutmeg butter. 26. CARDAMOM SYN: Cardamom fruits Cardamom seeds Small cardamom It consists of the dried ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum. FAM: Zingiberaceae 1. Cardamom seeds contain volatile oil 2 - 8. 2. Active constituent of the volatile oil is cineole. 3. Aromatic compounds present are terpinyl acetate terpineol borneol terpinene etc. 4. Other constituents are starch protein and fixed oil. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil Aromatic Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent used in the form of compound tincture 1. Orange seeds 2. Unroasted coffee grains 3. Long wild native cardamom big cardamom 4. Korarima cardamom 5. The loose seeds of cardamom or fully ripe seeds are mixed. 6. Cardamom husk. 27. LEMON GRASS OIL SYN: East Indian lemon grass oil Indian Melissa oil. It is a volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and aerial parts of the plant Cymbopogon flexuosus or Cymbopogon citratis FAM: Graminae. 1. It chiefly contains citral. 2. methylheptenol nerol citronellal dipentene and geraniol. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil 1. Flavouring agent and in perfumery. 2. It is used as source of citral from which β- ionine is prepared. β-ionine is starting material for the synthesis of vitamin A. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 13 28. EUCALYPTUS OIL SYN: Eucalyptus Dinkum oil Lemon gum tree. It is the volatile oil obtained by the distillation of the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus and other species of Eucalyptus. FAM: Myrtaceae. 1. It chiefly contains volatile oil cineole 80 also known as eucalyptol. 2. It also contains pinene camphene. 2.5ml of eucalyptus oil + 5ml of purified petroleum benzins + 5ml of solution of sodium nitrite + 5ml of glacial acetic acid → Crystals of phellandrene nitrite do not form in mixture within 10 minutes. 1. Counter –irritant 2. Antiseptic 3. Expectorant 4. also used to relieve cough and in chronic bronchitis in the form of inhalations. 5. It is an ingredient of several liniments and ointment 6. Solutions of eucalyptus oil is used as nasal drops. - 29. SANDAL WOOD SYN: East Indian sandal wood oil. It is obtained by the distillation from the heart wood of Santalum album Linn. FAM: Santalaceae. 1. It contains 95 of two isomeric sesquiterpene alcohols α - santalol and β - santalol. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil 1. It is used for symptomatic treatment of dysurea. 2. Used as a perfume in preparation of cosmetics and incense sticks. 1. Australian sandal wood oil 2. West Indian sandal wood oil. 30. PALMAROSA SYN: Rosha oil Geranium oil Obtained from the leaves and tops of Cymbopogon martini. FAM: Graminae. It contains 85-95 of geraniol citronellal dipentene linalool and terpenes 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil 1. It is used in perfumery cosmetics and soap 2. Treatment of rheumatism and skin diseases. 3. It has insect repellent properties. - 31. CITRONELLA It is obtained by steam distillation It contains geraniol 40 - 60 Used as perfume for soaps in mosquito

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 14 from the fresh leaves of Cymbopogon nardus. FAM: Graminae. citronellal 5- 20 - repellent creams and sprays and as a flavouring agent for liniments lotions. - 32. MENTHA SYN: Oleum mentha piperita Colpermin Mentha oil Peppermint oil. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of fresh flowering tops of plant known as mentha piperita Linn. FAM: Labiatae It contains chiefly Menthol other important constituents are menthone menthofuran Jasmone menthyl acetate etc. Few drops of peppermint oil + 5ml of nitric acid solution → heat on water bath → Blue color produced with in 5minutes. Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent. It is used in tooth paste tooth powders shaving creams and different pharmaceutical dosage forms. De-mentholized oil. 33. CORIANDER SYN: Coriander fruit. Fully dried ripe fruits of the plant known as coriandrum sativum Linn. FAM: Umbelliferae. It contains 0.3-1 volatile oil 13 fixed oil 20 protein. Volatile oil contains 90 of D-Linalool or coriandrol. Rich in vitamin A. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil Aromatic Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent. Bombay coriander fruits. 34. CINNAMON SYN: Cinnamon bark Kalmi-Dalchini Ceylon-cinnamon. Dried inner bark of shoots of coppiced trees of cinnamomum zeylanicum. FAM: Lauraceae. 1. It contains 0.5- 1 of volatile oil 1.2 of tannins mucilage starch and a sweet substance mannitol. 60 -70 of cinnamaldehyde 5-10 Eugenol 1. Alcoholic extract of the drug + ferric chloride solution → green color. 2. Chloroform extract of the drug + 10 aqueous solution of phenylhydrazine HCl → rod shaped crystals of hydrozon of cinnamaldehyde. Carminative Stomachic mild astringent flavouring agent. 1. Jungle cinnamon. 2. Cinnamon chips. 3. Saigon Cinnamon 4. Java cinnamon.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 15 Benzaldehyde. 35. CASSIA CINNAMON SYN: Cassia bark Chinese cinnamon. Dried stem bark of the plant cinnamomum cassia FAM: Lauraceae. 1-2 volatile oil. 85 cinnamic aldehyde Trace amount of eugenol. Drug + ferric chloride solution → Brown colour. Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent Aromatic. - 36. CARAWAY SYN: Carum Caraway seed. Caraway consists of the dried ripe fruits of Carum carvi Linn. FAM: Umbelliferae. Volatile oil fixed oils proteins and resin. 45-65 of carvone limonene Dihydro carvone traces of carvacrol. 1. Thin section of the drug + Alcoholic solution of sudan III → Red color globules. 2.Thin section of the drug + tincture of alkane → Red color volatile oil Aromatic Stimulant Carminative Used as spice for culinary purposes. Flavouring for bread biscuits cheese and cakes. 1. Indian dill fruit. 2. Cuminum cyminum fruit known as jeera in the market. SAPONINS 37. LIQUORICE SYN: Glycyrrhiza Liquorice root Yasti Glycyrrhizae radix Mulethi. Dried unpeeled roots stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra FAM: Leguminosae Triterpenoid saponin: Glycyrrhizin which is a Potassium calcium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. Other constituents are glucose sucrose bitter principal glycyramarin resins and fat. Thick section of drug or powder + 80 H 2 SO 4 → deep yellow color. 1. Expectorant demulcent. 2. Sweetening agent 3. Anti-peptic ulcer 4. Antispasmodic 5. as a flavouring agent in formulations with nauseous drugs like NH 4 Cl Alkali iodides quinine Cascara etc. Manchurian liquorice is obtained from Glycyrrhiza uralensis. 38. GINSENG Dried root of various species of panax like P.ginseng Saponin glycosides: 1. Ginsenosides. 2. Panaxosides. 1. It is an immunomodulatory drug.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 16 SYN: Ninjin Pannag Panax. Korean ginseng P. japonica Japanese ginseng P. notoginseng Chinese ginseng P. quinquefolium American ginseng. FAM: Araliaceae. 3.Chikusetsusaponin - 2. It has both stimulant and sedative properties. 3. It is used as aphrodisiac. - 39. DIOSCOREA SYN: Yam Rheumatism root. Dried tubers of the plants Dioscorea deltoidea D.composita other species of Dioscorea FAM: Dioscoreaceae. Diosgenin a steroidal sapogenin. - 1. Used as rich source of diosgenin. 2. as precursor for synthesis of corticosteroids sex hormones oral contraceptives. 3. used in the treatment of rheumatic arthritis. 1. Dioscorea flouribunda 2. Dioscorea villosa. CARDIOACTIVE STEROLS 40. DIGITALIS SYN: Digitalis leaves Foxglove leaves. Dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea. FAM: Scrophulariaceae Cardiac glycosides Primary and secondary glycosides: purpurea glycosides A B digitoxin gitoxin gitaloxin. 1. Keller-Kiliani Test for digitoxose: Sample + 10ml 70 alcohol → boil for 2 - 3 minutes → filtered. To the filtrate + 5ml water + strong lead acetate solution → shake well separate the filtrate. Filtrate + equal volume of chloroform chloroform layer is evaporated. The residue + 3ml of glacial acetic acid + 2 drops of ferric chloride solution → Transferred to a test tube with 1. Treatment of Congestive heart failure. 2. Slowing ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation atrial flutter supraventricular tachycardia. 1. Leaves of Verbascum Thapsus 2. The primrose leaves: Primula vulgaris 3. Comfrey leaves: Symphytum officinale.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 17 2ml of H 2 SO 4 → Reddish brown layer acquiring bluish green colour after standing. 2. Legal test: Extract + pyridine + Sodium nitroprusside → make alkaline with NaOH → pink or red colour. 3. Baljet test: Section of digitalis + sodium picrate solution → Yellow to orange color. 41. EUROPEAN SQUILL SYN: Scilla Squill bulb White squill It consists of the sliced dried scaly leaves from the bulbs of Urginea maritima. FAM: Liliaceae. Cardiac glycosides 1. Scillaren A scillaren B. - Cardio tonic without cumulative effect. Also used in chronic bronchitis as an expectorant in small doses while in higher doses causes emesis - 42. INDIAN SQUILL SYN: Jangli pyaj Sea onion Scilla Dried slices of the bulbs of Urginea indica. FAM: Liliaceae. Cardiac glycosides 1. Scillaren A scillaren B. 2. mucilage 3. Calcium oxalates an enzyme scillarenase. 1. Mesophyll + alkaline colarin solution → Red colour. 2. Mesophyll + 0.1M Iodine solution → reddish purple colour. 1. Cardiotonic 2. Stimulant 3. Expectorant 4. Diuretic in small doses 5. Emetic cathartic in large doses. 6. It is also possess anticancer activity against human epidermoid Scilla hyacintoiana.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 18 carcinoma of nasopharynx. 43. STROPHANTHUS SYN: Semino Strophanthi Arrow poison. Dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus kombe FAM: Apocynaceae. Steriod glycosides: K-strophanthin resin mucilage trigonelline choline fixed oil 30. Sample + 80 sulphuric acid → green colour. 1.Cardiotonic diuretic 2. mainly considered as a source of K-strophanthin. - ANTHRAQUINONES 44. ALOES SYN: Musabbar Kumari Dried juice of the leaves of 1. Curacao aloe - Aloe barbadensis 2. Socotrine aloe - Aloe perryi 3. Cape aloe - Aloe ferox and hybrids of this species with Aloe africana and Aloe spicata. FAM: Liliaceae. Anthraquinone glycosides C-glycoside: The main active constituent is aloin. It also contains barbaloin isobarbaloin β-barbaloin aloe-emodin and resins. Aloesin is also responsible for purgative action of aloes. I. General test: 1gm of aloe powder + 10ml water → filter. The filterate is used for the following test: a Bromine test: Filtrate + bromine solution → pale yellow precipitate b Borax test: Filtrate + borax → shaken well Few drops of this solution are added to a test tube nearly filled with water → green fluorescence appears. II. Special test: a Nitrous acid test: Isobarbaloin Crystals of sodium nitrite + acetic acid + aqueous solution of aloes → i Curacao aloe - sharp pink to carmine colour ii Cape aloes - faint pink colour iii Socotrine Zanzibar aloes- very less change in colour 1. As a purgative effect is mainly on colon to counter effect the gripping action it is given with carminatives. 2. Aloe gel is used in topical applications 3. Treatment of pains itching. 4. used in skin cosmetics as a protective due to its antiwrinkle properties. 4. used in skin used externally for painful inflammation 1. Natal Aloes 2. Mocha Aloes 3. also adulterated with black catechu pieces of iron and stones.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 19 b Nitric acid: Sample + nitric acid → i Curacao alos – deep brownish red colour ii Cape aloes – brownish colour changing to green iii Socotrine aloes – pale brownish yellow colour iv Zanzibar aloes – yellowish brown colour. c Cupraloin test Klunge’s isobarbaloin test: Dilute aqueous solution of aloes + copper sulphate solution + NaCl + 90 alcohol → i Curacao aloes – wine red colour ii Cape aloes – faint colour rapidly changing to yellow iii Socotrin aloes – no colour iv Zanzibar aloes – no colour d Modified Borntrager’s test C- glycosides: Drug + FeCl 3 solution + dilute HCl → filter to bring out the oxidative hydrolysis of aloe emodin. Filtrate + CCl 4 or benzene or ether or chloroform → Shake well separate the organic layer + ammonia solution added → Ammonical layer shows rose- pink colour.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 20 45. INDIAN SENNA SYN: Senna leaf Sennae folium Tinnevelley senna Cassia senna Senai-ki-patti Sonamuki. Dried leaflets of cassia angustifolia or cassia senna. FAM: Leguminosae. Anthraquinone glycosides O-glycoside: sennoside A B C D. rhein aloe-emodin. Borntrager’s test: Drug powder + dilute H 2 SO 4 → filter. Filtrate + benzene or ether or chloroform → Shake well separate the organic layer + ammonia solution added → Ammonical layer shows rose- pink colour. Purgative it is dispensed with carminatives due to its griping effect. Dog senna Cassia obovata Palthe senna Cassia auriculata Bombay mecca Arabian senna. 46. RHUBARB SYN: Radix rhei Rheum Revandchini. Dried rhizome of Rheum emodi Indian rhubarb Rheum palmatum Rheum webbianum Chinese- rhubarb. FAM: Polygonaceae Anthraquinone glycosides: rhein glucorhein aloe-emodin emodin chrysophanol physcion. 1. Modified Borntrager’s test: Postive result. 2. Rhubarb + alkalies → Red color. due to anthraquinone glycosides As a bitter stomachic in the treatment of diarrhoea and as a purgative. - 47. CASCARA SYN: Cascara bark Cascara sagrada Sacred bark Chittem bark Cortex Rhamni purshianae. Dried bark of Rhamnus purshiana. FAM: Rhamnaceae. It contains anthranol derivatives which causes gripping and emetic effect. The drug stored for at least 1 year during anthranol portion is oxidized to anthraquinones. It contains both O-glycosides C- glycoside. cascarosides A B C D. barbaloin emodin aloe- emodin. Modified Borntrager’s test C- glycosides: Drug + FeCl 3 solution + dilute HCl → boil filter to bring out the oxidative hydrolysis of aloe emodin. Filtrate + CCl 4 or benzene or ether or chloroform → Shake well separate the organic layer + ammonia solution added → Ammonical layer shows rose- pink colour. In small dose it is used as bitter stomachic tonic. In large dose used as purgative. Barks of Rhamnus fallax Rhamnus californica frangula bark.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 21 PYRIDINE AND PIPERIDINE ALKALOIDS 48. ARECA SYN: Betel nut Pinang Supari Hindi Dried ripe seeds of Areca catechu. FAM: Palmae Pyridine-Piperidine alkaloids: Arecoline methyl ester of arecaidine Also contains lipids volatile oils tannins and gums. Only arecoline possesses physiologically activity. General alkaloidal test: 1. Alkaloid + Mayer’s reagent → cream colour ppt. 2. Alkaloid + Hager’s reagent → yellow precipitate. 3. Alkaloid + Wagner’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt. 4. Alkaloid + Dragendroff’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt. Arecoline is parasympathomimet ic It has sialogogue properties is consumed as masticatory in India other eastern countries. It is an anthelmentic drug used as vermicide taenifuge in veterinary practice. Sago palm nuts dried tapioca slices of sweet potato are the cheap adulterants that are mixed with slices of Areca nuts. 49. LOBELIA SYN: Indian tobacco Asthma weed. It consists of dried aerial parts of Lobelia nicotianaefolia. FAM: Campanulaceae. Main alkaloid – Lobeline. Other alkaloids are Lobelidine Lobelanine Isolobelanine. It also contains pungent volatile oil resin gum fixed oil. 1. Solution of Lobeline + H 2 SO 4 → Red colour with formaldehyde. 2. Lobeline solution → Acetophenone on boiling recognised by smell. Mainly used in the treatment of asthma respiratory stimulant. Used for bronchial asthma chronic bronchitis. cardiovascular stimulant. Fumes of powdered lobelia are used for inhalation. - TROPANE ALKALOIDS 50 BELLADONNA SYN: Belladonna leaf Dried leaves or the leaves other aerial parts of Atropa belladonna Tropane alkaloid: Atropine hyoscine scopolamine hyoscyamine. Vitali – Morin test: Tropane alkaloid + fuming HNO 3 → evaporated to dryness → Residue + Parasympatholytic with anticholinergic properties. It decreases the Adulterated with leaves of Phytolacca americana

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 22 Belladonnae Folium Deadly night shade leaf European belladonna. European belladonna or Atropa acuminata Indian belladonna. FAM: Solanaceae. methanolic KOH solution → Violet color due to tropane derivative. secretions like sweat saliva gastric juice. It reduces spasm in case of intestinal gripping due to strong purgative. Also an antidote in opium chloral hydrate poisoning. Solanum nigrum Ailanthus glandulosa. 51 HYOSCYAMUS SYN: Henbane Hyoscyamus herb Hyoscyamus leaves. Dried leaves or leaves flowering tops of Hyoscyamus niger. FAM: Solanaceae. Tropane alkaloid: Main alkaloid – Hyoscyamine 75 Atropine hyoscine are present in very less amount. Vitali – Morin test: Tropane alkaloid + fuming HNO 3 → evaporated to dryness → Residue + methanolic KOH solution → Violet color due to tropane derivative. used to counteract gripping due to purgative also to relieve spasms of urinary tract. It is also sedative used to check salivary secretion an expectorant. An antispasmodic antiasthmatic. - 52 DATURA SYN: Datura herb Angel’s trumpet. Dried leaves and flowering tops of Datura metal. FAM: Solanaceae Tropane alkaloid: Main alkaloid - hyoscine scopolamine. Atropine hyoscyamine are present in very less amount. 1. Vitali – Morin test: Tropane alkaloid + fuming HNO 3 → evaporated to dryness → Residue + methanolic KOH solution → Violet color due to tropane derivative. 2. Hyoscine HBR solution + AgNO 3 solution → Yellowish white precipitate which is Parasympatholytic with anticholinergic CNS depressant effects. Drug is used in cerebral excitement. Along with morphine it is used as preoperative medication. Used in treatment -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 23 insoluble in HNO 3 but soluble in dilute NH 3 solution. of asthma cough. Hyoscine HBr is used in motion sickness gastric or duodenal ulcers. 53 COCA LEAVES SYN: Coca Dried leaves of Erythroxylon coca. FAM: Erythroxylaceae Tropane derived alkaloids: Cocaine cinnamyl cocaine tropocaine benzoyltropine dihydrotropane etc. Cocaine powder + H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O → characteristic smell of Methyl benzoate upon boiling Cocaine - first known local anaesthetic. Coca leaves are used as stimulant restorative also in convulsion. Reduces the sedative respiratory depressant effects of morphine allied drugs due to CNS stimulant properties. - QUINOLINE ISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS 54. CINCHONA SYN: Jesuit’s bark Peruvian bark. It is the dried bark of the cultivated trees of Cinchona calisaya C. ledgeriana C. officinalis C. succirubra. FAM: Rubiaceae Quinoline alkaloids: Quinine quinidine Cinchonine Cinchonidine. 1. Thalleoquin Test: Powered drug + bromine water + dilute ammonia solution → emerald green colour. 2. Heat the Powered drug + glacial acetic acid → purple vapour are produced at the upper part of the test tube. 3. Bark treated with concentrated H 2 SO 4 → blue fluorescence in UV light. 4. Quinidine solution + AgNO 3 1. Antimalarial 2. Bitter tonic. Cuprea bark Remijia pedunculata

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 24 solution→ white precipitate which is soluble in nitric acid. 55. IPECACUANHA SYN: Ipecac It consists of the dried roots of Cephaelis ipecacuanha. FAM: Rubiaceae Isoquinoline alkaloids: emetine cephaeline. 1. Powered drug + dilute HCl + water → filter. Filtrate + potassium chlorate → yellow colour gradually changing to red after standing due to emetine. 2. Emetine + H 2 SO 4 + sodium molybdate Froehde reagent → bright green colour. Expectorant in small dose Emetic in higher dose. Used in the treatment of amoebic dysentery. - 56. OPIUM SYN: Raw opium It is the dried latex obtained by incision from the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum Linn FAM: Papaveraceae 1. Phenanthrene alkaloid: Morphine codeine thebaine 2. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid: Papaverine Narceine Narcotine. Opium alkaloids are present as salts of meconic acid. It also contains sugar wax mucilage and salts of Ca K Mg. 1. Opium + water + FeCl 3 solution → deep reddish purple colour. 2. Morphine when sprinkled on nitric acid gives orange red colour Codeine does not respond to this test. 3. Morphine solution + potassium ferricyanide + FeCl 3 solution → bluish green colour. Codeine does not respond to this test. 4. Papaverine solution + HCl + potassium ferricyanide solution → a lemon yellow colour. Hypnotic sedative analgesic in which the action is mainly due to morphine. Morphine is a potent analgesic. Codeine as an antitussive used in various cough medicines. Papaverine has relaxant effects on smooth muscles of the intestinal bronchial tract the blood vessels. Opium capsules in powered form gum fruits. INDOLE ALKALOIDS 57. ERGOT It is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Indole alkaloids 1.Ergot powder + p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde Van-Urk’s reagent → Blue Oxytocic to prevent the post partum

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 25 SYN: Ergot of Rye Ergota Claviceps purpurea FAM: Graminae Water soluble – Ergometrine Ergometrinine Water insoluble – Ergotamine Ergataminine Ergosine Ergosinine Ergocristine Ergocristinine color. 2. Powdered ergot → red fluorescence under UV light. 3. Powdered drug + solvent ether + H 2 SO 4 Filter → Filterate + sodium bicarbonate solution → aqueous layer turns red violet color. 4. Ergometrine → blue fluorescence in water. 5. Ergotamine + glacial acetic acid + ethyl acetate +H 2 SO 4 Shaken well → Blue color with red tinge appears + FeCl 3 → blue color deepens while red tinge becomes faint. haemorrhage. Ergotamine is used as a specific analgesic in the treatment of migraine. - 58. RAUWOLFIA SYN: Serpgandha Rauwolfia root Serpentina root Chhotachand. Dried roots of the plant known as Rauwolfia serpentina FAM: Apocynaceae Indole alkaloids: Reserpine rescinnamine serpentine ajmaline ajmalicine yohimbine 1. Freshly fractured surface + concentrated HNO 3 → Red coloration along the medullary rays is observed. 2. Reserpine + vanilline in acetic acid solution → violet red color. 3. Powder Rauwolfia + H 2 SO 4 + p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde → violet to red colour. Antihypertensive Tranquillizing agent. - 59. NUX-VOMICA SYN: Crow fig Semen strychni Nux-vomica seed Dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica FAM: Loganiaceae Indole alkaloids: Strychnine brucine. 1. A thick section of seed + ammonium vanadate + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → purple colour due to strychnine. 2. A thick section of seed + concentrated HNO 3 → Bitter stomachic and tonic a stimulant to CNS. It stimulates respiratory and cardiovascular 1. Strychnos nuxblanda 2. Strychnos potatorum

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 26 Endospermic cells shows yellow color due to brucine. 3. A thick section of seed + Iodine solution + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → Endosperm cell walls stain blue due to hemicellulose. systems. 60. PHYSOSTIGMA SYN: Calabar bean Ordeal bean Dried ripe seeds of physostigma venenosum FAM: Leguminosae Indole alkaloids: Physostigmine Eseramine Eseroline - Parasympathomime tic ophthalmic activity as an anticholinesterase agent. It is used for the contraction of pupil of eye to counteract the poisoning caused by anticholinergic agents. - IMIDAZOLE ALKALOIDS 61. PILOCARPUS SYN: Jaborandi It consists of the leaves of Pilocarpus jaborandi. FAM: Rutaceae Imidazole alkaloid: Pilocarpine Isopilocarpine pilocarpidine pilosine pseudopilocarpine and isopilosine. Pilocarpine solution + dilute H ₂SO ₄ + hydrogen peroxide solution + benzene + potassium chromate solution on shaking organic layer → bluish violet color Aqueous layer → yellow colour 1. Physiological antagonist of atropine. 2. It causes contraction of the pupil of the eye and increase in sweating and salivation. 3. Treatment of glaucoma. - STEROIDAL ALKALOIDS 62. KURCHI Dried stem bark of Holarrhena Steroidal alkaloids: Conessine Section of the bark + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → stone 1. Antiprotozoal in activity.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 27 SYN: Holarrhena antidysenterica FAM: Apocynaceae nor-conessine isoconessine dioxyconessine. cells are stained green colour. 2. Used to treat amoebic dysentery. 3. Conessine is highly active against Entamoeba histolytica. - AMINO ALKALOIDS 63. EPHEDRA SYN: Ma-Huang It consists of died young stems of Ephedra gerardiana and E. nebrodensis. FAM: Gnetaceae Amino alkaloids: Ephedrine nor-ephedrine N-methyl ephedrine pseudo-ephedrine Ephedrine + water + dilute HCl + copper sulphate + NaOH solution → violet colour. If shaken with solvent ether Organic layer → purple colour Aqueous layer → blue colour Sympathomimetic effect. Used as a bronchodilator in asthma and also in the treatment of allergic conditions like hay fever. - 64. COLCHICUM SYN: Meadow saffron seeds Autumn crocus It consists of the dried ripe seeds of Colchicum luteum and C. autumnale FAM: Liliaceae Amino alkaloids: Colchicine demecolcine. 1. Colchicine + 70 H ₂SO ₄ → yellow color. 2. Alcoholic solution of colchicine + FeCl ₃ → red color 1. Treatment of gout and rheumatism. 2. Antitumor activity. - GLYCO-ALKALOIDS 65. SOLANUM Dried berries of Solanum khasianum FAM: Solanaceae Steroidal glycoalkaloid: Solasodine 3 - 1. Solasodine is used as a precursor for steroidal synthesis. 2. useful as sex hormones oral contraceptives etc. - PURINE ALKALOIDS 66. TEA SYN: Camellia thea It contains the prepared leaves and leaf buds of Thea Rich source of caffeine 1-3 theobromine 1. Murexide test: Caffeine + 3-4 drops of HNO 3 in porcelain dish → evaporated 1. CNS stimulant 2. Diuretics

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 28 sinensis FAM: Theaceae theophylline. The colour of tea leaves is due to gallotannic acid 15. The agreeable odour is due to presence of yellow volatile oil. It also contains an enzymatic mixture called thease. to dryness. Residue +2 drops of ammonium hydroxide solution → Purple color. 2. Caffeine + tannic acid solution → white precipitate. - 67. COFFEE SYN: Coffee bean coffee seed. It is the dried ripe seed of coffea arabica or C. liberica. FAM: Rubiaceae. Caffeine 2-3 tannin fixed oil Proteins. Mureoxide test: Caffeine + 3-4 drops of HNO 3 in porcelain dish → evaporated to dryness. Residue +2 drops of ammonium hydroxide solution → Purple color. 1.Stimulant 2. Diuretic. 3. Used as a source of caffeine - RESINS 68. COLOPHONY SYN: Rosin Rosina Colophonium Resin Amber-resin Gum rosin pine-resin It is the solid residue obtained after distilling the oleo- resin from various species of Pinus. FAM: Pinaceae Abietic acid 90. Also contains esters of oleic acid and resin acids. Volatile oil resenes. 1. Colophony + acetic anhydride heat cool + Concentrated H2SO4 → Bright purplish red color rapidly changing to violet. Reaction for abietic acid. 2. Alcoholic solution of colophony shows acidic reaction to litmus. 3. Colophony + light petroleum filter. Filtrate + dilute copper acetate solution → Petroleum layer shows emerald green color Reaction for abietic acid. 1. stimulant 2. diuretic 3. used in the preparation of ointments It is adulterated with black resin or apic resin.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 29 69. CANNABIS SYN: Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Ganja Marihuana It consists of dried flowering tops of the cultivated female plants of Cannabis Sativa FAM: Cannabinaceae Moraceae Resin 15-20 Tetrahydrocannabin ol Cannabidiol. Fixed oil 20. 1. Drug + light petroleum 60- 80˚ filter. Filtrate + 15 solution of hydrogen chloride in ethyl alcohol. At the junction of the two liquids a red colouration appears. After shaking the upper layer becomes colourless lower layer acquires pink colour which disappears on addition of water. 1. Narcotic 2. Sedative 3. Analgesic − 70. CAPSICUM SYN: Chillies Cayenne pepper It consists of dried ripe fruits of Capsicum annum FAM: Solanaceae 1. It contains colourless crystalline and pungent principle known as Capsaicin 2. fixed oil 3. protein 4. pigments The pungency of capsicum is not destroyed by boiling it with 2 NaOH solution but it is destroyed by oxidizing agent like potassium permanganate. 1. Carminative 2. An appetizer 3. A stomachic 4. Counter irritant in the treatment of rheumatism lumbago and neuralgia. 5. also used in spices. - 71. TOLU BALSAM SYN: Balsam of Tolu Solid or semi-solid balsam obtained from the trunk of trees Myroxylon balsamum FAM: Leguminosae 1. It contains free cinnamic acid 2. free benzoic acid 3. oily liquid contains benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate 1. When heated and pressed in between two glass slides and examined under microscope it exhibits crystals of cinnamic acid. 2. Alcoholic solution of the drug + Fecl 3 solution → Green color 3. Warm gently Drug + KMnO 4 solution → Odour of benzaldehyde is produced. 1. Expectorant 2. Flavouring agent 3. Antiseptic 4. used as a common ingredient of cough mixtures. 1. Exhausted balsam of tolu 2. Colophony

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 30 72. BENZOIN SYN: Sumatra benzoin Loban It is a balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin Sumatra benzoin Styrax tonkinesis Siam benzoin FAM: Styraceae 1. Sumatra benzoin contains free balsamic acids benzoic cinnamic acids. 2. Siam benzoin contains ester of coniferyl benzoate. 1. Heat 0.5 gm of sample in a dry test tube → melts and evolves irritating whitish fumes which condense to form a white crystalline sublimate in the upper part of the tube. 2. Alcoholic solution of benzoin + H 2 O → Milky white solution. 3. Warm gently about 1g of powder with 5ml of potassium permanganate solution in a test tube → Distinct odour of benzaldehyde presence of Sumatra benzoin. 4. Triturate 0.1g of powder + 5ml of alcohol 95 filter. Filtrate + ferric chloride in alcohol 95 → No bright green color Sumatra benzoin. 5. Digest 0.2g of powder + 5ml ether for 5minutes pour 1ml of ethereal solution in a porcelain dish containing 2-3 drops of concentrated H 2 SO 4 and rotate the dish → i Deep brown colour Sumatra benzoin. ii Deep purplish red colour Siam benzoin. 1. Irritating expectorant 2. Carminative 3. Diuretic 4. Antiseptic protective 5. used in the form of compound tincture of benzoin 6. Inhalation in upper respiratory tract infection. 7. Cosmetics 8. Mask the taste of pharmaceutical preparations. - 73. BALSAM OF PERU Trunk of the tree Myroxylon balsamum Volatile oil resin styrene vanillin and coumarine. - 1. Topical preparations for scabies. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 31 SYN: Peru balsam Indian black balsam Peruvian balsam FAM: Leguminosae Volatile oil contains esters of cinnamic acid and benzoic acid like cinnamyl cinnamate cinnamyl benzoate benzyl benzoate benzyl cinnamate. 2. Treatment of wounds ulcers bedsores. 3. Flavouring agent and masking agent. 4.Cosmetics 74. ASAFOETIDA SYN: Devil’s dung Gum asafoetida Oleo-gum resin obtained by incision from the roots and rhizomes of Ferula foetida FAM: Umbelliferae Resin 40-65 gum 20-25 volatile oil 4-20. Ferulic acid Umbellic acid Umbelliferone 1. Drug is triturated with water → Yellowish orange emulsion 2. Fractured surface of the drug + H 2 SO 4 → Reddish- brown colour 3. Drug + 50 HNO 3 → Green colour 4. Combined umbelliferone test: Sample + dilute HCl → Filter. Filtrate + ammonia solution → blue fluorescence is produced under UV light. 1. Carminative 2. Nervine stimulant 3. Intestinal flatulence 4. Flavouring agent It is adulterated with gum Arabic rosin gypsum red clay chalk barley or wheat flour. 75. TURMERIC SYN: Indian saffron Curcuma Haridra Haldi It consists of dried or fresh rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. FAM: Zingiberaceae Volatile oil 5 resin. Curcumin 50- 60 and yellow colouring substance known as curcuminoids 1. Powder drug + H 2 SO 4 → Crimson colour. 2. Aqueous solution of turmeric + boric acid → reddish brown colour + alkali → changing to greenish-blue. 3. Drug + acetic anhydride + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → Violet colour → Red fluorescence under UV light Colouring agent especially for ointments and creams Condiment or spice used for the detection of boric acid. Anti inflammatory Antiseptic Antiarthritic agent. Curcuma amada is a common substitute for turmeric.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 32 76. GINGER SYN: Sunthi Zingiber Zingiberis It consists of dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale FAM: Zingiberaceae It contains volatile oil oleo-resin starch Gingerol Zingiberene Zingiberone shogasol. Ginger powder + 2 KOH → the pungency is destroyed due to gingerol is destroyed. 1. Carminative 2. Stimulant 3. Aromatic 4. Flavouring agent 5. Stomachic 6. Ginger oil is used in mouth washes Ginger beverages and liquors. It is adulterated with exhausted ginger. QUINAZOLIDINE ALKALOIDS 77. ADATHODA SYN: Adhatoda Adulsa Malabar nut Vasaka It consists of fresh or dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica FAM: Acanthaceae Quinazoline alkaloids: Vasicine and Vasicinone - Expectorant Bronchodilator Oxytocic. - TERPENES 78. NEEM SYN: Margosa Indian lilac Nim Vembu. It consists of all aerial parts of plant known Azadirachta indica. FAM: Meliaceae. It Contains diterpenes triterpenes. β-sitosterol stigmasterol Nimbinin Nimbidinine Nimbidin azadiractin. - 1. As a bitter tonic and astringent. 2. Antiseptic disinfectant. 3. Antiperiodic and vermifuge. 4. Malarial fever and other intermittent paroxysmal fever. 5. Insect repellant insecticide and antimicrobial properties. - 79. ARTEMESIA These are the unexpanded flower- It contains essential oil two Powered drug + 10ml of alcohol → filter. Filtrate + Strong anthelmintic especially for round Artemisia vulgaris.

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 33 SYN: Santonica Worm seeds. heads of Artemisia cina Artemisia brevifolia Artemisia maritima Linn. and other species of Artemisia. FAM: Asteraceae or Compositae. crystalline substances i.e. santonin artemisin. Volatile oil contains cineole pinene and resin. NaOH → red colour. worms. 80. OTHERS: GENTIAN SYN: Gentian root Gentiana Radix Gentianae. Gentian is the dried partially fermented rhizome and root of yellow gentian i.e. Gentiana lutea. FAM: Gentianaceae. It contains bitter glycosides mainly gentiopicrin also called gentiopicroside Under UV radiation gentian extract shows light blue fluorescence. Bitter tonic to stimulate the gastric secretion and hence improving the appetite. - 81. SAFFRON SYN: Saffron Hay saffron Kesar. It consists of dried stigmas and upper part of styles of plant known as Crocus sativus Linn. FAM: Iridaceae. It contains red colouring matter known as crocin crocetin bitter principle picrocrocin and traces of volatile oil. 1. Dry stigma + sulphuric acid → blue gradually changing to purple and finally purplish red. 2. Saffron imparts yellowish orange brown colour to water. Colouring and flavouring agent. Antispasmodic emmenagogue and a stimulant. Florets of safflower known as Carthamus tinctorius. Safflower florets impart orange colour to alcohol whereas no colour in authentic drug. 82. ASHWAGANDHA SYN: Withania root Asgandh Winter cherry. It consists of dried roots and stem bases of Withania somnifera. FAM: Solanaceae. Steroidal alkaloids: withanine somniferine somnine somniferinine withananine pseudo withanine. - Sedative and hypnotic effect. It has hypotensive respiratory stimulant actions along with bradycardia. It is an immune- modulatory agent. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 34 treatment of rheumatism gout hypertension skin diseases. TUMOUR INHIBITORS 83. TAXOL SYN: Yew Talispatra Himalayan yew Dried leaves bark and roots of various species of Taxus Taxus baccata FAM: Taxaceae Taxol cephalomannine 10-deacetyl baccatin - Treatment of ovarian cancer lung carcinoma gastric cervical cancer. Also carcinomas of head neck prostate colon. - 84. VINCA SYN: Catharanthus Periwinkle Dried whole plant of Catharanthus roseus FAM: Apocynaceae Indole alkaloids: vincristine and vinblastine General alkaloidal tests Anti-neoplastic agent treatment of acute leukemia of children. In adults hodgkin’s diseases reticulum cell sarcoma lymphosarcoma myosarcoma. - 85. PODOPHYLLUM SYN: Indian podophyllum Podophyllum radix Himalayan May- apple Dried rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum or Podophyllum emodi. FAM: Berberidaceae Resin 7-15 – Podophyllin also known as podophyllotoxin 0.5gms of drug + 10ml of alcohol and filter. Filtrate + 0.5ml of strong copper acetate solution → brown precipitate Anticancer agent. Also used as purgative cholagague bitter tonic. - ANTI-HEPATOTOXIC ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS 86. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI It consist of all aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus niruri Alkaloids: Phyllanthin hypophyllanthin - Hepatoprotective mainly used in the treatment of viral -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 35 SYN: Bhuiamla FAM: Euphorbiaceae niruriside a carbohydrate. hepatitis and other liver disorders diuretic in oedema good appetizer. 87. ECLIPTA ALBA SYN: Bhringraj Eclipta Bhangra Maka It consists of whole plant knows as Eclipta alba. FAM: Asteraceae Steroidal alkaloids glycosides resin alkaloid ecliptine nicotin and flavonoid wedelo- lactone epigenin luteolin. - Brain tonic used for liver disorders viral hepatitis skin and hair care disorders. It strengthens spleen is general tonic. - 88. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE SYN: Gudmar Gymnema Madhunashini It consists of the leaves of a perennial woody climber plant known as Gymnema sylvestre FAM: Asclepiadaceae Glycosides: Gymnemic acid anti-sweet compounds. others are pentriacontane hentriacontane phytin α β chlorophylls resin tartaric acid formic acid etc. 1. Dilute solution anaesthetises sweet taste buds. 2. Sample shaken with water → copious foam + dilute HCl → Voluminous precipitate. Anti-diabetic stomachic stimulant laxative and diuretic. Also have weight- lowering properties. - PLANT FIBRES USED AS SURGICAL DRESSINGS 89. COTTON SYN: Absorbent cotton Surgical cotton Medicinal cotton. It consists of the epidermal trichomes or hairs of the seeds of cultivated species of Gossypium barbadense Gossypium herbaceurre FAM: Malvaceae 90 of Cellulose 7-8 of moisture 1. Cuoxam test: 1.It is used for surgical dressing filtering medium insulating material 2.Absorbent cotton absorbs blood mucus pus and prevent the wound from infection -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 36 Cotton + ammonical copper oxide solution Cuoxam reagent → i. Raw cotton → balloon like swelling. ii. Absorbent cotton → uniform swelling. 2. Soak cotton fibers in iodine water and dry add few ml of 80 sulphuric acid trichomes assume purplish blue or bluish green color. 3. It is insoluble in dilute NaOH HCl. Soluble in 66 of H 2 SO 4. 90. SILK Animal Fibre Fibers obtained from cocoons of Bombyx mori Mulberry silkworm FAM: Bombycidae It consist of protein knows as fibroin. Fibrin on hydrolysis gives glycine alanine. Sample + lead acetate solution → No black precipitate. Special types of sutures sieves and ligatures are prepared from the silk. - 91. WOOL Animal Fibre SYN: Sheep’s wool animal wool Fibers obtained from fleece of sheep Ovis aries. FAM: Bovidaea It contains sulphur containing protein called keratin. Wool + caustic soda NaOH + lead acetate → Black precipitate due to sulphur content Filtering and straining medium. Used in the manufacture of dressing like domette and crepe bandages. - 92. NYLON Synthetic fibre It is the polymer of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. The fibres are highly lustrous to - 1. When heated in flame → Nylon melts with formation of bead. 2. Soluble in 5M HCl 90 formic acid 90 phenol. It is used for filter cloths sieves and non-absorbable sutures. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 37 dull white or coloured. 3. Insoluble in acetone. 93. RAYON SYN: Regenerated cellulose viscose rayon Viscose rayon is a regenerated fibre. It is prepared from wood cellulose of bleached cotton linters. It contains cellulose and hemi-cellulose 1. Rayon + N/50 iodine → blue colour. 2. Rayon + 80 H 2 SO 4 → blue colour. 3. Soluble in 60 H 2 SO 4 . For making fabrics surgical dressing viscose rayon absorbent wool. - 94. ALGINATE DRESSING Regenerated fibres prepared from Sodium alginate of seaweed. Polysaccharides: Alginate fibres contain calcium salts of long chain molecules of alginic acid 1. It is insoluble in 60 sulpuric acid. 2. It is soluble in 5 sodium citrate solution 3. With N/50 Iodine and sulpuric acid a brownish red colour is produced. 1. Absorbable haemostatic dressings. 2. Calcium alginate wool is used to swab for pathological work and bacteriological examination. - 95. GELATIN SPONGE It is a sterile white tough finely porous spongy material which is absorbable water insoluble. Proteins: Aminoacids Gelatin tests Haemostatic Local coagulant - 96. OXIDIZED CELLULOSE It is a water insoluble derivative of cellulose. It can be produced from cellulose by the action of an oxidising agent such as chlorine hydrogen peroxide peracetic acid It may contain carboxlyic acid aldehyde or ketone groups in addition to the original hydroxyl groups of the starting material cellulose depending on the nature of the - It is used as an Anti- hemorrhagic. -

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 38 chlorine dioxide nitrogen dioxide persulfates permanganates dichromate sulfuric acid hypo chlorous acid hypohalites or peroxidates and a variety of metal catalyst. oxidant and reaction conditions. PHARMACEUTICAL AIDS 97. TALC SYN: French Talc Talcum Soap stone Purified Talc. Natural hydrated Magnesium silicate. It is purified by boiling with dilute HCl decanting the liquid washing the residue several times with water and drying at 110 0 C. Hydrated Magnesium Silicate 1-2 of iron oxide Traces of Aluminum oxide. 0.5 g of talc + 0.2 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate in platinum crucible  dissolve into 50ml of H 2 O + HCl  until ceases to effervescence + little more acid  evaporate the contents to dryness on water bath  cool dissolve 20ml of H 2 O boil filter. To that filtrate + 2g of ammonium chloride + 5ml of dil. Ammonia solutions  If any precipitate is formed remove it by filtration. To the filtrate + sodium phosphate  white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium carbonate formed. As a filter aid for filtration clarification of cloudy liquids as lubricants in preparations of pills tablets and as a dusting powder. Used in paint and varnish industry as filler for paper and as heat electric insulator. - 98. KAOLIN Purified native hydrated aluminum silicate free from Pure form of Aluminum silicate Traces of Mg Ca Kaolin + charcoal block with cobalt nitrate  Blue mass due to Alumina. As an adsorbent by oral administration in the treatment of

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 39 SYN: China clay Kaolinum proderesum. gritty particles. iron. enteritis dysentery in alkaloidal food poisoning. As a dusting powder. Light Kaolin: Used in treatment of gastric intestinal infections. Heavy Kaolin: In filtration as clearing agent. For making poultices. - 99. BENTONITE SYN: Whilkinite. Natural colloidal hydrated aluminium silicate clay. 80 of montmorillonite 2 - 3 magnesium oxide 3 ferric oxide. 1. Mount little bentonite in safranin solution  deep red color. 2. Mount bentonite in methylene blue solution  deep blue color. As suspending emulsifying agent base for plasters. In cosmetics used in bases for lipsticks creams depilatories etc. - NATURAL COLOURS: Eg: TURMERIC SAFFRON CAPSICUM HENNA CARAMOL COCHINEAL. 100. HENNA SYN: Egyptian privet Lawsonia - alba Fresh or dried leaves of the plant Lawsonia - inermis. FAM: Lythraceae. Glycosides: Lawsone 0.5 - 1.0 5-10 of gallic acid white resin sugars tannin xanthones. Extract of henna leaves with water by boiling filter cool. This decoction fades on addition of acid while deepens by addition of alkali. Lawsone have antibacterial antifungal property. As a hair dye. Used in hair care products like rinses conditioners applications. - 101. CARAMOL SYN: Burnt sugar coloring Caramel is a concentrated aqueous solution prepared by heating Carbohydrates MARSH TEST: 6ml solution of caramel alcohol  mix + 15ml of marsh reagent  shake for 2 As colorant for food confectionery vinegars liquors malt beverages

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III. B. PHARM. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS Prepared by Dr.S. Thenmozhi Associate Professor PGP College of Pharmacy. Namakkal. 40 sucrose or glucose until the sweet taste is destroyed and uniform dark brown viscous liquid results by adding small quantities of sodium carbonate or mineral acids or small quantity of alkali during heating. minutes because avoiding the forming of emulsion  allow the layers to separate completely  a colored aqueous layer indicates the presence of caramel. 5 of caramel solution+ o.5 of phosphoric acid  no precipitate. tobacco flavoring in elixirs syrups other oral liquids products in medicine. - 102. COCHINEAL SYN: Coccus Red scale insect. Dried full grown female insects enclosing young larvae of Coccus cacti L. FAM: Coccidae. 10 Carminic acid a red coloring matter 10 fat 2 of wax coccerin. Carminic acid + water  deep red colour. Carminic acid + acid  yellow to violet colour. As coloring agents for foods drugs for cosmetic products. It is utilized for preparation of industrial lakes inks acid-base indicator microscopic stains also in photography. - 103. NATURAL PESTICIDES: TOBACCO SYN: Cigarettes cigar smoking mixture It consists of dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum. FAM: Solanaceae Pyridine- piperidine alkaloids: Nicotine Nornicotin anabasine. - Nicotine is used in the manufacture of nicotinic acid nicotinamide. Used as insecticides. -

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