I. D. Pharm Pharmacognosyof crude drugs

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NH-7 NAMAKKAL-KARUR MAIN ROAD NAMAKKAL D.T. PHARMACOGNOSY OF CRUDE DRUGS I.D.PHARMACY 2018 - 2019 PHARMACOGNOSY PREPARED BY Dr.S.THENMOZHI M.Pharm.Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Pharmacognosy PGP College of Pharmaceutical Science Research Institute Namakkal Tamil Nadu India.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 1 S.No Name of the drug Synonym Biological source Family Chemical constituents Chemical tests Medicinal uses LAXATIVES 1. ALOES SYN: Musabbar Kumari Dried juice of the leaves of 1. Curacao aloe -Aloe barbadensis 2. Socotrine aloe - Aloe perryi 3. Cape aloe - Aloe ferox FAM: Liliaceae. Anthraquinone glycosides C-glycoside: The main active constituent is Aloin. It is a mixture of 3 isomers: 1. Barbaloin 2. Isobarbaloin 3. β-barbaloin aloe-emodin and resins. I. General test: 1gm of aloe powder + 10ml water → filter. The filterate is used for the following test: a Bromine test: Filtrate + bromine solution → pale yellow precipitate b Borax test: Filtrate + borax → shaken well Few drops of this solution are added to a test tube nearly filled with water → green fluorescence appears. II. Special test: a Nitrous acid test: Isobarbaloin Crystals of sodium nitrite + acetic acid + aqueous solution of aloes → i Curacao aloe - sharp pink to carmine colour ii Cape aloes - faint pink colour iii Socotrine aloes- very less change in colour b Nitric acid: Sample + nitric acid → i Curacao alos – deep brownish red colour ii Cape aloes – brownish colour changing to green iii Socotrine aloes – pale brownish yellow colour. 1. As a purgative effect is mainly on colon to counter effect the gripping action it is given with carminatives. 2. Aloe gel is used in topical applications 3. Treatment of pains itching. 4. used in skin cosmetics as a protective due to its antiwrinkle properties. 4. used in skin used externally for painful inflammation

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 2 c Cupraloin test Klunge’s isobarbaloin test: Dilute aqueous solution of aloes + copper sulphate solution + NaCl + 90 alcohol → i Curacao aloes – wine red colour ii Cape aloes – faint colour rapidly changing to yellow iii Socotrin aloes – no colour d Modified Borntrager’s test C- glycosides: Drug + FeCl 3 solution + dilute HCl → filter to bring out the oxidative hydrolysis of aloe emodin. Filtrate + CCl 4 or benzene or ether or chloroform → Shake well separate the organic layer + ammonia solution added → Ammonical layer shows rose- pink colour. 2. RHUBARB SYN: Radix rhei Rheum Revandchini. Dried rhizome of Rheum emodi Indian rhubarb Rheum palmatum Rheum webbianum Chinese- rhubarb. FAM: Polygonaceae Anthraquinone glycosides: rhein glucorhein aloe-emodin emodin chrysophanol physcion. 1. Modified Borntrager’s test: Postive result. 2. Rhubarb + alkalies → Red color. due to anthraquinone glycosides As a bitter stomachic in the treatment of diarrhoea and as a purgative. 3. CASTOR OIL SYN: Oleum Ricini Ricinus oil Castor oil is the fixed oil obtained by the cold expression of the seeds of Ricinus communis. FAM: Euphorbiaceae 1. Ricinoleic acid about 80 2. fatty acids are represented by isoricinolic linoleic stearic isostearic acid 1. It mixes with half its volume of light petroleum ether 60-40 ◦ C but insoluble in double the volume of petroleum ether 2. Add to the oil an equal volume of ethanol clear liquid is obtained. On 1. Cathartic 2. Lubricant 3. Used in the preparation of paints enamel varnishes grease polishes

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 3 cooling at 0 ◦ C and on storage of 3 hours the liquid remains clear. printing ink ect. 4. ISAPGOL SYN: Ispaghula Isabgul Indian Psyllium. It is a dried seeds of plant known as Plantago ovata the dried seed coats known as ISAPGOL HUSK FAM: Plantaginaceae It contains Carbohydrates Mucilage pentosans and aldobionic acid. Fixed oils and proteins. 1. SWELLING FACTOR: 1gm of drug in the measuring cylinder in 20 ml water with occasional shaking. The volume occupied by the seeds after 24hrs of wetting is measured. Swelling factor for seed is 10 to 14. 2. Isapgol gives pink color with the solution of ruthenium red due to mucilage. 1. Demulcent 2. Laxative 3. Emollient 4. preparation of tablets 5. stabilizers 5. INDIAN SENNA SYN: Senna leaf Sennae folium Tinnevelley senna Cassia senna Senai-ki-patti Sonamuki. Dried leaflets of cassia angustifolia or cassia senna. FAM: Leguminosae. Anthraquinone glycosides O-glycoside: sennoside A B C D. Aloe-emodin rhein. Anthraquinone test or Borntrager’s test: Drug powder + dilute H 2 SO 4 → filter. Filtrate + benzene or ether or chloroform → Shake well separate the organic layer + ammonia solution added → Ammonical layer shows rose- pink colour. Purgative. CARDIOTONICS 6. DIGITALIS SYN: Digitalis leaves Foxglove leaves. Dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea. FAM: Scrophulariaceae Cardiac glycosides Primary and secondary glycosides: purpurea glycosides A B digitoxin gitoxin gitaloxin. 1. Baljet test: Section of digitalis + sodium picrate solution → Yellow to orange color. 2. Legal test: Extract + pyridine + Sodium nitroprusside → make alkaline with NaOH → pink or red colour. 3. Keller-Kiliani Test for digitoxose: Sample + 10ml 70 alcohol → boil Treatment of Congestive heart failure.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 4 for 2 - 3 minutes → filtered. To the filtrate + 5ml water + strong lead acetate solution → shake well separate the filtrate. Filtrate + equal volume of chloroform chloroform layer is evaporated. The residue + 3ml of glacial acetic acid + 2 drops of ferric chloride solution → Transferred to a test tube with 2ml of H 2 SO 4 → Reddish brown layer acquiring bluish green colour after standing. 7. ARJUNA SYN: Arjuna bark Arjun. It consists of dried stem bark of the plant known as Terminalia arjuna. FAM: Combretaceae 15 of tannins. It also contains triterpenoid saponin arjunic acid arjunolic acid arjunogenin. Calcium aluminium magnesium salts. Ethereal extract of arjuna shows pinkish fluorescence under UV light. As a cardio tonic. Diuretic antihypertensive antidysenteric. As a astringent febrifuge. CARMINATIVES G.I. REGULATORS 8. CORIANDER SYN: Coriander fruit. Fully dried ripe fruits of the plant known as coriandrum sativum Linn. FAM: Umbelliferae. It contains volatile oil which contains 90 of D-Linalool and pinene. - Aromatic Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent. 9. FENNEL SYN: Fennel fruits Fructus foeniculum. It consists of dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. FAM: Umbelliferae. 1. A volatile oil which contains anethole and fenchone - 1. Carminative 2. Aromatic 3. Stimulant 4. Expectorant. 5. Flavouring agent.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 5 10. AJOWAN SYN: Carum copticum Ptychotis ajowan It consists of fruits of Tachyspermum ammi Linn. FAM: Umbelliferae. Volatile oil- thymol 30-40 - 1. As a Carminative 2. As a source of thymol 3. As a spice in India 11. CARDAMOM SYN: Cardamom fruits Cardamom seeds Small cardamom It consists of the dried ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum. FAM: Zingiberaceae A volatile oil which is rich in cineole terpinyl acetate. Other constituents are starch protein and fixed oil. - Aromatic Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent. 12. GINGER SYN: Sunthi Zingiber Zingiberis It consists of dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale FAM: Zingiberaceae It contains volatile oil oleo-resin starch Gingerol Zingiberene Zingiberone shogasol. Ginger powder + 2 KOH → the pungency is destroyed due to gingerol is destroyed. 1. Carminative 2. Stimulant 3. Aromatic 4. Flavouring agent 5. Condiment 13. BLACK PEPPER SYN: Pepper Piper nigrum It consists of dried unripe fruits of Piper nigrum. FAM: Piperaceae Volatile oil- terpenes α β pinene phallandrene and sesquiterpenes. Alkaloid- piperine piperettine. Sample + HCl + crystals of calcium acetate → separation of yellow needles of piperine calcium compounds 1. Carminative 2. Condiment 3. used in gonorrhea and chronic bronchitis 4. Stimulant irritant tonic and febrifuge. 14. ASAFOETIDA SYN: Devil’s dung Gum asafoetida Oleo-gum resin obtained by incision from the roots and rhizomes of Ferula foetida FAM: Umbelliferae Resin 40-65 gum 20-25 volatile oil 4-20 - isobutyl propanyl disulphide. Ferulic acid Umbellic acid Umbelliferone 1. Drug is triturated with water → Yellowish orange emulsion 2. Fractured surface of the drug + H 2 SO 4 → Reddish-brown colour 3. Drug + 50 HNO 3 → Green colour 1. Carminative 2. Expectorant 3. Intestinal flatulence 4. Flavouring agent

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 6 4. Combined umbelliferone test: Sample + dilute HCl → Filter → Filtrate + ammonia solution → blue fluorescence is produced under UV light. 15. NUTMEG SYN: Myristica Nux moschata. It consists of dried kernels of the seeds of Myristica fragrans. FAM: Myristicaceae 1. It contains the 5- 16 of volatile oil and 30 of fat. 2. The volatile oil contains 4-8 myristicin elimicin and saffrole. 3. It contains myristic palmitic oleic lauric and other acids. The fat of nutmeg is also known as nutmeg butter. - 1. Aromatic 2. Stimulant. 3. Carminative 4. Flavouring agent. 5. It used in treatment of rheumatism. 16. CINNAMON SYN: Cinnamon bark Kalmi-Dalchini Ceylon-cinnamon. Dried inner bark of shoots of coppiced trees of cinnamomum zeylanicum. FAM: Lauraceae. 1. A volatile oil which contains cinnamic aldehyde Eugenol Benzaldehyde. 2. Also contains tannins mucilage and starch. 1. Alcoholic extract of the drug + ferric chloride solution → green color. 2. Chloroform extract of the drug + 10 aqueous solution of phenylhydrazine HCl → rod shaped crystals of hydrozon of cinnamaldehyde. Carminative Stomachic mild astringent flavouring agent. 17. CLOVE SYN: Caryophyllum Clove flower Clove buds. It consists of dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus. FAM: Myrtaceae. 1. It contains 15-20 of volatile oil 2.10-13 of tannin resin chromone and eugenin. The volatile oil of drug contains eugenol 70 - 1. Thick section of hypanthium + 5 KOH solution → Needle shaped crystals of potassium eugenolate are observed under microscope. 2. Chloroform extract + 3 NaOH → Crystals of sodium eugenolate. 1. Dental analgesic 2. Carminative 3. Stimulant 4. Flavouring agent 5. An aromatic 6. antiseptic

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 7 90 eugenol acetate caryophyllenes. 3. Alcoholic extract of drug + Ferric chloride solution → Blue color. ASTRINGENTS 18. CATECHU BLACK CATECHU SYN : Catechu nigrum cutch. It consists of dried aqueous extract prepared from the heart- wood of Acacia catechu FAM: Leguminosae 1. It contains 10 of Acacia catechin. 2. Catechu tannic acid 3. Quercetin 4. Gum 1. Black catechu + vanillin + hydrochloric acid → pink or red colour. 2 .Lime H 2 O +aqueous extract of black catechu → brown color to red precipitate on standing for some time. 3. Aqueous solution of black catechu +ferric chloride → green colour. 4. The tip of a match stick is smeared with a paste of black catchu. After dipping in conc. HCl it is warmed near a flame. A purple colour is produced. 1. Astringent 2. For cleaning the mouth and gums 3. Dyeing and colouring. DRUGS ACTING ON NERVOUS SYSTEM 19. HYOSCYAMUS SYN: Henbane Hyoscyamus herb Hyoscyamus leaves. Dried leaves or leaves flowering tops of Hyoscyamus niger. FAM: Solanaceae. Tropane alkaloid: Main alkaloid – Hyoscyamine 75 Atropine hyoscine are present in very less amount. Vitali – Morin test: Tropane alkaloid + fuming HNO 3 → evaporated to dryness → Residue + methanolic KOH solution → Violet color due to tropane derivative. 1. Mydriatic 2. Antisialogogue 3. Antispasmodic antiasthmatic. 20. BELLADONNA SYN: Belladonna leaf Belladonnae Folium Deadly night shade leaf Dried leaves or the leaves other aerial parts of Atropa belladonna European belladonna . FAM: Solanaceae. Tropane alkaloid: Atropine hyoscine hyoscyamine. Vitali – Morin test: Tropane alkaloid + fuming HNO 3 → evaporated to dryness → Residue + methanolic KOH solution → Violet color due to tropane derivative. Parasympatholytic with anticholinergic properties. 1. Mydriatic 2. Antisialogogue 3. Antispasmodic. 21. ACONITE It consists of the dried Alkaloid: Aconitine 1. Relief of neuralgia

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 8 SYN:Redixi Aconiti Wolfsbane root Aconitum tuberous roots of Aconitum napellus L. FAM: Renunculaceae Hypoconitine neopelline - and rheumatism 2. Lowering of body temperature. 3. Increase in urine output. 22. ASHWAGANDHA SYN: Withania root Asgandh Winter cherry. It consists of dried roots and stem bases of Withania somnifera. FAM: Solanaceae. Steroidal alkaloids: withanine somniferine somnine somniferinine withananine pseudo withanine. - 1. Sedative and hypnotic effect. 2. A tonic and aphrodisiac 3. Bacteriostatic and anticancer agent 23. EPHEDRA SYN: Ma-Huang It consists of died young stems of Ephedra sinica and Ephedra equisetina. FAM: Gnetaceae Amino alkaloids: Ephedrine nor-ephedrine N-methyl ephedrine pseudo-ephedrine Ephedrine + water + dilute HCl + copper sulphate + NaOH solution → violet colour. If shaken with solvent ether Organic layer → purple colour Aqueous layer → blue colour Sympathomimetic effect. Used as a bronchodilator in asthma and also in the treatment of allergic conditions like hay fever. 24. OPIUM SYN: Raw opium It is the dried latex obtained by incision from the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum Linn FAM: Papaveraceae 1. Phenanthrene alkaloid: Morphine codeine thebaine 2. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid: Papaverine Narceine Narcotine. Opium alkaloids are present as salts of meconic acid. It also contains sugar wax mucilage and salts of Ca K Mg. 1. Opium + water + FeCl 3 solution → deep reddish purple colour. 2. Morphine + Conc. H 2 SO 4 + HCHO → A dark violet colour Tincture opium is used to control diarrhea. Morphine is a potent analgesic. Codeine and noscapine are used as cough suppressants. 25. CANNABIS It consists of dried Resin 15-20 1. Drug + light petroleum 60-80˚ 1. Narcotic

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 9 SYN: Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Ganja Marihuana flowering tops of the cultivated female plants of Cannabis Sativa FAM: Cannabinaceae Tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabidiol. Fixed oil 20. filter. Filtrate + 15 solution of hydrogen chloride in ethyl alcohol. At the junction of the two liquids a red colouration appears. After shaking the upper layer becomes colourless lower layer acquires pink colour which disappears on addition of water. 2. Sedative 3. Analgesic 4. Hypnotic 26. NUX-VOMICA SYN: Crow fig Semen strychni Nux-vomica seed Dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica FAM: Loganiaceae Indole alkaloids: Strychnine brucine. 1. A thick section of seed + ammonium vanadate + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → purple colour due to strychnine. 2. A thick section of seed + concentrated HNO 3 → Endospermic cells shows yellow color due to brucine. Bitter stomachic and tonic A stimulant to CNS. It stimulates respiratory and cardiovascular systems. ANTIHYPERTENSIVES 27. RAUWOLFIA SYN: Serpgandha Rauwolfia root Serpentina root Chhotachand. Dried roots of the plant known as Rauwolfia serpentina FAM: Apocynaceae Indole alkaloids: Reserpine rescinnamine serpentine ajmaline ajmalicine yohimbine 1. Freshly fractured surface + concentrated HNO 3 → Red coloration along the medullary rays is observed. 2. Reserpine + vanilline in acetic acid solution → violet red color. Antihypertensive Tranquillizing agent. ANTITUSSIVES 28. VASAKA SYN: Adhatoda It consists of fresh or dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica FAM: Acanthaceae Quinazoline alkaloids: Vasicine and Vasicinone - Expectorant Bronchodilator Oxytocic. 29. TOLU BALSAM Solid or semi-solid 1. It contains free 1. Alcoholic solution of the drug + 1. Expectorant

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 10 SYN: Balsam of Tolu balsam obtained from the trunk of trees Myroxylon balsamum FAM: Leguminosae cinnamic acid 2. free benzoic acid 3. oily liquid contains benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate Fecl 3 solution → Green color 2. Warm gently Drug + KMnO 4 solution → Odour of benzaldehyde is produced. 2. Flavouring agent 3. Antiseptic 4. used as a common ingredient of cough mixtures. 30. TULSI SYN: Sacred Basil Holi Basil It consists of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum. FAM: Labiatae Volatile oil- eugenol methyl eugenol carvacrol caryophylin - 1. Antibacterial antiprotozoal and insecticidal. 2. Stomachic and carminative. 3. Diaphoretic and expectorant. 4. Anti-fertility agent. ANTIRHEUMATICS 31. GUGGUL SYN: Gum guggal It is the ole-gum-resin obtained by making deep incisions at the basal part of stem bark of Commiphora mukul. FAM: Burseraceae. Gguggulosterone Gum resin volatile oil . Ethyl acetate extract of guggul + acetic anhydride  cool add 2ml of H 2 SO 4  green colour develops at the junction due to sterols. Used as anti-inflammatory anti-rheumatic hypolipidemic hypo-cholesteremic drug. 32. COLCHICUM SYN: Meadow saffron seeds Autumn crocus It consists of the dried ripe seeds of Colchicum luteum and C. autumnale FAM: Liliaceae Amino alkaloids: Colchicine demecolcine. Colchicine + 70 H ₂SO ₄ → yellow color. 1. Treatment of gout and rheumatism. 2. Antitumor activity. ANTITUMOUR 33. VINCA SYN: Catharanthus Dried whole plant of Catharanthus roseus FAM: Apocynaceae Indole alkaloids: vincristine and vinblastine General alkaloidal tests 1. Alkaloid + Mayer’s reagent → cream colour ppt. 2. Alkaloid + Hager’s reagent → yellow precipitate. 1. Vincristine is used for leukemia in children. 2. Vinblastine is used for Hodgkin’s disease.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 11 Periwinkle 3. Alkaloid + Wagner’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt. 4. Alkaloid + Dragendroff’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt ANTILEPROTICS 34. CHAULMOOGRA OIL SYN: Hydnocarpus oil Gynocardia oil It is a fixed oil expressed from the seeds of Hydnocorpus wightiana or other species of Hydnocorpus. FAM: Flacourtiaceae Mixture of glycerides of fatty acids: 1. Hydrocorpic acid 2. Chaulmoorgric acid 3. Gorlic acid 4. Oleic acid 5. Palmitic acid - Treatment of leprosy tuberculosis. ANTIDIABETICS 35. PTEROCARPUS SYN: Kino East Indian Malabar Madras or Cochin Kino It is a large timber tree Pterocarpus marsupium. FAM: Leguminosae Kinotannic acid 30- 80 also contains kinoin catechol kino red gallic acid resin and pectin. 1. Aqueous solution of kino + ferrous salt → green colour 2. Aqueous solution of kino + Alkali NaOH or KOH → violet colour 3. Aqueous solution of kino + mineral acid HCl or H 2 SO 4 or HNO 3 → precipitate kinotannic acid 1. As an astringent. So it is given internally for diarrhea and dysentery. 2. As an antidiabetic. 36. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE SYN: Gudmar Gymnema Madhunashini It consists of the leaves of a perennial woody climber plant known as Gymnema sylvestre FAM: Asclepiadaceae Glycosides: Gymnemic acid. others are pentriacontane hentriacontane phytin α β chlorophylls resin tartaric acid formic acid etc. 1. Dilute solution anaesthetizes sweet taste buds. 2. Sample shaken with water → copious foam + dilute HCl → Voluminous precipitate. Anti-diabetic stomachic stimulant laxative and diuretic. Also have weight- lowering properties. DIURETICS 37. GOKHRU It consists of the dried fully ripen fruits of the It contains alkaloids harmine Harman. It Diuretic and for treating kidney stones.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 12 SYN: Puncture vine Tribulus plant Tribulus terrestris Linn. FAM: Zygophyllaceae also contains saponins teresterosin A E Tribulosin. - 38. PUNARNAVA SYN: Hog weed. It consists of fresh as well as dried herb Boerhaavia diffussa. FAM: Nyctaginaceae Alkaloids: 0.04 - 0.1 of punarnavine Phenolic glycoside punernavoside an antifibrinolytic agent. General alkaloidal test: 1. Alkaloid + Mayer’s reagent → cream colour ppt. 2. Alkaloid + Hager’s reagent → yellow precipitate. 3. Alkaloid + Wagner’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt. 4. Alkaloid + Dragendroff’s reagent → Reddish brown ppt Diuretic Expectorant stomachic used in the treatment of jaundice. ANTIDYSENTRICS 39. IPECACUANHA SYN: Ipecac It consists of the dried roots of Cephaelis ipecacuanha. FAM: Rubiaceae Isoquinoline alkaloids: emetine cephaeline. Powered drug + dilute HCl + water → filter. Filtrate + potassium chlorate → yellow colour gradually changing to red after standing due to emetine. Expectorant in small dose Emetic in higher dose. Used in the treatment of amoebic dysentery. ANTISEPTICS DISINFECTANTS 40. BENZOIN SYN: Sumatra benzoin Loban It is a balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin Sumatra benzoin Styrax tonkinesis Siam benzoin FAM: Styraceae 1. Sumatra benzoin contains free balsamic acids benzoic cinnamic acids. 2. Siam benzoin contains ester of coniferyl benzoate. 1. Heat 0.5 gm of sample in a dry test tube → melts and evolves irritating whitish fumes which condense to form a white crystalline sublimate in the upper part of the tube. 2. Alcoholic solution of benzoin + H 2 O → Milky white solution. 3. Warm gently about 1g of powder with 5ml of potassium permanganate solution in a test tube → Distinct odour of benzaldehyde presence of Sumatra benzoin. 4. Triturate 0.1g of powder + 5ml 1. Irritating expectorant 2. Carminative 3. Diuretic 4. Antiseptic protective 5. used in the form of compound tincture of benzoin 6. Inhalation in upper respiratory tract infection. 7. Cosmetics 8. Mask the taste of pharmaceutical

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 13 of alcohol 95 filter. Filtrate + ferric chloride in alcohol 95 → No bright green color Sumatra benzoin. 5. Digest 0.2g of powder + 5ml ether for 5minutes pour 1ml of ethereal solution in a porcelain dish containing 2-3 drops of concentrated H 2 SO 4 and rotate the dish → i Deep brown colour Sumatra benzoin. ii Deep purplish red colour Siam benzoin. preparations. 41. MYRRH SYN: Arabian or Somali Myrrh It is an oleo gum resin obtained by incision from the stem of Commiphora molmol and other species of Commiphora. FAM: Burseraceae Volatile oil: terpenes ester cuminic aldehyde and eugenol. Resin: α β γ cummiphoric acids and phenolic compounds. Gum proteins carbohydrates and oxidase. 1. On trituration with water a yellowish brown emulsion is formed. 2. An ethereal solution of Myrrh + bromine vapour → red colour + moistened with HNO 3 → purple colour It has an antiseptic stimulant and astringent effect. Because of these effects it is used in tooth paste mouth washes and in skin applications. 42. NEEM SYN: Margosa Indian lilac Nim Vembu. It consists of all aerial parts of plant known Azadirachta indica. FAM: Meliaceae. It Contains 1. A bitter alkaloid Margosine. 2. A bitter amorphous resin. 3. Margosic acid and tannic acid - 1. As a bitter tonic and astringent. 2. Antiseptic disinfectant. 3. Antiperiodic and vermifuge. 4. Malarial fever and other intermittent paroxysmal fever. 5. Insect repellant insecticide and

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 14 antimicrobial properties. 43. TURMERIC SYN: Indian saffron Curcuma It consists of dried or fresh rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. FAM: Zingiberaceae Volatile oil 5 resin. Curcumin 50-60 and yellow colouring substance known as curcuminoids 1. Powder drug + H 2 SO 4 → Crimson colour. 2. Aqueous solution of turmeric + boric acid → reddish brown colour + alkali → changing to greenish- blue. 3. Drug + acetic anhydride + concentrated H 2 SO 4 → Violet colour → Red fluorescence under UV light Colouring agent especially for ointments and creams Condiment or spice used for the detection of boric acid. Anti inflammatory Antiseptic Antiarthritic agent. ANTIMALARIALS 44. CINCHONA SYN: Jesuit’s bark Peruvian bark. It is the dried bark of the cultivated trees of Cinchona calisaya C. ledgeriana C. officinalis C. succirubra. FAM: Rubiaceae Quinoline alkaloids: Quinine quinidine Cinchonine Cinchonidine. 1. Thalleoquin Test: Powered drug + bromine water + dilute ammonia solution → emerald green colour. 2. Heat the Powered drug + glacial acetic acid → purple vapour are produced at the upper part of the test tube. 3. Bark treated with concentrated H 2 SO 4 → blue fluorescence in UV light. 4. Quinidine solution + AgNO3 solution→ white precipitate which is soluble in nitric acid. 1. Antimalarial 2. Bitter tonic. OXYTOCICS 45. ERGOT SYN: Ergot of Rye Ergota It is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Claviceps purpurea Indole alkaloids Water soluble – Ergometrine 1.Ergot powder + p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde Van-Urk’s reagent → Blue color. 2. Powdered ergot → red Oxytocic to prevent the post partum haemorrhage. Ergotamine is used as a

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 15 FAM: Graminae Ergometrinine Water insoluble – Ergotamine Ergataminine Ergosine Ergosinine Ergocristine Ergocristinine fluorescence under UV light. 3. Powdered drug + solvent ether + H 2 SO 4 Filter → Filterate + sodium bicarbonate solution → aqueous layer turns red violet color. 4. Ergometrine → blue fluorescence in water. 5. Ergotamine + glacial acetic acid + ethyl acetate +H 2 SO 4 Shaken well → Blue color with red tinge appears + FeCl 3 → blue color deepens while red tinge becomes faint. specific analgesic in the treatment of migraine. VITAMINES 46. SHARK LIVER OIL SYN: Oleum selachoids Antixeropthalmic oil It is a fixed oil obtain from the fresh and carefully preserved livers of various shark species mainly Hypoprion brevirostris FAM: Carcharhinidae. 1.Vit. A 2. glycerides of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids along with alkyl glycerol 3.Squalene and omega-3-fatty acids 1. Dissolve 1gm of shark liver oil + 1ml of chloroform + 0.5ml of H 2 SO 4 → Light violet color changing to purple and finally to brown due to vitamin A. 2. Dissolve 1ml of shark liver oil + 10 ml of chloroform + solution of antimony trichloride and shaken well → Blue color due to vitamin A. 1. used in the deficiency of vitamin A xerophthalmia. 2. As a tonic Nutritive 47. AMLA SYN: Emblica Indian goose berry Amalki Dried as well as fresh fruits of the plant Emblica officinalis. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. FAM: Euphorbiaceae Amla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C. Also contains 0.5 fat phyllemblin 5 tannin. Rich in minerals like phosphorus iron calcium. - 1. For treating scurvy due to deficiency of vitamin C. 2. Useful in diabetes and liver diseases. 3. It has antibacterial antiviral and antifungal effects. ENZYMES

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 16 48. PAPAYA SYN: Pappali It consists of the fruits of the plant Carica papaya FAM: Caricaceae The active constituent of papaya fruit is papain. It is the dried and purified latex of papaya fruit. - 1. As a Digestant for proteins 2. To relieve the systems of episotomy 3. Meat tenderizer. 49. DIASTASE SYN: Amylase animal diastase It is an amylolytic enzyme. From germinating barely grains Hordeum vulgare FAM: Graminae - Hydrolyses solution of starch into simple sugar dextrose Conversion of starch into sugars digestant 50. YEAST SYN: Brewer’s yeast Cerevisiae fermentum Faex medicinalis It consist of a unicellular micro-organisms of fungal origin Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAM: Saccharomycetaceae 1.Yeast is an important source of vitamins of B complex group including B1 B2 B6 B12 nicotinic acid and folic acid. 2. The enzymes present are zymase invertase maltase diastase and endotryptase. 3. It also contains glycogen protein fat ergosterol and zymosterol. - 1. As a source of vitamin B. 2. In the manufacture of alcohol and bread. 3. Treatment of furunculosis. 4. As a rich source of protein. 5. In the manufacture of nucleic acid. 6. In a verity of dietic preparations. PERFUMES FLAVOURING AGENTS 51. PEPPERMINT OIL SYN: Mentha oil. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of fresh flowering tops of plant known as mentha piperita Linn. It contains chiefly Menthol other important constituents are menthone - Carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent. It is used in tooth paste tooth powders shaving

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 17 FAM: Labiatae menthofuran Jasmone menthyl acetate etc. creams and different pharmaceutical dosage forms. 52. LEMON OIL SYN: Lemonis oil It consist of a volatile oil from fresh or dried peels of fruits of Citrus limonis FAM:Rutaceae 1. About 90 percent of terpenes chiefly d- limonene 2. About 4 percent of citral 3. Small quantities of citronellal geranyl acetate linalyl acetate octyl ana nonyl aldehydes. - Flavour and also as perfume stomachic and carminative. 53. ORANGE OIL SYN: Oil of sweet orange It consist of a volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the ripe fruit of Citrus sinensis FAM:Rutaceae 1. About 90 percent of terpenes. chiefly limonene. 2. About 5 percent of citral. 3. Small quantities of citronellal and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. Orange oil in dehydrated alcohol is neutral to moistened litmus paper Flavouring agent and carminative. 54. LEMON GRASS OIL SYN: East Indian lemon grass oil Indian Melissa oil. It is a volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and aerial parts of the plant Cymbopogon flexuosus or Cymbopogon citratis FAM: Graminae. 1. It contains volatile oil in which citral is the main constituent. - 1. Flavouring agent and in perfumery. 2. It is used as source of citral. 3. For the manufacture of vitamin A.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 18 55. SANDAL WOOD SYN: Yellow sandal wood Lignum Santali. It is the heart wood of Santalum album Linn. FAM: Santalaceae. 1. It contains 95 of two isomeric sesquiterpene alcohols α - santalol and β - santalol. - 1. The wood is used for the manufacture of boxes dolls and carvings. 2. The wood powder is used for making agarbatti and incence powder. 3. Sandalwood paste is used in most of the religious functions. It is applied on the forehead and on the surface of body. 4. Sandal wood oil is used as a perfume in toilet preparations. Medicinally it is used in the treatment of dysuria cystitis gonorrhoes and cough. It is a disinfectant of the whole of genito- urinary tract. PHARMACEUTICAL AIDS 56. HONEY SYN: Madhu honey purified Mel It is a sugar secretion deposited in honey comb by the bees Apis mellifera Apis dorsata and other species of Apis FAM : Apidae It is an aqueous solution of glucose 35 fructose 45 and sucrose 2. The other constituents are maltose gum succinic acid acetic acid dextrin formic acid FIEHE’S TEST: Honey is shaken with petroleum or solvent ether then the upper ethereal layer is separated and evaporated in china dish. On addition of 1 solution of resorcinol in HCL → A transient pink colour is formed which fades in 30 seconds in natural 1. Demulcent 2 .Sweetening agent 3. Antiseptic 4. ingredients for cough mix cough drops 5. preparation of creams lotions soft

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 19 colouring matters enzymes invertase diastase inulase and vitamin. honey while in artificial honey the colour persists for some times. drinks candies 57. ARACHIS OIL SYN: Groundnut oil peanut oil It is fixed oil expressed from the seed kernels of cultivated varieties of Arachis hypogaea FAM:Leguminosae It consist of glycerides of fatty acids chiefly oleic linoleic stearic arachidic acid. Other acids are linoceric and palmitic acids Under ultra-violet radiation Arachis oil shows blue fluorescence 1. A solvent for intramuscular injections. 2. It is used in the preparation of liniments plasters and soaps. 3. As a lubricant. 4. In the manufacture of soap. 5. Principally it is used in edible oil. 58. STARCH SYN : Amylum It consists of polysaccharides granules obtained from grains of Maize Zea mays rice Oryza sativa Wheat Triticum aestivum FAM: Gramineae From tubers of potato Solanum tuberosum FAM: Solanaceae It contains two different polysaccharides: 1. Amylose β- amylose - H 2 O soluble 2. Amylopectin α- amylose 1:2 - H 2 O insoluble. 1. Boil 1g of starch 15 ml of water for 2 min and cool → Translucent viscous jelly is produced. 2. To the above portion of jelly add few drops of dilute solution of iodine → Immediately blue colour was formed. 3. Above solution is warmed on water bath → Blue colour is disappeared and reappears on cooling. 1. Nutritive 2. Demulcent 3. Protective 4. Absorbent 5. preparation of dusting talcum powder 6. Antidote in iodine poisoning 7. Emollient 59. KAOLIN SYN: China clay Porcelain clay. Purified native hydrated aluminum silicate free from gritty particles. Pure form of Aluminum silicate Traces of Mg Ca iron. Kaolin + charcoal block with cobalt nitrate  Blue mass due to Alumina. As an adsorbent by oral administration in the treatment of enteritis dysentery in alkaloidal food poisoning. As a dusting

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 20 powder. Light Kaolin: Used in treatment of gastric intestinal infections. Heavy Kaolin: In filtration as clearing agent. For making poultices. 60. PECTIN It is a purified carbohydrate obtained from inner portion of the rind of citrus peels Citrus Simon or Citrus aurantium FAM: Rutaceae Pectin on hydrolysis → D- galacturonic acid methyl alcohol small amount of galactose and arabinose 1. 10 aqueous solution of sample on cooling → stiff gel. 2. Aqueous solution of pectin + NaOH mixed → a transparent gel. Acidify gel + dilute Hydrochloric acid and shake well → gelatinous precipitate becomes white on boiling. 1. Adsorbent in the treatment of diarrhoea. 2. Haemostatic for internal or external haemorrhage. 3. As a substitute for blood plasma 4. Thickening agent 5. To promote wound healing. 61. OLIVE OIL SYN: Oleum olivae Salad oil It is the fixed oil expressed from the ripe fruit of Olea europoea FAM:Oleaceae It contains the triglycerides mainly in the form of olein palmitin linolein - 1. As a demulcent emollient and laxative. 2. As a setting retardant for dental cements. 3. As a nutrient and salad oil. 62. LANOLIN SYN: Hydrous wool fat Adeps lanae It is the purified fat- like substance obtained from the wool of the sheep Ovis aries. FAM: Bovidae 1. Esters of cholesterol and isocholesterol with caranubic oleic myristic palmitic lanoceric lanopalmitic acids. Dissolve 0.5 gm of hydrous wool fat in chloroform + 1ml of acetic anhydride + 2 drops of H 2 SO 4 → A deep green colour presence of cholesterol 1. used as water absorbable ointment base. 2. Base for several water soluble creams and cosmetic preparations. 63. BEES WAX It is purified wax obtain 1. Myricin 80 Saponification cloud test: 1. Preparation of

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 21 SYN: Yellow bees wax Cera-flava from the honey comb of bees Apis mellifera FAM: Apidae 2. Free cerotic acid 3. small quantities of melissic acid 4. Aromatic substance cerolein. 0.5 gm of bees wax + 10 of sodium hydroxide solution → Boil for 10 mins → Cooled filtered → filterate + HCl → No precipitate is formed. ointments plasters polishes 2. Preparation of lipstick and face creams. 64. ACACIA SYN: Indian Gum Gum Arabic Dried Gummy exudation obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia arabica FAM: Leguminosae It consist of arabin which is a mix of calcium magnesium and potassium salts of arabic acid. Arabic acid on hydrolysis → L- arabinose L-rhamnose D- galactose and D- glucuronic acid. It also contains an enzyme oxidase and peroxidase 1. To the aqueous solution add strong lead subacetate → A flocculent white precipitate is formed. 2. Dissolve 0.25 gm in 5 ml of water by shaking in cold add 0.5 ml of hydrogen peroxide solution and 0.5 ml of 1 solution of benzidine in alcohol. Shake well and allow to stand → A deep blue colour is formed which is unstable. due to enzyme oxidase. 3. Mount a small quantity of powder in ruthenium red solution and examine microscopically → The particles do not acquire pink colour. 4. To the given substance add dilute HCl boiled cooled add few drops of Fehling’s solution AB and heat on a water bath → Red precipitate. 1. Demulcent 2. suspending agent 3. Emulsifying agent 4. Binding agent 5. used in the preparation of lozenges pastilles and compressed tablets 65. TRAGACANTH SYN: Gum Tragacanth Tragacantha Dried gummy exudation obtained by incision from stems and branches of Astragalus gummifer and other species of Astragalus It contains two fractions: 1. H 2 O Soluble portion called Tragacanthin 2. H 2 O insoluble portion called Bassorin 1. To 4ml of 0.5w/v solution add 0.5ml of Hcl and heat for 30 minutes on a water bath. Divide the liquid into 2 parts. a To one part add 1.5ml of sodium hydroxide solution and Fehling’s solution and warm on water bath → 1.Demulcent 2.Emollient in cosmetics 3.thickening agent 4.suspending agent 5.binding agent 6.tragacanth powder

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 22 FAM: Leguminosae Red precipitate. b To the second part add 10 barium chloride solution → No precipitate. 2. To 0.5 w/v solution of gum add 20 w/v solution of lead acetate → A voluminous flocculent precipitate. 3. Mount a small quantity of powder in ruthenium red and examine microscopically → Particles do not acquire pink colour. 4. To 0.1g of powder add N/50 Iodine → Olive green color. 5. Powder is warmed with 5 aqueous caustic potash KOH → Canary yellow colour. are used as an adhesive lotions for external use 66. SODIUM ALGINATE SYN: Algin It is purified carbohydrate product extracted from brown seaweeds by the use of dilute alkali. It is found in all species of brown seaweeds. - - 1. It is used as a thickening suspending and emulsifying agent in pharmaceutical formulations. 2. It is used in the manufacture of jellies and ice creams. 67. AGAR SYN: Agar-agar Japanese-Isinglass Vegetable gelatin Dried gelatinous substance obtained from Gelidium amansii Fam:Gelidaceae and several other species of red algae like Gracilaria Fam: Gracilariaceae It consists of two polysaccharides: 1. Agarose is responsible for gel strength of agar 2. Agaropectin is responsible for the 1. Agar takes a pink colour when treated with ruthenium red solution. 2. To little of the substance add N/50 Iodine solution → Deep crimson to brown color is formed. 3. Add 0.5ml of dilute Hcl to 10ml of 5 aqueous solution of drug and 1. Emulsifying agent and bulk laxative 2. used in the preparation of jellies 3. used in the preparation of bacteriological culture

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 23 and Pterocladia Fam: Gelidaceae viscosity of agar solution heated on water bath for 30 minutes and divided into two parts a To the first part add 3 ml of 10 caustic soda solution and 2 ml of Fehling’s solution and heat on water bath → Reduction takes place. b Add 10 barium chloride solution to the second part → White precipitate of barium sulphate is formed. 4. Agar is incinerated to ash then dilute HCl is added and observed under microscope → Skeletons and sponge spicules of diatoms are seen. 5. As agar does not contain nitrogen the following tests are negative: a. Heating with soda lime → No ammonia is evolved. b. Million’s reagent is added → No precipitate is formed. c. Treated with 10 tannic acid solution → No precipitate is formed. medium 68. GUAR GUM SYN: Guar flour Jaguar gum Guar gum is obtained from the powdered endosperm of the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus FAM: Leguminosae Galactose 35 and mannose 65. Both occur in water soluble portion of the gum. 1. It gives a precipitate with lead acetate solution. 2. It does not stain with ruthenium red. 3. No colour with iodine solution. 4. Dissolve 0.5g of guar gum +20ml water shaking + hydrogen peroxide + 1 soln of benzidine in alcohol → no blue color 1. Thickening binding and disintegrating agent. 2. In food processing and paper industry. 3. Appetite suppressant 4. Bulk laxative 5. In the treatment of peptic ulcer. 69. GELATIN Gelatin is a protein extracted by partial It contains amino acids majorly lysine but it 1. Heat a small quantity of sample with soda lime → Ammonia is 1. used in the manufacturing of hard

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 24 SYN: Gelatina Gel foam puragel hydrolysis of animal collagenous tissue like skins tendons ligaments and bones derived from domestic animals such as Ox Bos taurus Sheep Ovis aries Fam: Bovidae with boiling water. does not contain tryptophan. Gelatin is composed of glutin protein. evolved. 2. Dissolve 0.5gm in 100ml of water by heating and use this solution for following test: a To a few ml of solution add few drops of 10 tannic acid solution → white precipitate is produced but not dissolve on heating. b Addition of Million’s reagent to a few ml of the solution → white precipitate is produced on heating becomes red colour. c Addition of 10 picric acid solution → yellow precipitate is produced. and flexible capsule shell. 2. Preparation of pessaries pastes pastiles and suppositories. 3. Absorbable gelatin sponge is used as haemostatic. 4. Preparation of bacteriological culture media. 5. Vehicle for certain injections. MISCELLANEOUS 70. LIQUORICE SYN: Glycyrrhiza Liquorice root Radix Glycyrrhizae. Dried unpeeled roots stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra FAM: Leguminosae Triterpenoid saponin: Glycyrrhizin which is a mixture of Potassium calcium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. Glycyrrhizin is 50 times sweeter than sugar. Other constituents are glucose sucrose and starch. Drug + 80 H 2 SO 4 → Orange yellow color 1. Expectorant demulcent. 2. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic agent. 3. Sweetening agent 4. In Addison’s disease due to glucocorticoid effect. 5. Anti-peptic ulcer 71. GARLIC SYN: Lehsun Allium This consists of ripe bulbs of Allium sativum Linn. FAM: Liliaceae. Allin a water soluble sulphur compound. Allin is converted to allicin by an enzyme called allinlyase. - 1. As a spice and flavouring agent. 2. Carminative gastric stimulant and digestant 3. Treatment of hypertension and

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 25 atherosclerosis. 4. As an antibacterial agent. 72. PICRORHIZA SYN: Indian gentian It consist of dried roots and rhizhomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa FAM: Scrophulariaceae It contains Picroside I Picroside II and Kutkoside. - 1. Bitter tonic and stomachic. 2. In jaundice and other liver disease. 3. Mild laxative. 73. DIOSCOREA SYN: Yam Rheumatism root. Dried tubers of the plants Dioscorea deltoidea D.composita other species of Dioscorea FAM: Dioscoreaceae. Diosgenin a steroidal sapogenin. - 1. Used as rich source of diosgenin. A number of steroidal drugs are produced from diosgenin. 2. used in the treatment of rheumatic arthritis. 74. LINSEED SYN: Flax seed It is obtained from the dried ripe seeds of Linum usitatissimum FAM:Linaceae 1. Fixed oil 30-40. 2. Proteins 25 3. Mucilage which on hydrolysis yields galactose arabinose rhamnose and xylose. 4. Linamarin which is a cyanogenetic glycoside - 1. Externally as a poultice. 2. Internally as a demulcent. 3. As a bulk laxative. 4. For the extraction of linseed oil. 75. SHATAVARI SYN: Shatmuli It consists of dried roots of Asparagus racemosus. FAM: Liliaceae. Roots contain 4 steroidal saponins: Shatavarin I-IV. Froth formation test: Drug + water in a test tube shake well stable froth foam is formed. Antioxytocic galactogogue diuretic. 76. SHANKHPUSHPI SYN: Shankhvel It consists of the whole dried plants of: 1. Convolvulus pluricaulis 2. Evolvulus alsinoides Alkaloids are known as shankhpushpine. General alkaloidal tests Antihypertensive tranquiliser and for improving memory.

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 26 FAM: Convolvulaceae 77. PYRETHRUM SYN: Insect flowers Flores pyrethri It consists of dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. FAM: Compositae. 1. Esters of chrysanthemic acid which include Pyrethrin I jasmoline I cinerin I. 2. Esters of pyrethric acid which include pyrethrin II jasmoline II cinerin II. - 1. Used as a contact insecticide in the form of powder sprays or aerosol. 2. For the control of garden pests fleas lice and ticks on pets. 3. In mosquito repellent creams and mosquito coils. 78. TOBACCO SYN: Cigarettes cigar smoking mixture It consists of dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum. FAM: Solanaceae Alkaloids: Nicotine other constituent is Nicotianin. - 1. It is a narcotic sedative diaphoretic and emetic. 2. Nicotine is a ganglionic stimulant. 3. Nicotine is also used in sprays on fruit trees and other pants to kill plant lice. FIBRES 79. COTTON SYN: Absorbent cotton Surgical cotton Medicinal cotton. It consists of the epidermal hairs of the seeds of cultivated species of Gossypium barbadense Gossypium herbaceum FAM: Malvaceae 90 of Cellulose 7-8 of moisture Cuoxam test: A few threads of Cotton wool + alcohol mounted in water + ammonical copper oxide solution Cuoxam reagent examined under microscope → i. Raw cotton → balloon like swelling. ii. Absorbent cotton → uniform swelling. 1.It is used for surgical dressing filtering medium insulating material 2.Absorbent cotton absorbs blood mucus pus and prevent the wound from infection

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I.D.PHARM PHARMACOGNOSY Prepared by Dr.S.Thenmozhi M.Pharm. Ph.D. PGP College of Pharmacy Namakkal. 27 80. SILK Fibers obtained from cocoons of Bombyx mori Mulberry silkworm FAM: Bombycidae It consist of protein knows as fibroin. Fibrin on hydrolysis gives glycine alanine. Sample + lead acetate solution → No black precipitate. Special types of sutures sieves and ligatures are prepared from the silk. 81. WOOL SYN: Sheep’s wool Animal wool Fibers obtained from fleece of sheep Ovis aries. FAM: Bovidaea It contains sulphur containing protein called keratin. Wool + caustic soda NaOH + lead acetate → Black precipitate due to sulphur content 1. Filtering and straining medium. 2. Used in the manufacture of crepe bandages and dressing. 82. RAYON SYN: Regenerated cellulose viscose rayon Viscose rayon is a regenerated fibre. It is prepared from wood cellulose of bleached cotton linters. It contains cellulose and hemi-cellulose 1. Rayon + N/50 iodine → blue colour. 2. Rayon + 80 H 2 SO 4 → blue colour. 3. Soluble in 60 H 2 SO 4 . For making lint gauze net other surgical dressing.

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