Educational Philosophies for Curriculum

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Educational Philosophies: 

Educational Philosophies

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Philosophy of Education Philosophy of Education: Toward what end do we educate? What is the product of education? How does education relate to society? The Nature of the Learner: Subject Matter: Learning Process: Role of the Teacher:

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Perennialism

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Great Books Plato Republic Dante Divine Comedy Homer Iliad, Odyessy Other classics from Euclid, Cicero, Virgil, Void, Plutarch, Ptolemy Old Testament and New Testament St. Augustine Confessions, City of God, On Christian Doctrine St. Thomas Aquinas “ Summa Theologica ” Chaucer Canterbury Tales Da Vinci’s notebooks Machiavelli The Prince Luther & Calvin William Shakespeare John Milton Voltaire, Newton Hume, Locke, Rousseau Michael Faraday The Chemical History of a Candle Ralph Waldo Emerson Charles Darwin Dickens, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy Mark Twain

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Perennialism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Perennialism , what would be the eternal principles that an “academic/intellectual” teacher would want the students in your setting to learn?

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Essentialism

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Admiral Rickover "I suggest that this is a good time to think soberly about our responsibilities to our descendants - those who will ring out the Fossil Fuel Age. Our greatest responsibility, as parents and as citizens, is to give America's youngsters the best possible education. We need the best teachers and enough of them to prepare our young people for a future immeasurably more complex than the present, and calling for ever larger numbers of competent and highly trained men and women."

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Essentialism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Essentialism, what would be the skills and behaviors that an expert and/or competent teacher would want the students in your setting to learn?

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Behaviorism

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Behaviorism B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning Theory Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Present Punishment Removal Punishment

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Behaviorism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Behaviorism, what behaviors would the student be trained to do by the skilled instructor?

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Progressivism

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John Dewey “To imposition from above is opposed expression and cultivation of individuality; to external disciple is opposed free activity; to learning from texts and teacher, learning through experience; to acquisition of isolated skills and techniques by drill, is opposed acquisition of them as means of attaining ends which make direct vital appeal; to preparation for a more or less remote future is opposed making the most of the opportunities of present life; to static aims and material is opposed acquaintance with a changing world.” (Dewey, Experience and Education, 5-6)

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Progressivism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Progressivism, what experiences would a facilitator guide students through to engage them in learning?

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Reconstructionism

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Paulo Freire “This book will present some aspects of what the writer has termed the pedagogy of the oppressed, a pedagogy which must be forged with, not for, the oppressed (whether individuals or peoples) in the incessant struggle to regain their humanity. This pedagogy makes oppression and its causes objects of reflection by the oppressed, and from that reflection will come their necessary engagement in the struggle for their liberation. And in the struggle this pedagogy will be made and remade.” (Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 33)

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Reconstructionism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Reconstructionism , what activities and experiences would students gather together for to raise awareness and engage in dialogue?

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Romantic Naturalism

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Carl Rogers “In my view education should evoke real learning…not the lifeless, sterile, futile, quickly forgotten stud which is crammed into the mind of the poor helpless individual tied to his seat by ironclad bonds of conformity!” ( Freedom to Learn , 121)

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Romantic Naturalism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Romantic Naturalism, what type of learning environment would be created to allow students the opportunity to explore?

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Existentialism

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Existentialism If you were to adhere to the Educational Philosophy of Existentialism, how would teachers and learners explore and reflect on the world together?

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Educational Philosophies Content-Centered Perennialism Essentialism Person-Centered Romantic Naturalism Existentialism Society-Centered Behaviorism Reconstructionism Progressivism