problem statement on emerging and reemerging diseases

Category: Education

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swineflu,cholera,sars,schistosomiasis,dengue,japanese encephalitis,


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Emerging & Reemerging infections are one of the major causes of death – 25% About 15 million (>25%) of 57 million annual deaths worldwide are the direct result of infectious disease The burden of these infectious diseases fall on population rich nations

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Direct economic impact of selected infectious disease outbreaks, 1990-2003 Heymann DL. Emerging and re-emerging infections. In Oxford Textbook of Public Health , 5 th ed, 2009, p1267. These diseases have direct economic impact on countries


BACTERIAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 14 th century- PLAGUE killed 20-45% world’s population In 1831- 13% population died due to cholera In 1854-56 deaths are due to dyscentry In 1899-1902 Boer war dyscentry


CHOLERA In 1 st half of 20 th century it is largely confined to A sia & severe epidemic in Egypt In 1992 ,largest outbreaks in India & Bangladesh 5634 cases were reported in Southern Sudan In 2000 , multiple outbreaks reported in Islands of OCEANIA

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VIRAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES R ecent pandemics through out world :- - SARS - Swine flu, Bird flu - Japanese encephalitis


SWINE FLU Recent pandemic occurred in 2009 WHO implemented ALERT LEVEL PHASE 6, which is highest level In India 1 st H1N1 case was reported at Hyderabad airport on 13 th may 1 st death at Pune By 24 th may 2010 , 10193 confirmed cases , 1035 deaths were reported.

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World wide

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World wide


HIV 1989: U.S. AIDS cases reported are 100,000 1991: Estimated HIV infected in USA 1.5 million Magic Johnson announces he is HIV positive 1993: Multiple drugs fail in clinical trials Period of extreme pessimism for HIV infected 1995: First protease inhibitor approved: Inverase,saquinivir

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SARS - Feb 10 th 2003,305 cases reported (including 105 health careworkers ) -China, Hongkong is the most effected country ( upto may 2004)

FIGURE 3. Probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003.:

FIGURE 3. Probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003.


DENGUE It is most important mosquito borne disease world wide Mostly in India, SEA, Southern China, Central South America, Mexico, Africa. In 2003 , 1723 cases were recorded in Delhi. 4deaths were reported

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Japanese encephalitis : . 1145 cases reported in U.P IN INDIA in 2005 . of which 1/4 th of them died . 90 cases were reported from BIHAR

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BASIC ELEMENTS OF PREPAREDNESS IHR (International health regulation) GOARN – global outbreak alert and response network 1. In 2000-02 ,responded to 34 events in 20 countries 2. Coordination of SARS & Birdflu

Daily Flow of GPHIN Information:

Daily Flow of GPHIN Information scanning global news filtering & sorting process 800-1000 articles selected daily 1 2 3 review for relevancy Mon-Fri 7am-5pm EST (Hours are extended during a public health crisis) Ongoing 24/7

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