MODALS : MODALS MODALS : MODALS modals- express the mood.
mood - a way to express the attitude of the speaker to what is being said.
“I can paint” means the speaker believes he has the ability to paint. “I might paint” means the speaker believes there is a possibility for that to happen. “I will paint” means the speaker has the intention to paint.
English Modal Verbs show us the attitude of the speaker to what is being said. What is a modal verb..? : What is a modal verb..? A modal verb is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality i.e. likelihood, ability, permission, obligation etc. Some differences between primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries: : Some differences between primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries: Some rules to use MODAL VERBS… : Some rules to use MODAL VERBS… 1. Modal verbs do not take “-s” in third person.
She can speak French.
He should work hard.
2. Modals are not used for things which will happen definitely.
e.g. The sun rises in the east.
3. Modal verb can not be used without main verb.
4. In a sentence, the word order is subject + modal + main verb.
Example – They can come.
In questions, the word order changes to modal + sub. + main verb.
Example– Can they come? Some commonly used modal verbs- : Some commonly used modal verbs- Can
Ought to Types of usage of some preterite forms- : Types of usage of some preterite forms- Conditional use-
The preterite forms can also be used in the apodosis in the conditional mood, such as in counterfactual conditions:
"If you bought a bus pass, you could catch as many buses as you liked without worrying about the cost of the fares."
"If he were more polite, he might / would be better liked.“
The preterite forms would and could can be used as subjunctive forms of will and can respectively, appearing in counterfactual dependent clauses. For example, the indicative will as in He will come tomorrow is replaced by the subjunctive form would as in I wish that he would come tomorrow. Can, Could : Can, Could "Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility. Can (negative form: can not/ can’t) : Can (negative form: can not/ can’t) Polite request- : Polite request- Could (negative form: could not/ couldn’t) : Could (negative form: could not/ couldn’t) As the past form of “can”- I could speak Latin. (past ability)
Polite question- Could I go to the cinema, please?
Polite request- Could you open the door, please?
Possibility- It could get very cold in Laddakh. Questions… : Questions… What is the modality of ‘could’ in each of the following sentences?
Could you tell me the answer?
He could tell you the answer.
He could have told you the answer.
This could be the answer! Shall, Should : Shall, Should "Shall" is used to indicate future action and is often used in suggestions, promise and inevitability.
“Should” is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Shall (negative form: shall not/ shan’t) : Shall (negative form: shall not/ shan’t) Questions.. : Questions.. What is the difference in the modality of shall in the following questions:
Shall I call you when I arrive?
Shall we go swimming?
2) What is the shortened form of shall not?
Ans. “shan’t” e.g. I shan’t be happy if you are late again.
3) What is the modality of shall in this sentence:
She shall be here on time. Should (negative form: should not/ shouldn’t) : Should (negative form: should not/ shouldn’t) Will, Would : Will, Would “Will” is used with promises or voluntary actions that will take place in the future. It can also be used to make predictions about the future.
“Would” acts as the past form of the modal verb “will”. It can also be used to make request and to indicate repetition in past. Will (negative form: will not/ won’t) : Will (negative form: will not/ won’t) Questions.. : Questions.. 1. What is the modality of will in this sentence:
“Accidents will happen!”
2. What is the function of will in this sentence-
Will you shut up!
3. What's the difference between the question Will you have some more cake? and the question Won't you have some more cake? Would (negative form: would not/ wouldn’t) : Would (negative form: would not/ wouldn’t) May, Might : May, Might “May” is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission.
“Might” is commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to make suggestions and requests. May (negative form: may not) : May (negative form: may not) Slide 25: Might (negative form: might not) : Might (negative form: might not) Questions.. : Questions.. 1. Why is may used in the first sentence below, but allowed to in the second?
May I park in your driveway?
Am I allowed to park here? (said to a friend outside a railway station)
2. Is there a difference between this set of two sentences?
I may be home late tonight.
I might be home late tonight. Ought to (negative form: ought not to) : Ought to (negative form: ought not to) Ought expresses duty, necessity, desirability and similar ideas. It is often used to advise people – to tell them that they have a duty to do things. Ought to : Ought to Duty-
1. You ought to attend the school regularly.
2. We ought to follow the traffic rules. Slide 30: Moral obligation-
1. We ought to help the needy.
2. We ought to respect our parents. Questions.. : Questions.. Which of the following sentences is correct?
I ought to not go
I ought not to go.
I don't ought to go.
I ought to don't go.
Ans. I ought not to go Must (negative form: must not/ mustn’t) : Must (negative form: must not/ mustn’t) It is used for strong obligations and recommendations. It can also be used to show certainty and necessity.
You must study hard.
2. You must not smoke here. Slide 33: Strong recommendation-
You must take some time off and take some rest.
You must see it. It is the best movie I’ve ever seen.
If you can't understand what teacher say, you must ask the teacher. Questions.. : Questions.. 1.What's the difference between the following pairs of sentences?
I must eat less junk food.
I have to eat less junk food.
You must call me when you arrive.
You have to call me when you arrive. Let’s revise.. : Let’s revise.. Complete the following sentences with suitable modal auxiliaries:
can | could | will | would | shall | should | may | might | ought to
The article stated that he ________ read at the age of three.
You _________ take a sweater in case it gets cold.
It’s going to rain all afternoon. _________ we go to the cinema?
She said the traffic was heavy, so she ________ be late for meeting.
You look a bit confused. ________ I help you? Slide 36: You stole a CD from a friend? You _____________ be ashamed of yourself!
I don't know the meaning of this word. _______ I borrow your dictionary?
You ________ leave now if you wish.
He ________ be French, judging by his accent. Answers :- : Answers :- 1) could
2) should/ought to
6) ought to/should
9) Could ACTIVITY: Jump to conclusions : ACTIVITY: Jump to conclusions Situation 1- When I arrived at school today, there were papers all over the floor in the hall and the principal’s office.
Situation 2- No students came to class.
Some Possible Conclusions for situation 1-
Some students may have played a joke.
The principal must have been furious. Slide 39: Thank you Glossary : Glossary Subjunctive sentences express uncertainty, unreality, hypotheses, wishes, etc. They often contain verb forms different from those that would be used in equivalent indicative sentences:
The verb form expressing or describing a past action or condition is called a preterite.
Auxiliary verbs or helping verbs are used with the main verb to help us make different tenses.