Plant_Layouts_Do_s_Don_ts2

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Plant Layouts Do’s & Don’ts:

Plant Layouts Do’s & Don’ts Rakesh Vishwakarma (21) Harmesh Trivedi (22) Tajes (24) Vijay Vaja (20) Nikesh Shetty (23)

When is Plant Layout Necessary?:

When is Plant Layout Necessary ? Movement of materials from Raw Material stage to end product stage needs to be smooth and rapid A new facility is constructed. Significant changes in production volumes. New processes and equipment being installed.

A plant layout Involves:

A plant layout Involves Planning & Arranging manufacturing machinery equipment, and services for the first time in completely new plants The improvements in layouts already in use in order to introduce new methods and improvements in manufacturing procedures

Objective of Plant Layout:

Objective of Plant Layout Efficient utilization of space Material handling spaces Flow of goods / processes without delay Reduce material handling costs Reduce accidents / hazards to personnel Utilize resources efficiently Improve Productivity

Objective of Plant Layout:

Objective of Plant Layout Supervision and control Employee safety and health Easy for maintenance Volume and product flexibility Avoid changes and re-layout of plant Quality and capacity requirement in economical manner

Different Types of Layout:

Different Types of Layout Fixed position layout The equipment is brought to the object being processed. Process oriented layout Similar pieces of equipment are grouped together. Product oriented layout The pieces of equipment required to make a particular product are grouped together.

Different Types of Layout:

Different Types of Layout Cellular (Group Technology) layout Pieces of equipment required to make a family of products are put together. Office layout Retail/Service Warehouse

Fixed Position Layout…:

Fixed Position Layout… Building a ship, bridge, building, etc. Layout is complicated because of Limited space At different stages in the construction process different materials are needed. Volume of material needed is dynamic. COMPLETE AS MUCH PROJECT AS POSSIBLE OFFSITE

Process Layouts…:

Process Layouts… Functional groupings of machines or activities that do similar work. Can handle wide variety of products/services. Typically low volume, high variety strategy. Flexibility in equipment and labour assignments. Compared to product layout, it requires less investment.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G P P A A A Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department

Disadvantages of Process Layouts:

Disadvantages of Process Layouts High handling and material handling costs. Longer production time. Higher work-in-process inventory. Higher worker skill requirement. More complicated planning and control systems, because jobs do not flow the same routing.

Process Layouts in Organizations:

Process Layouts in Organizations Wide variety of services, use a Process Layouts Libraries Reference materials, serials, microfilms in separate areas. Hospitals X-ray, Surgery, Oncology, Maternity. Insurance Claims, underwriting, filing are individual depts.

Product Layout…:

Product Layout… Organized around product. High volume, low variety. Assumptions Adequate volume for high equipment utilization. Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment in specialized equipment. Product is standardized. Supplies of raw materials and components are adequate and of uniform quality.

Product Layout…:

Product Layout… IN OUT

Advantages of Product Layouts:

Advantages of Product Layouts High rate of output. Unit cost is low. Labor specialization reduces training costs and time. Material handling cost is low. High utilization of labor. Simple planning and control systems.

Disadvantages of Product Layouts:

Disadvantages of Product Layouts Inflexibility. Major changes required when product design changes. Little job satisfaction.

Product Layouts in Organizations:

Product Layouts in Organizations When volume of demand is high. Customs and Immigration at Airports. Registration

Cellular Layouts..:

Cellular Layouts.. Group parts or products with similar characteristics into families and set aside groups of machines for their production. Families may be based on size, shape, manufacturing or routing requirement. Cellular layouts improve lead times and allows speed as a competitive weapon.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Original Layout 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A B C Raw materials Assembly

PowerPoint Presentation:

Revised Layout

Principles of lay out :

Principles of lay out 1 the principle of minimum travel men and material shoud travel the shortest distance between operations so as to avoid waste of labour and time and minimize the cost of materials handling 2  principles of sequence machinery and operations should be arranged in a sequential order .this principle is best achieved in product layout and efforts should be made to have ot adopted in the process layout, 3 4

Principles of layout:

Principles of layout principle of usage every foot of available space should be effectively utilized.this principle should receive top consideration in towns and cities where land is costly 1        principle of compactness there should be harmonious fusion of all relevant factors so that the final layout look well and compacf 2        principle of safety and satisfaction thr layout should contain buoild process for safety for the workman it should also planned on the base of comfort of the workman so that they feel satisfied

Principles of layout:

Principles of layout 1        principle of flexibility the layout should permit reserve with the least difficulty and at minimum cost 2        principle of minimum investment The layout should result in saving in fixed capital investment not by avoiding installation of the necessary fertility by the intensive use of available facility

FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT :

FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT Factory building: determines floor space. e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity control etc. Nature of product: product layout / process layout Production process: In assembly line industries, product layout is better. In job order or intermittent manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is desirable. Machinery: General purpose machines are often arranged as per process layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product layout Maintenance: machines should be so arranged that adequate space is available between them for movement of equipment and people required for repairing the machines. Human needs: Adequate arrangement should be made for cloakroom, washroom, lockers, drinking water, toilets and other employee facilities, proper provision should be made for disposal of effluents, if any. Plant environment: Heat, light, noise, ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered,

Features Of Good Layout :

Features Of Good Layout Sufficient space for worker and machine---  Comfort Safety and security---  Safety Gang-way space for raw materials, workers and semi finished goods--  Convenience Minimizes material handling and costs---  Cost Reduction Stores for in-process material should be near to processing machines--  Efficiency Supervision, co-ordination and control----  Minimize Error Scope for further adjustments and extensions--  Future Growth

Features Of Poor Layout :

Features Of Poor Layout Space loss Delays (waiting time) Transportation Processes Inventories Motions Defective products Mental / Physical stain on operator Difficulties in maintenance ineffective supervision & control Loss

Dos:

Dos Optimum utilization of space Keep necessary space for maintenance Less motion required for material movement Hazardous free Keep the proper door size & passage for material movement

Do’s:

Do’s

Don’t:

Don’t design congested work environment install the machine at randomly keep more distance between plant to plant which is interrelated keep the canteen far away from the production department design the production department/utility below sea level install under capacity equipment forget the rest room for the employee plan the STP near drinking water tank or near the office plan the narrow road avoid the maintenance department

Don't:

Don't

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