Unit V AIR- Robotics

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Robotics: Fundamentals, path Planning for Point Robot, Sensing and mapping for Point Robot, Mobile Robot Hardware, Non Visual Sensors like: Contact Sensors, Inertial Sensors, Infrared Sensors, Sonar, Radar, laser Rangefinders, Biological Sensing. Robot System Control: Horizontal and Vertical Decomposition, Hybrid Control Architectures, Middleware, High-Level Control, Human-Robot Interface.

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BE Computer Engineering Unit V Robotics

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Outline  Robotics: Fundamentals  Path Planning for Point Robot Sensing and mapping for Point Robot Mobile Robot Hardware  Non Visual Sensors like:  Contact Sensors Inertial Sensors Infrared Sensors Sonar Radar laser Rangefinders Biological Sensing.  Robot System Control:  Horizontal and Vertical Decomposition Hybrid Control Architectures Middleware High-Level Control Human-Robot Interface.

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Fundamentals  Obstacles:  Already occupied spaces of the world  In other words robots ca n’ t go there  Free Space:  Unoccupied space within the world  Robots “ m ight ” be able to go here  To determine where a robot can go we need to discuss what a Configuration Space is

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Fundamental  A key concept for motion planning is a configuration: –  a complete specification of the position of every point in the system  The space of all configurations is the configuration space or C- space.  One of the main problems in robotics called robot path planning is to find a collision-free path amidst obstacles for a robot from its starting position to its destination.  The path of a robot can be viewed as a sequence of translations and rotations from starting position to the destination in the work space.

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Placement of a robot in the work space  Degrees of freedom  A placement of a robot is specified by a set of parameters that corresponds to the number of degrees of freedom of the robot.  This number is 2 if planar robots can only translate.  This number is 3 if planar robots can both translate and rotate.

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Configuration space  The parameter space of a robot R is called configuration space .  A point p in the configuration space corresponds to a certain placement R p of the robot R in the work space.  The configuration space of a translating robot R in the plane is the two dimensional Euclidean plane and therefore identical to the work space.  The configuration space of a translating and rotating robot R in the plane is the three dimensional space R 2 x 0 : 360 and therefore is not the Euclidean 3- dimensional space.

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Configuration space  If a placement of a robot R intersects an obstacle P in the work space then the corresponding point lies in the forbidden configuration space.  Otherwise the corresponding point lies in the free configuration space.  Every collision free path of a robot R lies in the free configuration space.

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Mobile Robot Hardware  A Mobile robot is a combination of various hardware and software components. In terms of hardware components a mobile robot can be consisdered as a collection of subsystems for:  Locomotion: How the robot moves through its environment.  Sensing: How the robot measures properties of itself and environment  Reasoning: How the robot maps these measurement into actions.  Communication: How the robot communicates with an outside operator.

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Locomotion  Locomotion is the process by which an autonomous robot or vehicle moves. For motion forces must be applied to the robot.  Dynamics: study of motion in which these forces are modelled  Kinematics: study of the mathematics of motion without considering the forces that affect the motion

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Inertial Sensors  Gyroscopes  Measure the rate of rotation independent of the coordinate frame  Common applications:  Heading sensors Full Inertial Navigation systems INS  Accelerometers  Measure accelerations with respect to an inertial frame  Common applications:  Tilt sensor in static applications Vibration Analysis Full INS Systems

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Infrared Sensors  Intensity based infrared  Reflective sensors  Easy to implement  susceptible to ambient light  Infrared Ranging  Distance sensors  Short range distance measurement  Impervious to ambient light color and reflectivity of object

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Sensors  Sonar  Sonar originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging is a technique that uses sound propagation usually underwater as in submarine navigation to navigate communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water such as other vessels.  Radar  Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range angle or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft ships spacecraft guided missiles motor vehicles weather formations and terrain.  Biological Sensing  A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector

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Horizontal Decomposition

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Horizontal Decomposition

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Vertical Decomposition

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