History of Missions Lesson 06

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MI 502 Lesson 6 - History of Missions

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History of Missions Lecture 6:

History of Missions Lecture 6 MI Dr. Robert Patton

Black Africa:

Black Africa The Great Century

African Missions – 19th century:

African Missions – 19 th century More success long term - perhaps 50% sub-Sahara Africa = Christian More cost - the white man’s grave Initially South Africa, then along the coastal regions, and eventually both coasts of east and west Africa.

African Missions – 19th century:

African Missions – 19 th century Much tied with commercial enterprise, colonial expansion, European civilization Problems combining with colonialism .Trade - .Exploration .Lack of appreciation of culture. Many missionaries opposed misuse of Africans

Western ethocentricism:

Western ethocentricism Viewed Africans as virtually sub-human Tied this with lack of Christianity Much destruction of African culture, but some practices, like witchcraft, twin murder, and cannibalism & slavery needed to be stopped Great benefit from translation

I nitial attempts were on the west coast:

I nitial attempts were on the west coast Many missionaries died of disease. There were works in Sierra Leone, Ghana, and Nigeria both at Lagos and later in Ibadan One man who had success was Thomas Freeman, son of African father and English mother raised in England. He survived and was effective in Ghana and Nigeria after the loss of his first wife

Thomas Freeman:

Thomas Freeman

Niger explored:

Niger explored Monroe Park explored the Niger River and opened the area up for development

Mungo Park, explorer Niger River:

Mungo Park, explorer Niger River

South Africa:

South Africa Dr. John Theodore Vanderkamp , Dutch physician, worked with primarily the Hottentots about 1800 and married an African wife – opposition by whites John Phillip – supporter of the rights of the black man, with strong supporters in England as well

Robert Moffat:

Robert Moffat Robert Moffat - South Africa - evangelist, translator, educator, diplomat, explorer Raised in a poor Presbyterian home in Scotland – 1795. Ran away to sea age 14, and then learned to be a gardener Originally turned down by London Missionary Society, he worked as a gardener for the director and took lessons from him

Robert Moffat:

Robert Moffat He went to South Africa with 3 others; three years later, Mary joined him as his wife at age 24. He finally received permission to travel several hundred miles north. He returned with Afrikaner, a former terror as a Hottentot , now a Christian. He started a mission station at Kuruman

Robert Moffat:

Robert Moffat Over 16 years, 500 acres under cultivation, and 700 lived at Kuruman Buchana tribe was resistant, but Moffat was a good diplomat helping negotiate peace with other tribes. Polygamy was a major problem, and growth was slow

Robert Moffat:

Robert Moffat For years, he did not learn the language; he used a crude sort of trading language. He finally did, and began translation very slowly over 29 years. When printers refused to print it, he learned to print himself Later he was able to teach/preach, and many got saved.

Robert & Mary Moffatt:

Robert & Mary Moffatt

Robert Moffat:

Robert Moffat Had a notable meeting with Moselakatse , a feared chief Had 10 children; 7 survived, and 5 became African missionaries After 53 years, they returned to England; Mary died a few months later, but Robert lived another 13 years.

Kuruman & Moffat Mission:

Kuruman & Moffat Mission

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone David Livingstone worked 14 hours a day in textile, but still went to evening classes, studying till midnight. He loved science. His family left the Anglican church for an independent chapel. Initially he wanted to go to China He had background in theology and medicine

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone Accepted by the London Missionary Society, the opium war stopped him from going to China. He met Robert Moffat and decided to go to Africa. He was unimpressed by the missionaries at Kuruman – arguing & immorality He traveled much over 3 years

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone Went to set up a station at Mabosta with Roger Edwards and wife, who had been 10 years at Kuruman . Problems with Edwards Attacked and mauled by a lion He married Mary Moffat, and then moved twice over the next 2-3 years

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone

Sculpture Livingstone mauled by a lion:

Sculpture Livingstone mauled by a lion

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone Travel with Livingstone was difficult, and Mary suffered temporary paralysis after the death of their 4 th child. His in-laws were incensed when he took her on another trip with her fifth child. Finally he left his wife and family in England. She had a very difficult 5 years in near poverty.

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone He became world-famous exploring across the Zambesi river, and discovering Victoria falls He vigorously opposed the slave trade

David Livingstone statues both sides of Victoria Falls:

David Livingstone statues both sides of Victoria Falls

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone He became world-famous exploring across the Zambesi river. Six months from the beginning, they came out at Luanda. He then reversed the direction though with many attacks of fever. He found Victoria falls and arrived on the east coast in May 1856. After many speaking engagements, he left the LMS for the British government

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone Second trip: He found the Zambesi was not navigable, but encouraged a missionary group to come to the Shire River, off the east coast. The mission was a disaster, and Mackenzie, the leader died with many other missionaries, including Livingstone’s wife Mary

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone His third trip started in 1865 to try to find the source of the Nile River. He did witness on his travels, and was distressed about the slave trade He was often very sick, had supplies stolen, and it was rumored that he had died. A reporter, Henry Stanley, sought and finally found him

Stanley finds Livingstone:

Stanley finds Livingstone

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone He died while at prayer about 1 year after Henry Stanley departed His body was dried and taken 1500 miles to the coast after his heart was removed He was buried at Westminster Abbey with 78 year old Robert Moffat in front of the body…

Henry Stanley:

Henry Stanley Henry Stanley - claimed to be saved while traveling with Livingstone. He had a rough upbringing, ran away to the USA, was adopted by a rich man, took his name, and bounced around during the civil war, was wounded & imprisoned, and later captured by pirates. He explored from Mombasa to the Congo River mouth, losing most of the men with him.

Henry Stanley:

Henry Stanley He had another disastrous trips up the Congo presumably for the Belgian king. His reputation was tarnished by the behavior of others with him. He eventually settled in England, married, and was involved in politics. We was made a knight for his explorations

Henry Stanley:

Henry Stanley

Albert Lloyd and pygmies:

Albert Lloyd and pygmies Shortly after Stanley’s trips began to describe pygmies, Albert Lloyd, a CMS missionary was sick and decided to return to Europe via the great Congo forest. While there he had several contacts with pygmies, and thus raised the possibility of future work with them.

Pygmies:

Pygmies

Pygmies:

Pygmies

Pygmies:

Pygmies

Frederick Arnot:

Frederick Arnot A Scottish missionary who knew Livingstone’s history and wanted to follow in his footsteps He opened the area of the Garaganze , a huge area of southeastern Congo near the heads of the Congo and Zambezi Rivers. He explored Angola, Zambia and Eastern Congo, finding the beginning of the Congo & Zambezi rivers

Frederick Arnot:

Frederick Arnot He spent most of his time reaching the people under the famous chief Msidi ( Msiri ), intelligent but cruel, who had 500 wives. Arnot opened the area to other later missionaries. King Leopold exploited and annexed the area to Congo. Msiri was killed by soldiers

Boma of Msiri – note the skulls of enemies on the poles:

Boma of Msiri – note the skulls of enemies on the poles

Francois Coillard:

Francois Coillard French missionary who also explored much of the interior of central Africa, traveling on ox-cart with his wife some of the time. He suffered much but was greatly helped by the Christian king Kwame to the area of King Liwanake and the Barotse people He opened the area upstream from Victoria Falls

King Lewanika:

King Lewanika

King Kwama III:

King Kwama III

George Grenfell:

George Grenfell George Grenfell, Cornish missionary went to the Cameroons, Africa age 25 Two years later, he returned to marry his wife; she died one year later in Africa; he remarried a West Indian lady who accompanied him on his trips He buried four of his own children He assembled the boat Peace and traveled on the Congo River. 4 engineers had died trying to build the boat

George Grenfell:

George Grenfell He had worked as a mechanic early in life. When an offer was made for a steamship, he assembled it in England, tested it, broke it into several hundred pieces weighing 65 lbs , shipped it to Congo, carried it to the interior, and reassembled it with the help of an accompanying engineer

George Grenfell:

George Grenfell George Grenfell – many missionaries died, including his own daughter He saw unspeakable atrocities by the native tribes. The Belgian government was also a problem Still he saw much success with revival at his own mission station at Bolobo

George Grenfell:

George Grenfell He did extensive exploration of the Congo River basin as well as some mountains, and was awarded a medal by the Royal Geographic Society prior to his death

George Grenfell:

George Grenfell

William Sheppard:

William Sheppard Black American missionary well educated as a Presbyterian missionary. He was paired with a white missionary, Lapsley , who died shortly after they started work He had a good personality and was received by Africans as a dignitary He revealed atrocities from the Belgian government, including “hand collecting”

Sheppard portrait, with Africans, Lapsley chapel:

Sheppard portrait, with Africans, Lapsley chape l

William Sheppard:

William Sheppard Was hailed a hero by opposing King Leopold He was an explorer and appreciated African art Had adulterous affairs and a child in Africa Repented and was reinstated as a pastor in the USA with his family

Johann Krapf:

Johann Krapf German missionary, brilliant in languages as a youth, trained as a pastor, and went to Ethiopia as a missionary He had a stormy beginning, especially with the old style of their Christianity; learned Amharic Eventually all missionaries were thrown out of Ethiopia

Johann Krapf:

Johann Krapf He moved to Kenya, and with a fellow missionary saw Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya He started a mission in Mombasa, lost his wife and child to malaria, and moved to a higher climate He made a number of dictionaries, and translated parts of the Bible into a number of languages

Johann Krapf, pioneer Anglican in Kenya:

Johann Krapf , pioneer Anglican in Kenya

Alexander Mackay -:

Alexander Mackay - Well educated engineer from Scotland four of 8 missionaries died within 2 years – two murdered, two of malaria, and two returned home broken in health He opened a 230 mile road to Lake Victoria He went to Uganda, and did much translation work.

Alexander Mackay -:

Alexander Mackay - Arabs & Roman Catholics opposed and tried to kill him. He translated to the Buganda language under protection of King Mtesa , but later opposed by his murderous son He was a skilled engineer - finally kicked out of Uganda, he went to Tanganyika on Lake Victoria.

Alexander Mackay:

Alexander Mackay

Bishop James Hannington:

Bishop James Hannington

Alexander Mackay -:

Alexander Mackay - Catholic and Protestant natives fought; finally the country was divided. The Catholic Lavargarie was very effective Bishop James Hannington , a bold man who coming to Mackay’s aid was slain by Mwanga’s men. He unfortunately chose the wrong route to Uganda. He said: “Tell the king that I have bought this road with my own blood” Finally new king Mwanga expelled Mackay; he died of malaria at age 40

Alexander Mackay -:

Alexander Mackay - He was replaced after death by Alfred R. Tucker, a very godly and successful Anglican bishop – 65,000 believers then. Believed in racial equality One of his African workers, Apolo Kivebulaya , was very effective & untouched by seeking power or wealth. He opened the area to the gospel

Bishop Alfred Tucker:

Bishop Alfred Tucker

The chiefs were often key:

The chiefs were often key The attitudes of the chiefs often determined what happened in missions. For example, Kwama , the chief of Buchanaland , was instrumental in helping the Christian faith in that area. His grandson is now the president of Botswana

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor Her father was an alcoholic; she was second of 7 children. She initially worked to support her mother and family, but became active in the Presbyterian (she was Scottish) church. She went to Calabar at age 27 as a single lady. Initially worked at Duke Town teaching in the mission. After 3 years and a furlough, moved to Old Town 3 miles to the interior. She lived simply in a mud hut, ate African food, and sent most of her salary home .

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor She taught school, cared for children, fought witchcraft and twin births. She brought a baby Jamie with her on her second furlough. After recovering from sickness, her mother and sister died shortly after her departure, and another sister died. She was very lonely, but she started to go to the interior – Okoyong – with the help of King Eyo . An outstanding peacemaker, she was made vice-consul from Britain

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor Charles Morrison, a much younger missionary proposed marriage. She accepted, but on the terms of his living with her in Okoyong . His health would not permit this, and the marriage did not occur

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor

Mary Slessor:

Mary Slessor She had already been busy with hospital work and saving twins. She then went to the Okoyong tribe for 25 years. She acted as a judge, and was eventually made vice-consul. Then with some of her adopted children, she moved among the Ibo people with great success until her death at age 66.

Assessment of Africa:

Assessment of Africa There were great problems in Sub-Sahara Africa Burials – killing wives, slaves Cannibalism Twin deaths Trial by ordeal Slavery Witchcraft

Africa, cont.:

Africa, cont. The cost in missionaries was very high Some murdered Some killed by animals More killed by malaria and other tropical diseases Progress initially was slow, but later faster But now 50% or more are Christians

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