History of Missions Lesson 02a

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MI Lesson 2A

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History of Missions Lecture 2:

History of Missions Lecture 2 MI Dr. Robert Patton

Roman Catholic Missions Middle Ages:

Roman Catholic Missions Middle Ages Baptizing the Masses

Middle ages situation:

Middle ages situation Little education Concentration on the countryside Often the Christian ascetic or saint was like a pagan shaman Supernatural manifestations Little emphasis on literature

Middle ages methods:

Middle ages methods Often power encounter – maybe supernatural, but often military Often political – sought military aids, such as Clovis, king of the Franks. When he won a victory, he promised to serve the Christian god; thus victorious, he and 3000 troops wee baptized on Christmas 496

Clovis, king of the Franks:

Clovis, king of the Franks Clovis married Clotilda , a Christian princess of Burgundy He believed that he received divine help in a victory in 496 and converted. Following his conversion, the mass of people accepted Christianity

Clovis, king of the Franks:

Clovis, king of the Franks

Middle ages:

Middle ages Two major problems Conversion of the barbarian hordes in Europe Resisting the onslaught of the Muslims

Middle ages begin with Roman Catholic outreach:

Middle ages begin with Roman Catholic outreach These “mass movements” filled the churches with nominal Christians

History of England:

History of England History given by the Venerable Bede (673-735), an accurate and wise historian Britain had Christianity from at least then 3 rd century Then the Angles and Saxons invaded and rejected Christianity, which retreated only to Wales

Augustine (missionary to England):

Augustine (missionary to England) Sent by Pope Gregory the great to England after seeing 3 white slave boys from England being sold in 596. Gregory himself had been a monk, and sent a group of monks under Augustine there. King Ethelbert was already married to a Christian princess from Gaul

Augustine:

Augustine Augustine and his monks turned back Pope Gregory sent them back, and this time they arrived in England and were successful

Augustine & King Ethelbert:

Augustine & King Ethelbert

Augustine (missionary to England):

Augustine (missionary to England) Ethelbert received the monks well and was impressed with their piety He had great success, being accepted by King Ethelbert, an immersing 10,000 persons on Christmas day one year after his arrival

Pope Gregory and contextualization:

Pope Gregory and contextualization The question was what to do with pagan beliefs. The Pope suggested that they change them to Christian but leave them. Also the same with buildings, etc. This pattern has persisted, but the question is how much. Remember what God told the Israelites to do with idols, high places, etc.

Augustine of Canterbury:

Augustine of Canterbury He became archbishop after King Ethelbert was saved about 600 AD. He was not successful in converting those from Wales The Anglo-Saxons were originally difficult as well Aldan ministered to them in the 6 th century He began a monastery – eventually considered a saint

There was contention between Celtics and Rome:

There was contention between Celtics and Rome They had to do with minor facts of clothes to wear, Easter method of celebration Finally the King of Northumbria favored Rome with the assistance of Wilfred, who evangelized the Anglo-Saxons Theodore of Tarsus set the ecclesiastical pattern

Nestorians:

Nestorians Denied Mariolotry , though had thought Christ had two natures – human & divine Very missions minded. They spread in Persia, Turkey, Russia - made converts from Zoroastrianism. They also expanded into India (Mar Thomas churches), and in 6th century to China, but were later driven out

Nestorian Christianity in China:

Nestorian Christianity in China A-lo-pen brought it to the emperor in 635 AD. The Christian thought was encouraged though in competition with Buddhism Many monasteries and monks, who learned Chinese and translated into it

Nestorian Christianity in China:

Nestorian Christianity in China 845 Emperor Wu Tsung , an ardent Taoist, opposed all monks – Buddhist and Christian (there were 30,000 Christian monks at that time) 100 years later, 5 monks came and found no trace of Christianity in China

Nestorian belief:

Nestorian belief

Nestorian monument in China:

Nestorian monument in China

Nestorians:

Nestorians Very strong missions groups, strong in scripture, Bible Institutes, etc. From Central Asia, reached China, Korea, Japan and Southeast Asia In China – 200 bishops Eventually overwhelmed by Muslims and Genghis Khan

Probable Nestorian pastor in China:

Probable Nestorian pastor in China

Boniface :

Boniface Born in England Started to evangelize in Friesland age 30 but could not due to political turmoil Went to Rome and received support, went back to Germany, then Friesland, and then back to Germany

Boniface (680-755):

Boniface (680-755) Initially worked with Willibrord . Was offered the position of Bishop of Utrecht, He went to Rome for support from the Pope. and went further south into Saxony and Hessia (Germany) He was a great leader, and raised up other missionaries

Boniface (680-755):

Boniface (680-755) He challenged the mixture of belief in Christianity and paganism when he chopped down the sacred oak of the god Thor. He recruited women as well as men as missionaries He received great support from Charles Martel, who defeated the Muslims

Charles Martel:

Charles Martel Took over after weak leaders follower following Clovis He stopped the Muslims at the battle of Tours in 732 He started a line of rulers with his son Pepin

Charles Martel:

Charles Martel

Charles Martel:

Charles Martel

Pepin:

Pepin Pepin received a lot of territory, and helped the pope against the Lombards Pepin gave territory to the Pope, called the donation of Pepin, which became the papal states under pope Stephen II During this time, they spoke about the donation of Constantine, but later it was proven to be a forgery

Pepin the short crowned by Boniface:

Pepin the short crowned by Boniface

Boniface chopping down the oak of Thor:

Boniface chopping down the oak of Thor

Boniface:

Boniface Strong proponent of Romism , no marriages, foods off limits, etc. Set up organized churches under the support of Rome & removed much corruption Went back to Friesland in 753 with a group of monks, but was killed by armed bandits who thought that his trunks were filled with gold – but found only the bishop’s books inside

Boniface – baptizing, killed by bandits, burial crypt:

Boniface – baptizing, killed by bandits, burial crypt

Summary:

Summary Boniface believed that he needed the support of Rome and the government (Martel, etc.) to evangelize successfully

Charlemagne:

Charlemagne Pepin’s son Charlemagne, was a man of great size and ability as well as culture. He controlled all of France and Germany and northern Italy He offered to marry Irene, from the East, to solidify the empire, but she refused There was great cultural development and education

Charlemagne:

Charlemagne

Charlemagne:

Charlemagne The Saxons opposed the church as well as the government. They were put down with great force, and then evangelized on multiple occasions. They would then kill some Christian priests or monks, and persecution would begin again. Over about 20 years, the Saxons were pacified

Charlemagne’s empire disintegrates:

Charlemagne’s empire disintegrates His son divided the empire to three sons, and the empire was divided at the Treaty of Verdun with Charles getting France, Louis getting Germany, and eventually Lothair receiving northern Italy. Feudalism arose as there was no strong central government

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