human rights history

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Welcome rights now Collective for Democracy

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Rights now Internship Training Programme 3 rd Batch 1 st Lecture udkj ysñlï wdrïNh yd úldYh

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udkj ysñlï ms<sn| l;sldjla we;sùu whs;sjdislï W,a,x>kh md,lhska ck fldgia ;u u;h ck;dj u; megùug md,lhska iEuúgu W;aidy orhs' foam, j¾.SlrKh N+ñh ksYap, pxp, jy,qk a o fm!oa.,sl foam,ls'

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uyd wêldr m;%h 1215 ^ ue.akdld¾gd & tx.,ka;fha l=ßre md,l fcdaka rcqg tfrysj m,a,sh" jxYdêm;sjre" yd ck;dj l< igkska miq we;sjQ tlÕ;djh kQ;k udkj ysñlï ixl,amh m%ldYhg m;al< wdÈ;u ,shú,a, fõ' — foaYfha kS;shg fyda úksiqrejkaf.a ;Skaÿjg mgyeksj lsisu ksoyia rg jeisfhl= w;a wvx.=jg .ekSu fyda isrNdrfha ;eîu fyda fkdl< hq;=h' ˜ hkak tys jQ j.ka;s 63 ka wo;a oelsh yels h' bx.%Sis úma,jh ^ 1628-1658 & 1215 tx.,ka;fha werô md¾,sfïka;= l%uh u.ska rcqf.a — ÈjHuh whs;sh ˜ ,sys,a úh' 1628 È T,sj¾ fl%dïfõ,a kue;s f.dõ kdhlhdf.a fufyhõfuka we;s jQ úma,jfha m%;sm,hla f,i ck;djf.a wdKavqjla hk ixl,amh j¾Okh úh'

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hfYda úma,jh ^ 1688-1689& th tx.,ka;hg mqk¾ðjk ^ reisnce & iuhla õh õõO úoHd{hskaf.a fidhd .eksï ksid kj ksmehqï íysúh' wOHdmkh NdIdj ixialD;sh ohqKq õh tfy;a Tjqkag mqk¾ðjhla jqfha wfma jeks hg;a úð; rgj,ska iqrd lE Okh ksidh' wefußlka ksoyia igk ^ 1763-1782& tx.,ka;fha hfYda úma,jh ksid weußlka ksoyia igk o m%xY úma,jhg o miq ìu ielis‚' fj<o f.da,Sh lrKh ksid 17 jk ishjfia f,daj n,j;au wêlrKh jq ì%;dkH wêrdcHg tfrysj m<uq m%ydrh t,a, jqfha fld<ks 13 la jq wefußldfjks' wefußldfõ mÈxÑ ú isáfha ì%;dkH jeishka ksid Tjqkaf.ka nÿ .eksu È.gu isÿúh' wmg nÿ mekúug ì%;dkH md¾,sfïka;=jg ;sfnk whs;sh l=ulao@ hkak fcda¾Ê fjdIskagka werUq igfka f;audj úh' ì%;dkH yuqÞfõ úhoï ioyd Wlaj;= ^1974& uqoaor mk; ^1764& mkjd ;snq‚' ì%;dkH fin¿kag fkdñf,a Tskeu wjkay,lska lEu .eksug mk;la úh' wêrdcHjdoh m<uqjrg mrdch jqfha tysÈh'

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m%xY úma,jh ^1689-1794& m%xYfha ,qú rc fm,mf;a l=rere md,khg tfrysj isú,a jeishka werUq igk f,dal b;sydih fjkia l< tlls' ksoyi iudk;au;djh ifydaor;ajh hkq igfka f;audj úh' Bg moku jqfha m%xY Þ¾Ykslhska bÈßm;a l< ieu ñksidu Wm;ska iudk hk o¾Ykhhs' úma,jfha m%;sM,hla jYfhka ñksidf.a iy rgjeishdf.a m%ldYkhla we;súh' iudc whs;sjdislï m<uqj biau;= jqfha ks;Sh ldg;a iudk h hk oElaula iu.h' l;d lsßfï ksoyi is;sfï ksoyi uq,sl úh' .s%l úma,jh ^1821-183& fidl%Üia" maf,afgda" weßiafgdag,a" wdlsïâia wdÈ uyd Ñka;lhka f.a o¾Ykfha m%nqoaOj isá .S%l ;reK mrmqr tjlg me;sfrïka ;snq wêrdcHjdohg tfrys jqy' tA ksid .S%ish ksoyia rgla úh' md¾,sfïka;=jlao úh' ,;ska wefußlka úma,jh Ñ,s rg n%is,h fnd,súhdj igka ksid ksoyia úh'

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fn,aðhfï ksoyi 1830-1848& ò,kao md,kfhka ksoyia jqfha 1830 Èh' hqfrdamh mqrd ksoyia igka me;sr .sfha h' ld¾ñl úma,jfha kj fidhd .eksï ksido rgj, ksoyig n,mefõh' meßia fldñhqkh ^1871& m<uq jrg ðä; ck;dj f,dj msysg jq wdKavqjla úh' th mej;=fka udi folls' tfy;a tys jeo.;alu úYd,h' nÿ wfydais lsßu" by< jegqma isud lsßu" m,a,sh wdKavqfjka fjka lsßu" m,a,sfha úYd, foam< ck i;=ùu" lïy,a md,kh lïlrejkag oSu wdÈ lreKq ksid h<s;a Okm;s mx;sh tA wdKavqj u¾okh lf<ah'

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bkaÈhdkq ksoyia igk ^1857-1947& fj<Þug iq¿ bvla b,a,d 1757 È bkaÈhdjg meñ‚ ì%;dkHhka 1857 È uq¿ bkaÈhdju w,a,d .;ay' wêrdcHjdÈkag tfrysj we;sjQ le/,a, È.a .eyS 1947 jk ;=reu igka we;súh' bkaÈh ksoyia igfka W.%;u wjia:djla jqfha isú,a ks;s lv lsßfï .dkaê;=udf.a jHdmdrhhs' Tlaf;daïn¾ úma,jh ^1917& f,dj id¾:l jQ m<uqjk ks¾Ok mx;s igkh' f.dúkag bvï fin¿kag iduh ck;djg mdka hk igka mdGh uq,alr f.k werô úma,jfhka l=ßre id¾ md,kh ksu úh' th jev lrk ck;djf.a ch.%yKhls'

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Ñk uyck úma,jh ^1919-1949& reishdkq úma,jfhka miq f,dj mqrd cd;sl úuqla;s jHdmdr we;s úh' fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIfha kdhl;ajfhka úma,jh ch .eks‚' wo Ökh f,dal n,j;l= njg m;aj we;af;a fldaÜ 200 la ck;djg n,h ,nd foñks' úhÜkdufha úma,jh ^1930 -1945& igkska miq fjkaj ;snq ol+Kq " W;=re úhÜkdï fol tlaúh' ke.s tk rgls' lshqndkq úma,jh ^1959 & weußlka rElv md,khg tfrysj igklska ch f.k wo b;d wdo¾Yu;a rgla njg m;afjñka we;' tlai;a cd;skau ms<s.kakd mßÈ f,dalfha fydou fi!LH fiajh;a fydou wOHdmk l%uhl=;a mj;sk rgls'

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wdmsldkq ksoyia igk 1950 fk,aika uekafv,d ksoyiaúu;a iu. nyq mdlaIsl md,k l%uhla we;súh' wo ÈhqKq;u wdKavq l%u jHjia:djla u.ska b;d ixls¾K jq j¾KfNao jdo cd;sfNao jdo ch.;a rgls' m<uqjk f,dal hqoaOh ^1914-1919& õfYaIfhkau fï wjêh jk úg wfkla ishÆu rdcHhka hg;a úð; mj;ajd f.k .sh w;r c¾ukshg hg;a úð; fkd;snq‚‘ ' tu miqìu ;=, Tjqkao hg;a úð; lrKhg fm<Uq‚' wk;=rej th f,dal hqoaOhla lrd .uka lf,ah' tfiau fuh kúk ;dlaIKh Wmfhda.s lr.ksñka f,daj m%:u j;djg isÿ jq oreKq hqoaOhla jq w;r fldaÜ 2la muK ck.ykhla úkdYhg m;aúh' hqoaOfhka mrdchg m;ajq c¾ukshg úYd, uqo,la f.úug isÿúh' tA miqìu ;=, fujka ;;ajhla we;s fkdúfï n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk u; 1919 cd;skaf.a ix.uh ìyslr.kakd ,È'

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fojk f,dal hqoaOh ^1939-1945& c¾uksfha oreKq;u md,lfhla jq ysá,¾ ;udf.a cd;sh fYaIaG cd;sh nj mjid hqfoõ cd;slhka wuq wuqfõ >d;kh lsßug ieriqks‘' tysÈ hqfoú cd;slhka úYd, ixLHdjla úkdYhg m;a lf<ah' miqj fuh f,dal hqoaOhla ;rï oreKq igkla njg m;aúh' fuysÈ ysá,¾ w;af;dafkdu;sl md,khla f.k .sh w;r hqfoõ cd;slhka ;u cd;sh f.dv k.d .eksug Tjqkaj mßlaIK j,go Ndckh lf,ah' miqj c¾uksfha hqo wmrdO wêlrKh u.ska tA ms,snoj úksYphla ,enq‚’' th — kshqrïn¾.a ˜ kvq ;skaÿjhs'

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1945 tlai;a cd;skaf.a m%{ma;sh' úfYaIfhka c¾uksfha kdis md,k iufha ñksiqka úiska ukqIH;ajfha p¾hd m%ï;ska ish,a,u W,a,x>kh l, wdldrh ;=,ska uy;afia ika;%dihg m;a c;dHka;r m%cdj udkj whs;sjdislï ioyd ;ukaf.a lemúu tlai;a cd;skf.a m%{ma;sfhka ;srKh lf,ah' kuq;a m%{ma;sfha whs;sjdislï fudkjdo hkak iúia;rd;aulj olajd fkd;snq‚' 1948 tlai;a cd;skaf.a udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sno úYaj m%ldYkh f,daj jeo.;au udkj whs;sjdislï f,aLkh f,i ie,flkafka fuhhs' tfiau iuia; ñksia j¾.hdgu wÞ, jkakd jq udkj whs;sjdislï úia;srKj tla;eka l, f,aLkh jkafkao fuhhs' 1948 foieïn¾ 10 jeksÞ tlai;a cd;ska úiska fuh ms,s.kakd ,È’'

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úYaj m%ldYkfha whs;sjdislï iúia;rj we;=,;a jqjo iudðl rdcHhka tu whs;sjdislï wdrdlaIdj flfrys neo ;nk úêúOdk tys wka;¾.;j fkd;snqks' fï ksid neÈï we;slrk wdldrfha cd;Hka;r .súiqï folla flgqïm;a lrk ,ÿj 1966 isg ls%hd;aul flß‚' udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sno úYaj m%ldYkfhys ;snq whs;sjdislï iy kkajEoEreï ksoyi ffk;sl neÈï f,i iïuq;s folla we;=,;a lrk ,È‘'

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tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ne`oSï we;slrk iïuq;s fol ^ 1948-12-10& wd¾Ól iudÔh yd ixialD;sl whs;sjdislï ms<sno cd;Hka;r iïuq;sh ^1966& isú,a yd foaYmd,k whs;sjdislï ms,sno cd;Hka;r iïuq;sh ^1966&

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