Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS): Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) By Tarsis Yool What is it?: What is it? Toxic Shock Syndrome (TAHK sik SHOK SIN drohm ) R elease of toxins from an infectious bacteria L ife-threatening disease involving fear, shock and problems with the functioning organs. Toxic Shock Syndrome: Staphylococcus aureus ( staf- ee -l uh -kok- uh s aw- ree - uhs ) and Streptococcus (strep- tuh - kok-uhs ) Causes: Causes Streptococcus TSS appears in areas of injured skin where bacteria can grow. Staphylococcus aureus TSS is often bacteria carried on unwashed hands. Historically associated with the use of superabsorbent tampons. Contraceptive use: diaphragms or contraceptive sponges . Complication of post-surgery or skin infection. Who is Affected?: Who is Affected? Use of tampons by menstruating women Less than half of the cases result from skin infections, burns cuts and scrapes. I nvolve c hildren, men and postmenopausal women. U.S incidence of TSS is approximately 1/100,000 women with ages ranging from 15-44. Risk Factors: Risk Factors Recently giving birth Infected with Staphylococcus aureus also known as Staph infection Extended use of a single tampon during m enstruation Existing complications with lungs or kidneys Post-surgical wound; particularly in the skin. Test and Diagnosis: Test and Diagnosis U rine or blood sample to test for the presence of Staph or Strep infection. Samples of vagina, throat, skin wound or nose may be swabbed for laboratory analysis Symptoms: Symptoms Mental confusion Headaches; high fever (temperature at least 102° F) Low blood pressure Muscle aches Kidney failure Nausea, vomiting Redness of the eyes, and vagina Widespread red rash that look like sunburns (particularly in the palms and soles of feet). Treatment: Treatment Removal of tampons, vaginal sponges, or nasal packing Cleaning of infected surgical wound Antibiotics for any infection Dialysis (if severe kidney problems are present) Medicine to control blood pressure Expectations: Expectations D eadly in up to 50% of cases. 5% of individuals with Staphylococcus TSS die 70% of individuals with Streptococcus TSS die 30%-50% TSS survivors will have a recurrence L ong-term kidney, lung damage as well as nervous system abnormalities. Complications: Complications Shock; Hypovolemic Shock L ack of oxygen in vital organs can lead to death Kidney failure Heart failure Liver failure Prevention: Prevention Menstrual TSS: avoid the use of highly absorbent tampons. Also reduce the risk by changing the tampon more frequently. Seek immediate medical attention if you have a skin wound or infection and these symptoms are present. Store tampons away from heat and moisture where bacteria can grow. Wash hands thoroughly since Staphylococcus bacteria is often carried on hands. Clean and bandage wounds as quickly as possible. References: References Turkington , Carol A., and Tish Davidson. "Toxic Shock Syndrome." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine . Los Angeles Public Library, 2011. Print. Pagano, Trina. "Women's Health." Understanding Toxic Shock Syndrome . WebMD, LLC, 24 Apr. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://women.webmd.com/understanding-toxic-shock-syndrome-basics>. Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Toxic Shock Syndrome Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome." Toxic Shock Syndrome . U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001676/>.