Benefits of space exploration

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Over the past few decades, Indo-German collaboration has deepened on many fronts, including space.

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DR MARTIN NEY Science is all about innovation. It’s about pushing the boundaries of what we know and what we thought was possible. It pervades all aspects of our lives providing solutions and helping us understand our place in the universe. It is knowledge that enables us to improve our lives and develop practical solutions for the challenges we are faced with today. And when knowledge is shared its benefts are amplifed. India and Germany have a rich history of knowledge sharing. As a matter of fact cooperation in the felds of education science and research was a signifcant early milestone in our relationship with Germany offering assistance to set up the Indian Institute of Technology Madras way back in 1956. Science and technology cooperation agreements signed in 1971 and 1974 formed the bedrock of our ties. In 2015 during the third Intergovernmental Consultations held in New Delhi Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chancellor Dr Angela Merkel reaffrmed their commitment to support mutually benefcial science and technology partnerships which will create new knowledge and innovative technologies. Today Germany is India’s second most important research partner. For Indian scientists working abroad Germany is among the top three destinations in the world. Clearly both countries continue to beneft from the increasing number of bilateral research projects and academic exchanges. The results have been nothing short of outstanding: more than 2000 Indo-German scientifc publications have been produced to date and around 2000 joint projects—involving 7000 scientists from both countries—have been undertaken. As you can see science is an integral pillar in our bilateral relationship. Germany remains committed to fostering this highly dynamic scientifc and academic exchange with India. As partners in progress India and Germany hold the key to a brighter future. WHAT’S UP AMBASSADOR

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PATENT PUSH Germany fled a total of 18072 international patent applications in 2015. Statista FORGING AHEAD Germany ranks ffth among 138 countries in global competitiveness and third in business sophistication. World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index 2016–2017 RESEARCH INTENSITY Five of the ten most research-intensive companies in Europe are located in Germany. The share of companies that introduced new products and services in 2012 was 41—more than in all other European Union member states. Federal Ministry of Education and Research RD INVES TMENT In 2012 Germany spent 2.98 of its gross domestic product on research and development which amounted to almost `5.8 lakh crore. Federal Ministry of Education and Research STUDENT MOBILITY The number of Indian students in Germany has more than doubled in the last fve years. During the 2015–2016 winter semester 13740 Indian students were studying in Germany. Federal Statistical Offce IN NOBEL COMPANY So far German scientists have received 80 Nobel Prizes for their achievements in the feld of natural sciences including 24 awards in both chemistry and physics. The Guardian TOP DESTINATION For Indian scientists working abroad Germany is among the top three destinations in the world. German Missions in India INDO-GERMAN TIES In 2011 9 out of the 11 agreements signed between India and Germany were in the felds of science technology and vocational education. In 2013 10 out of the 16 agreements signed were in these felds. German Missions in India TALK THE TALK German is one of the most popular foreign languages in India. In 2014 approximately 107000 schoolchildren were learning German. Deutsche Welle SPACE ACE India is among the world’s top fve countries in the feld of space exploration. India Brand Equity Foundation Working towards social economic and ecological sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for India today but it is also a great opportunity for the country and its people. Introducing the concept of sustainability as a systems science at universities—both in research and teaching—means to transgress long-standing disciplinary boundaries and departmental barriers. As a German visiting professor I act as a bridgehead navigating between two academic cultures and structures with a view to provide an interface for students scholars and scientists from both countries to leverage their knowledge for mutual beneft. — Christoph Woiwode visiting professor Indo-German Centre for Sustainability IGCS at Indian Institute of Technology Madras

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India is emerging as a leader in science and technology. It is currently among the top ten nations in the number of scientifc publications. Indian scientists are continuing to create waves and the government is actively pushing to make the country one of the top fve scientifc powers worldwide. Thanks to the Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO India is the only country in the world that has reached Mars in its maiden attempt not to mention the 86 satellites it has launched since 1975. What’s Up Germany presents science and technology in India Renewable Energy: double the investment in renewable energy research from `525 crore to `10585 crore between 2017–2021 Technology Hubs: set up 15 new technology centres for Micro Small and Medium Enterprises MSMEs and upgrade the two existing ones by 2017 Vision ST 2020: develop the frst publicly accessible science and technology policy which would articulate India’s future towards self-reliance and technological independence World-class Genomics: allocate `1802 crore to the Department of Biotechnology towards making India a world leader in genomics Space Research: provide funds for Aditya–1 India’s frst dedicated satellite for studying the sun which is all set to launch between 2017–2020 SURGING FORWARD SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA Sources: Ministry of Human Resource Development University Grants Commission Research and Education Infrastructure in India 23 Indian Institutes of Technology IITs 31 National Institutes of Technology NITs 765 Universities 7 Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research IISERs The Road Ahead: Ambitious Plans for Science and Technology • Space Science • Healthcare • Renewable Energy • Pharmaceuticals • Biotechnology • Agriculture • Nuclear Power • Nanotechnology • Data Analytics India’s Areas of Expertise A BRAVE NEW WORLD: YOUNG INDIAN SCIENTISTS PAVE THE WAY Director Laboratory for Multiscale Regenerative Technologies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT • Using micro- and nano-technology to treat cancer Won the Indian Society for Plant Physiology’s “RD Asana Gold Medal 2015” Research Category for his contribution in plant physiology and cognate sciences • • • • • New forms of cancer treatment • Anti-malarial drug-screening platform • Increasing food production—a step forward towards global food security • Plans to become an aerospace engineer and join ISRO 17 inventions 2 Guinness World Record attempts 2 National Awards 7 Titled Awards 5 State Awards Winner of the Dr APJ Abdul Kalam IGNITE Award Plant physiologist at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR- DGR Junagadh Teenage scientist BIGGEST ACHIEVEMENTS HOW THEIR WORK WILL BENEFIT INDIA Dr Sangeeta Bhatia 48 Dr Koushik Chakraborty 35 M Tenith Adithyaa 16

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We bet you love science Practically all of us do whether we realise it or not. From the moment we are born we try to make sense of the world and improve it. Technically scientists do exactly the same thing. We beneft from their inventions and discoveries every single day. Few countries have contributed as much to the felds of science and technology as Germany has. It has had 80 Nobel laureates and has traditionally been a pioneer in the automotive chemical and telecommunications sectors. What’s Up Germany brings you some of the best German scientists and “Made in Germany” inventions that changed the course of history. “SCIENCE IS THE POETRY OF REALITY .” RICHARD DAWKINS OUTSTANDING GERMAN SCIENTISTS Johannes Kepler 1571–1630 As if one breakthrough is not enough for a lifetime this mathematician and astronomer had plenty including discovering the three major laws of planetary motion. He was the frst to explain the principles of the telescope and give a correct understanding of how vision works. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1845–1923 This mechanical engineer and physicist accidentally discovered the X-ray while experimenting with electrical currents through cathode-ray tubes. His understanding of electromagnetic radiation changed the way diseases were diagnosed forever saving many lives. Max Planck 1858–1947 Planck’s quantum theory revolutionised our understanding of atomic and subatomic processes earning him the Nobel Prize in 1918. If he hadn’t become a physicist he could’ve easily become a musician. He knew how to play the piano the cello and the organ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard 1942– This world-class biologist specialises in genetics and won the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine along with her colleagues for their research on the genetic control of embryonic development. GERMAN IDEAS THAT CHANGED THE WORLD Printing Press 1440: Johannes Gutenberg’s invention democratised knowledge by quickening the pace of information dissemination. The printing press made it possible to produce books and pamphlets quickly cheaply and in huge quantities. Telephone 1859: “The horse does not eat cucumber salad” was the frst sentence transmitted on a telephone device invented by Philipp Reis. Based on his prototype Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone as we know it and changed the way we communicate forever. Cars 1886: Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler independently invented the most coveted German object of desire apart from beer and soccer: the automobile. Their companies merged to form Daimler-Benz AG. People were initially sceptical about the car calling it “too loud too fast too dangerous” but it went on to become a craze. Computer 1941: Engineer Konrad Zuse didn’t enjoy manual calculations so he developed a machine that could do the job for him. The result was the computing machine Z3 which started the digital age—long before Steve Jobs Chip Cards 1969: Jürgen Dethloff and Helmut Gröttrup created these “pocket-sized wonders”: tiny cards with integrated circuitry. They found their way into our wallets in ATM and credit cards. MP3 1987: Researchers at the Fraunhofer Society managed to compress audio with little or no loss of sound quality and the MP3 format was born which completely transformed the music industry Over the last 60 years the size of a transistor has been reduced to a few nanometres resulting in faster cheaper and smarter computers. But the miniaturisation crusade in the silicon chip industry faces a wall of limitation—a wall that is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. My job as a physicist is to break this barrier and there is no better place to do this than in Germany. It is a place where walls fall down: social walls political walls and of course the Berlin Wall giving us hope that we can achieve the impossible. — Dipjyoti Deb physicist Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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GERMANY: HOME OF CUTTING EDGE SCIEN CE Germany a leading science nation excels in research and development RD and has the European Union’s largest innovation system. This comes as no surprise as the federal government has invested heavily in universities research institutions and scholarship programmes thereby attracting outstanding talent from within the country and all around the world. Total government investment in RD grew by a whopping 60 per cent from 2005 to 2013. Germany has also launched the much-acclaimed “Excellence Initiative” which resulted in hundreds of high-profle research collaborations and added some 20000 science jobs. Furthermore in 2015 Federal Minister of Research and Education Johanna Wanka announced an additional investment of `36500 crore in science from 2018–2028. Cooperation at an international and European level is an essential cornerstone of innovation and research in Germany. There is a great interest in science and technology in German society and scientists are highly respected and recognised as an integral part of the country’s identity. What’s Up Germany brings you a glimpse of the “land of ideas”. Alliance of Science Organisations in Germany This is a union of the country’s most important research organisations. It issues statements on research policy funding and the structural development of the German research system. Its initiative “Digital Information” aims to improve the provision of information in research and teaching thereby ensuring that scientists and scholars are equipped with information that best suits their needs. The idea is to guarantee the broadest possible access to digital publications and research thereby strengthening exchange of data for cross-research cooperation. “Where there is this higher consciousness there is a capability of science.” — Ludwig Feuerbach Universities There are more than 400 universities which have a close link between learning teaching and research. These universities operate on the principle “unity of teaching and research” “Einheit von Lehre und Forschung”. Germany ranks third in the world in knowledge transfer between universities and companies. Industry Small and medium-sized German companies SMEs—often global market leaders in niche products or services—and international players such as Siemens BMW and Krupp enjoy the benefts of participatory research. Combined they contribute two-thirds of all RD funding in the country placing Germany among the top three countries when it comes to corporate RD spending. Non-university Institutes Research facilities such as the renowned Fraunhofer Society form an integral part of the German research landscape. Institutes like these focus on fuent cooperation between companies universities and state governments specialising in areas that need holistic solutions for example smart cities. Clusters Networks Stronger together In certain felds and regions industrial and academic institutions work hand in hand pooling their research and development activities in networks and clusters. This ensures increased access to knowledge and technologies. Bringing Great Minds Together German companies can rely on a strong institutional framework to support their innovation efforts. There are almost 1000 public-funded research institutions and around 500 networks and clusters. In 2012 Germany’s gross domestic expenditure on research and development GERD was roughly `5.8 lakh crore. The country offers a wide variety of research locations: universities universities of applied sciences non-university institutes companies federal and state institutions. THE RESEARCH LANDSCAPE IN GERMANY I began my scientific career in Germany in 2010 when I embarked on a PhD at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research MPI-HLR in Bad Nauheim. I recently moved to LMU in Munich. My experience so far has been wonderful. I have received unparalleled academic training supplemented with many opportunities to improve upon essential soft skills. As an Indian the cultural exchange has been interesting and sometimes challenging. Overall it has been a great experience. It has opened my eyes to the world and my colleagues’ eyes to an India that is beyond snake charmers and elephants — Aditi Mehta postdoctoral researcher Department of Pharmacy Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

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2012 A One-Stop Shop The German House for Research and Innovation’s India offce DWIH New Delhi created in 2012 is an umbrella organisation representing 15 German establishments in India including research-funding institutions research organisations and German universities. It is the largest consortium of DWIHs worldwide and aims to increase cooperation between Indian and German academic and scientifc communities by facilitating bilateral projects in higher education science research and innovation. 2016 Germany Calling In September 2016 Dr Harsh Vardhan visited Germany to inaugurate the India-centric synchrotron beamline facility at PETRA III on the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY campus in Hamburg. He also met his counterpart Dr Johanna Wanka German Minister for Education and Research in Berlin. They reiterated their commitment to step up Indo-German collaboration in science technology and innovation. India and Germany have deep strategic ties in science cooperation. Science remains an integral tool for diplomacy between the two countries fostering rich people-to-people connections. The earliest Indo-German collaboration was between physicist Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein way back in 1924. Today Germany is India’s second most important research partner. What’s Up Germany compiled the highlights of this special relationship. “Science and technology cooperation between India and Germany is driven by a sense of confdence and purpose in achieving together ‘high quality’ and ‘high impact’ partnerships.” — Dr Harsh Vardhan Minister of Science Technology and Earth Sciences 1971 1974 History is Made The two Intergovernmental Science and Technology Cooperation Agreements signed in 1971 and 1974 laid the formal foundation of Indo-German cooperation in scientifc research and technological development. Subsequently there have been many pacts between the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF and various Indian ministries as well as special exchanges between Indian and German research organisations. 2010 A Unique Initiative Established in 2010 by the Indian Department of Science Technology DST and BMBF the Indo-German Science Technology Centre IGSTC is one-of-a-kind. It is the only bilateral RD centre for promoting applied and industrial research that Germany has established with another country. Dedicated to funding research projects IGSTC connects academia with industry with a view to develop new technologies and intellectual property in sectors such as advanced manufacturing automotive engineering embedded systems renewable energy food security clean water and healthcare. At the third Intergovernmental Consultations IGC held in New Delhi in 2015 India and Germany extended IGSTC’s tenure to 2022 with a twofold increase in funding from `14.6 crore to `29 crore every year by each side. The centre is already supporting 15 joint projects and prototypes of new technologies have been co-developed in the felds of solar thermal energy and agricultural genomics. 1959 IIT Madras founded with help from Germany In 1956 when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visited what was then West Germany he was offered assistance by the German government to establish a higher technological institute in India. The frst Indo-German collaboration to set up the Indian Institute of Technology Madras was signed in 1959. It provided for the services of German professors and foremen training facilities for 20 Indian faculty members and the supply of scientifc and technical equipment for the establishment of the central workshop and 20 laboratories at IIT Madras. INDO-GERMAN SCIENCE COOPERA TION The Land of Ideas Meets the Land of Opportunities Looking at the earnest efforts being made by India and Germany at the academic/scientifc level as well as at the governmental level I strongly feel that Indo-German science cooperation is poised to grow by leaps and bounds in the coming years. On a personal level I can gladly say that the platform offered to me 30 years ago to carry out research work with a German collaborator has now blossomed into a platform involving several German collaborators with diverse scientifc backgrounds from universities spread across Germany. Thanks to German science I have become an inter-disciplinary researcher. — Dr Alok Srivastava professor of Physical  Nuclear Chemistry Panjab University

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INCREASE STUDENT AND SCIENTIST EXCHANGES INITIATE MORE JOINT RESEARCH PROJECTS DEVELOP MOBILITY PROJECTS INDO-GERMAN MEGA SCIENCE PROJECTS India has partnered with Germany in the construction of two mega science facilities: Petra III and FAIR. These state-of-the-art facilities will enable Indian scientists to conduct high-impact and frontier research in material science nuclear and high energy physics in collaboration with German researchers. FACILITY FOR ANTIPROTON AND ION RESEARCH FAIR With an investment of `263 crore India is the third-largest investor in FAIR an international accelerator facility for research with antipro- tons and ions in Darmstadt Germany. At this science centre Indian scientists will be able to carry out front-end research in nuclear and high energy physics. India is one of Germany’s closest partners when it comes to jointly funding major research facilities. Both countries are committed to holistic research for greater impacts and applied solutions. What’s Up Germany takes a look at the Indo-German science cooperation scene. PROMINENT GERMAN ST INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA Max Planck Society German Research Foundation DFG German Academic Exchange Service DAAD Fraunhofer Society Alexander von Humboldt Foundation AvH German House for Research and Innovation DWIH OF PROGRESS PARTNERS in PROGRESS GOALS OF INDO-GERMAN ST COOPERATION PETRA III India is investing `102 crore for the construction of an India-centric beamline and to get access to the synchrotron facility PETRA III at DESY a research centre in Hamburg. PETRA III is the biggest and most brilliant synchrotron light source in the world. This facility is being used to investigate structures of next-generation materials at the nanoscale level. Before the India-centric beamline was ready scientists and researchers from 22 Indian institutes had already carried out 100 experimental sessions at PETRA III until August 2016. BIOTECHNOLOGY AERONAUTICS SPACE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH ADVANCED MATERIALS SYNCHROTRON ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABILITY TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEWER RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES DISASTER CIVIL SECURITY RESEARCH AUTOMOTIVE RD PHARMACEUTICALS MEDICAL HEALTH RESEARCH MAIN AREAS OF ST COOPERATION Germany’s knowledge of how to transition from a coal-based energy economy to a people-owned renewable energy economy can beneft India greatly. The Energiewende driven and funded by the citizens of Germany is one of the greatest success stories of 21 st -century Germany and deserves to be replicated in India. When shared fairly revenues from renewable energy can bring reliable income to the rural economy and give panchayats the revenue required to invest in better roads schools and water supply. Renewable energy can bridge the rural-urban divide in terms of facilities and infrastructure and can help India develop in a sustainable manner. — Dr Vinayak Sinha faculty Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali IISER

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TOOT TOOT ALL ABOARD THE SCIENCE EXPRESS Imagine an exhibition showcasing cutting-edge science and technology on a train in India. Thats the Science Express for you This prestigious Indo-German project was fagged off by German Chancellor Dr Angela Merkel and Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh in 2007. Since then the Science Express has stopped at numerous Indian towns and cities and has covered over 122000km giving more than 1.33 crore visitors an opportunity to experience the interactive exhibits. The result: absolute enthusiasm and great learnings on both sides. During its eighth voyage in 2015 this Indo-German train was renamed the Science Express Climate Action Special. It travelled across the country for seven months halting at 64 locations in 20 states. Now this calls for tooting ones own horn The dynamic science and research landscape in Germany forms an integral part of the countrys robust economy. Science and technology partnerships have enriched Germanys relationship with India since the 1950s. Based on joint agreements signed in 1971 and 1974 this collaboration continues to create the technologies of tomorrow. With a view to further promote Indo-German scientifc cooperation the German Embassy New Delhi and the consulates in India in collaboration with DWIH created a platform for German scientists to share their latest research fndings with their Indian counterparts. The frst Science Circle Lecture held in 2004 marked the beginning of this lecture series on recent developments in science and technology. This one-of-a-kind invention consisting of 588 printed solar modules displayed in the form of a solar tree was presented at the HANNOVER MESSE 2015. Yes the polymer solar cells were not constructed they were printed Researchers at IIT Kanpur modelled and inspected the individual layers before the solar tree made its way to Germany. In June 2016 the Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO launched the PSLV-C34 which placed 20 satellites in space including the BIROS from Germany. The German satellite detects temperature changes and hot spots such as bush fres. Scientists from the German Space Agency DLR commended ISRO for its precision and meticulous launch. India’s first mission to the moon Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched in October 2008 with scientifc contribution from Germany. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research provided SIR-2 a near infrared spectrometer built for remote sensing of the lunar surface. India and Germany are not only partners on earth but also in space Bengaluru-based Dhruva Space and the startup Berlin Space Technologies have entered into a collaboration to set up India’s frst commercial small satellite manufacturing facility. SCIENCE CIRCLE LECTURE PRINTED SOLAR CELLS SATELLITE BLAST-OFF INDIA’S MOONWALK GALACTIC ALLIANCES Science creates knowledge and global society needs new knowledge to handle the challenges of a changing world and ensure everyone’s well-being. Germany is a knowledge hub with institutions that are at the forefront of developing new technical solutions that will pave the way for a sustainable future—for example the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems set a new world record for solar cell effciency. India has an increasing need for energy as the population and consumption per person is constantly rising. Germany and India work closely together to create and implement green energy solutions and to manage the green lungs of our planet: forests. — Dr Joachim Schmerbeck team leader Himachal Pradesh Forest Ecosystem Services HP-FES Project

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RWTH AACHEN UNIVERSITY With 260 institutes and nine faculties RWTH Aachen is one of Europe’s leading scientifc and research universities. It offers a wide range of academic subjects including most traditional academic disciplines. The university has a comprehensive overview of scholarship programmes on its website. SELEC TED UNIVERSITIES OFFERING SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOLARSHIPS C C S SC CH H S S S S S S S S SC C C C C C C CH H C CH H H CH S S S SC S S S S H H H H H H S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S H H S SC C C C C S S S S S S S S S S O O O O O OL L L L L O OL L L L LA LA A A A A A A A A LA LA O O OL L LA HO O A A LA LA A A O OL L L L L LA A A A A A O O RS RS S S R R H H S S S RS RS S S S SH H S SH H S S R R R R R R R R H H H H H H R R R R H H R RS S S SH H A A P P P P P P PS PS P P P P I I S S S S S S S S P PS PS S S H H A A I I S PS S S S S S I I SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOLARSHIPS C C S SC CH H S S S S S S S S SC C C C C C C CH H C CH H H CH S S S SC S S S S H H H H H H S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S H H S SC C C C C S S S S S S S S S S O O O O O OL L L L L O OL L L L LA LA A A A A A A A A LA LA O O OL L LA HO O A A LA LA A A O OL L L L L LA A A A A A O O RS RS S S R R H H S S S RS RS S S S SH H S SH H S S R R R R R R R R H H H H H H R R R R H H R RS S S SH H A A P P P P P P PS PS P P P P I I S S S S S S S S P PS PS S S H H A A I I S PS S S S S S I I SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOLARSHIPS C C S SC CH H S S S S S S S S SC C C C C C C CH H C CH H H CH S S S SC S S S S H H H H H H S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S H H S SC C C C C S S S S S S S S S S O O O O O OL L L L L O OL L L L LA LA A A A A A A A A LA LA O O OL L LA HO O A A LA LA A A O OL L L L L LA A A A A A O O RS RS S S R R H H S S S RS RS S S S SH H S SH H S S R R R R R R R R H H H H H H R R R R H H R RS S S SH H A A P P P P P P PS PS P P P P I I S S S S S S S S P PS PS S S H H A A I I S PS S S S S S I I SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOLARSHIPS C C S SC CH H S S S S S S S S SC C C C C C C CH H C CH H H CH S S S SC S S S S H H H H H H S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S H H S SC C C C C S S S S S S S S S S O O O O O OL L L L L O OL L L L LA LA A A A A A A A A LA LA O O OL L LA HO O A A LA LA A A O OL L L L L LA A A A A A O O RS RS S S R R H H S S S RS RS S S S SH H S SH H S S R R R R R R R R H H H H H H R R R R H H R RS S S SH H A A P P P P P P PS PS P P P P I I S S S S S S S S P PS PS S S H H A A I I S PS S S S S S I I SCHOLARSHIPS UNIVERSITY OF HEIDELBERG Founded in 1386 it is the oldest university in Germany. Home to over 29000 full-time students including more than 5000 foreign students it has a strong emphasis on Asia. Its South Asia Institute SAI an interdisciplinary centre for research and teaching on South Asia was founded back in 1962. Check its website for doctoral fellowships and other funding opportunities. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY MUNICH TUM One of Europe’s leading universities TUM has top-class facilities for cutting-edge research. Its 13 departments are home to over 39000 students of which about 8000 come from abroad making for a truly international atmosphere. In addition to TUM scholarships there are also scholarships for international undergraduate and graduate students funded by the Bavarian government. UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE Around 44000 students studying here take advantage of the large variety of courses available including double-degree programmes. Graduates of the university can apply for the Schmittmann Wahlen Foundation’s two-year doctoral scholarship. UNIVERSITY OF GÖTTINGEN With 27000 students 13 faculties and 180 institutes this leading academic institution offers 300 outstand- ing undergraduates a scholarship of €500 each. FREIE UNIVERSITÄT FU BERLIN With approximately 28400 students and 4000 doctoral students it is one of Germany’s largest and most renowned research universities. The “Gateway for Doctoral Candidates” on the university’s website provides information on funding and scholarships for doctoral students. Germany is home to some of the world’s leading universities scientifc institutes and RD centres. Some of the worlds best intellectuals innovators and thinkers live in Germany. No wonder its a favoured destination for higher education especially among Indian students. Currently Indians form the second-largest group of international students enrolled in Masters and PhD programmes at German universities. Nearly 84 opt for programmes in the felds of science technology engineering and mathematics STEM. After completing their research/postgraduate courses students can apply for an 18-month visa during which they can explore job opportunities in Germany. Clearly Germany has a lot to offer: international programmes taught in English low or no tuition fees promising career prospects and a vibrant social and cultural life. What’s Up Germany collated a hands-on guide to scholarships available in Germany. Ready Let’s go GERMAN ACADEMIC EXCHANGE SERVICE DAAD DAAD the world’s largest funding organisation for the international exchange of students and researchers has a detailed scholarship database with more than 200 options for foreign students graduates and post-doctorates. ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT FOUNDATION AvH Open for applicants at different stages of their careers the foundation’s website has an “A–Z of Programmes” to help interested young professionals post-doctorates and professors select the right sponsorship programme. More than 1800 Indian researchers have earned this prestigious fellowship to date GERMAN RESEARCH FOUNDATION DFG The foundation has its own in-house database of project funds: GEPRIS German Project Information System. It lists more than 100000 DFG-funded projects involving over 61000 scientists at more than 27000 institutes PROMINENT ORGANISATIONS OFFERING SCHOLARSHIPS

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DOCTORAL TRAINING PROGRAMMES AT IMPRS In 2000 Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science launched a new initiative to promote the internationalisation of PhD education the International Max Planck Research Schools IMPRS. Currently there are 60 IMPRS offering excellent students from all over the world an opportunity to pursue their doctorates in a wide range of topics. With 178 participants young Indian scientists constitute the largest group of participants from abroad. HELMHOLTZ POSTDOC PROGRAMME Helmholtz Association offers a postdoc programme that guarantees `73 lakh annually for a period of up to three years. Through this programme talented young scientists who have completed a promising PhD thesis can work independently on their chosen research topics and establish themselves in their feld of research. Fifty per cent of the positions are earmarked for women. Working in isolation is so yesterday Indian and German scientists are developing solutions together to tackle the problems of tomorrow. Both countries actively support research cooperation and academic exchange through bilateral Memoranda of Understanding MoUs. There are numerous schemes and programmes that facilitate academic exchange and collaboration. What’s Up Germany takes a look at some excellent initiatives. SPECIAL PROGRAMMES LINDAU NOBEL LAUREATE MEETINGS A tradition since 1951 these annual scientifc conferences held in Lindau south Germany bring together Nobel laureates and young scientists. Each year around 30–40 Nobel laureates welcome more than 500 top-notch scientists from all over the world. Physiology and medicine physics and chemistry—the three natural science Nobel Prize disciplines—are discussed during the sessions at the conference. India’s Department of Science Technology DST has been supporting the participation of 20 Indian science and medical students in these meetings since 2001. INDO-GERMAN PARTNERSHIPS IN HIGHER EDUCATION 2016–2020 The University Grants Commission UGC of India has been working in close partnership with the German Academic Exchange Service DAAD. This cooperation was further intensifed in 2015 when German Chancellor Dr Angela Merkel—who by the way has a doctorate in physical chemistry—visited New Delhi for the third Intergovernmental Consultations IGC during which this programme was launched. Both countries will invest `25.6 crore each over a period of four years to encourage and support cooperation between higher education institutions in Germany and India. 14—10 months before departure FIND YOUR DREAM COURSE 9—6 months before departure ORGANISE YOUR FINANCES 2 months to go THOUGH YOU MAY NOT NEED IT IN CLASS LEARN SOME BASIC GERMAN 12—9 months before departure APPL Y 4 months to go GET A VISA FIND ACCOMMODATION 1 month left IT’S ALMOST TIME ST ART PACKING PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 PHASE 4 PHASE 5 PHASE 6 THE COUNTDOWN TO GERMANY With friendly support from DAAD

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Heike Mock Director German Academic Exchange Service DAAD Chairperson DWIH India What’s Up Germany caught up with Heike Mock and Naveen Garg two prominent fgures who have played an integral role in scripting the Indo-German science cooperation success story. Naveen Garg Professor Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi India The German research landscape is extremely diverse and has produced 80 Nobel laureates to date. Research takes place in universities non-university research institutes as well as in companies. There are nearly 1000 public and publicly funded institutions of science research and development in Germany as well as a large number of RD centres run by the private sector. All of these offer an excellent infrastructure a wide variety of disciplines and well-equipped research facilities where scientists par excellence from all over the world work together. This together with young researchers joining these research teams for PhDs or postdocs makes the German research landscape highly international. Apart for its strength in basic research Germany is also known for its special focus on applied research. It’s no wonder that industry-academia ties are very strong in Germany. Indo-German scientifc collaboration dates back to the 1950s. Since then numerous bilateral research projects have been carried out involving many institutions and researchers from both sides. German organisations such as the German Academic Exchange Service DAAD have had successful partnerships with the Department of Science Technology DST Ministry of Human Resource Development MHRD University Grants Commission UGC Council of Scientifc and Industrial Research CSIR Indian Council for Cultural Relations ICCR Indian Institutes of Technology IITs and Indian Institutes of Management IIMs among others. Such collaborations provide a solid platform for the exchange of scientists and young researchers between the two countries. Global challenges like climate change sustainable development urbanisation shortage of resources etc need a global approach. As a consequence research has become more and more international and interdisciplinary. To tackle future challenges young minds need to be innovative and think out of the box. Learning from others in an international environment bringing together expertise from different angles and rethinking existing patterns is essential to fnd the right kind of solutions not only for existing challenges but also for challenges the future may present. Over the last 500 years Germany has been at the forefront of science and technology. I would attribute this to the scientifc temper that permeates German society where scientists and researchers are held in the highest esteem and their contributions are valued and celebrated where the society considers providing funding not just for applied research but also for basic and blue-sky research its own responsibility. This is augmented by an excellent school system which nurtures creativity and a strong work ethic which Germans are rightly famous for. To top all of this over the last few decades German universities and research institutions have gone out of their way to establish international collaborations and attract the brightest students and researchers from around the world. Unfortunately I am only familiar with the collaborations between the Max Planck Society MPG and Indian research institutions. There are around 20 research groups supported by MPG working on a multitude of topics at different institutes in India. For instance one of these groups is studying the problem of air pollution in megacities—an issue that is very topical and of great relevance to India. The Indo-German Max Planck Center for Computer Science IMPCES is a virtual center comprising ten research groups spread over nine institutes. IMPECS does research over a wide variety of topics ranging from algorithms to security and online social networks. The future is likely to bring challenges of much greater magnitude than we have ever seen. It is very likely that tackling these challenges would require signifcant and sustained interdisciplinary effort. Future scientists need to keep this in mind when undergoing their education and training. While it will be important to be a specialist the scientist more likely to prosper will be one who is comfortable with tools and ideas from across multiple disciplines. Germany is regarded as “the land of ideas”. What makes the German science and research landscape so successful Many Indian and German scientists work together and their research results can be applied in India. Which collaboration impressed you the most In order to tackle future challenges young and innovative minds are needed. What’s your advice to our readers who want to become scientists

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Science is not about why it’s about why not This spirit of enquiry and creativity pave the path for innovations breakthroughs and progress. Scientists are usually visionaries who foresee solutions to problems that may not even exist. What’s Up Germany takes a look at famous scientists in mainstream flm TV and fction —including fascinating science-fctional characters. The gap between discovery and delivery is rapidly closing. Earlier it could take a lifetime to develop an idea into a functional prototype. Nowadays however thanks to innovations like 3D printers and real-time computer simulations experiments and designs can be completed within weeks or even hours The future is now. After all there is nothing as powerful as an idea whose time has come. Pervasive Computing Scientists are researching the concept of “everyware”: smart and energy- effcient microprocessors embedded in everyday objects from contact lenses to clothing kitchen appliances to soda cans They will be present everywhere constantly transmitting information without being visible. 3D-printed Food The trend of 3D-printed machinery parts shoes and medical devices has taken the world by storm. The German company Biozoon has taken it to the next level: 3D-printable powder mixtures that solidify when printed but quickly melt when eaten. This could be a game changer for the elderly as it reduces the risk of choking. Industrial-scale Desalination Quenching the world’s thirst with saltwater Though it may sound paradoxical it could soon become a reality. Large-scale concentrating solar powered CSP desalination plants will convert salty ocean water into drinkable water. Experts expect a breakthrough in 2030 which could change the way the world population hydrates. There is no yin without yang no butter chicken without ghee and no genius without a touch of madness. These legendary scientists are proof enough Pythagoras circa 575–500 BC Apart from inventing a world-famous mathematical theorem Pythagoras founded his own religion based on two primary tenets: souls reincarnate and beans are evil Tycho Brahe 1546–1601 This astronomer who lost part of his nose in a math- fueled duel left a wealth of astronomical data including a catalogue of over a thousand stars. He lived in a castle and partied hard surprising his guests with a dwarf who sat under the dining table dressed as a clown Nikola Tesla 1856–1943 This physicist and engineer known as “the man who invented the 20 th century” made key breakthroughs in radio robotics electricity and X-rays. But he was a bit of a germophobe refusing to touch round objects or anything bearing a hint of dirt. Imaginary Scientists on Our Radar Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Dr Faust 1808 Considered by many as the greatest work of German literature Faust: A Tragedy focusses on Dr Faust “the Lord’s favourite striving scholar”. The plot revolves around a wager between God and the Devil and the latter’s attempts to lure the scientist from the righteous path. Emmett Lathrop “Doc” Brown Back to the Future 1985 A “student of all sciences” he invented the frst time machine. Loosely based on Albert Einstein “Doc” Brown is an archetype of the mad but genius scientist. Sheldon Cooper The Big Bang Theory 2007– This annoying yet charming theoretical physicist with an uber-high IQ but almost zero social skills has become an integral part of mainstream culture. And he has a German connection: He spent a year as a visiting professor at the University of Heidelberg. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein 1818 This early example of science fction was inspired by the author’s trip to south Germany. It tells the story of Victor Frankenstein a young science student who creates a monster through an unorthodox experiment. The Oddballs Step into the Future Think like a proton. Always positive Scientists: Brainwave Power My colleagues at Johns Hopkins University were surprised when I moved to Germany in 1996 after having stayed in the US for almost eight years. I was excited about my new job at the Max Planck Institute but less sure about the new country and language. But I am so happy that I moved. Germany has been an extremely valuable partner in terms of research cooperation intellectual growth and student movement. My involvement as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow and as the India Chair at the Indo-German Frontiers of Engineering has been so rewarding. I am sure such collaborations will continue to fourish. — Prof Sandeep Verma head Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

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Looking back into history you’ll fnd many examples of people who didn’t give up and kept trying again and again and if necessary again until they fnally succeeded. What’s Up Germany compiled a list of accidental inventions and famous inventors who kept at it proving that giving up is the only failure So the next time you’re feeling discouraged about your career or education remember that failure is a step closer to success. Don’t give up Science Success Stories Dare to F ail Potato Chips 1853 Known as the best prank in the history of snacks potato chips came into existence thanks to a complaint A cranky guest complained that chef George Crum’s fried potatoes were thick and soggy. Not one to take criticism lightly Crum angrily sliced potatoes into thin pieces deep-fried and over-salted them But his plan backfred: the customer ordered a second serving Post-it Notes 1968 Dr Spencer Silver a chemist at 3M was trying to create a super glue but he came up with a really weak adhesive instead. For fve years he tried to convince the 3M management that his invention was useful but with no luck. In 1974 his colleague Arthur Fry used the glue to keep his bookmarks in place and it worked brilliantly He could even remove and reattach them without damaging his book. And the rest as they say is history Tefon 1938 While experimenting with tetrafuoroethylene gas Roy Plunkett a chemist at DuPont discovered that it had polymerised into a white and waxy solid. And that was Tefon —now a household name the world over Viagra 1998 This little blue pill considered the fastest-selling drug of all time was supposed to be Pfzer’s new treatment for angina. However the trials were disappointing and the pharma frm almost canned them when male volunteers reported an unusual side effect: erections. And this happy accident turned out to be a goldmine Albert Einstein 1879–1955 He is synonymous with genius but it wasn’t always evident when he was young. You see Einstein had Asperger syndrome. He did not speak until he was four and remained quite reserved. He may have started slow but he sure caught up winning the Nobel Prize and changing our world forever His equation for success: I have not failed 10000 times—I’ve successfully found 10000 ways that will not work. Thomas Edison 1847–1931 In spite of his phenomenal success as the inventor of the light bulb Edison was labelled “too stupid to learn anything” by his teachers and was fred from two jobs. Though it took umpteen attempts to make the light bulb work his resilient attitude kept him going: Orville and Wilbur Wright 1871–1948 1867–1912 The Wright Brothers fought obstacles like depression and family illness before succeeding in building the frst airplane. A toy helicopter got them interested in fying and after years of hard work and tons of failed prototypes they became aviation pioneers: Accidental Inventions: Serendipitous Brilliance Famous People Who Failed their Way to Success If A is a success in life then A equals x plus y plus z. Work is x y is play and z is keeping your mouth shut. It is possible to fy without motors but not without knowledge and skill. Science in India focusses on developing innovative low-cost solutions in the fields of healthcare diagnostics and information technology. Made-in-India solutions that have impacted many lives worldwide include Axiostat an advanced wound dressing that stops traumatic external bleeding and has been awarded the “Good Samaritan Award 2016” ToucHb a non-invasive anaemia scanner and DiaSense a diabetic neuropathy device. The latter has huge potential in the German market as lifestyle diseases such as diabetes are prevalent and cost-efficient treatment technology born out of dire need in India can help rein in the exorbitant cost of healthcare services. — Dr Baerbel Sinha faculty Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali IISER CHI PS

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Astronauts aboard the International Space Station can see up to 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every day while orbiting the earth. The Atlantic The frst pair of NIKE running shoes were made by pouring urethane into a waffe iron. No wonder it was called the Waffe Trainer Business Insider The fngerprints of koala bears are virtually indistinguishable from those of humans. How-to Geek The human nose can detect a whopping one trillion different smells AAAS’ Science magazine The unconscious processing ability of the human brain is roughly 11 million pieces of information per second but the conscious brain can only process 40 pieces per second. Forbes Your brain is faster than you think It takes just 13 milliseconds to interpret images. Daily Mail A cumulus cloud weighs about the same as 100 elephants Mental Floss Google is named after googol—a mathematical term represented by the numeral one followed by 100 zeroes 10 100 . Google System Honey is the only food that does not spoil. You can actually eat 3000-year-old honey Business Insider A single bolt of lightning contains enough energy to toast 100000 pieces of bread. Physics.org SURVIV AL KIT Fascinating Facts and Figures that’ll Surprise You Working in an Indo-German context and being part of the German House for Research and Innovation consortium reminds me of the African proverb “If you want to go fast go alone. If you want to go far go together.” Since our Delhi branch office’s inception in 1962 we have focussed on building bridges by initiating fostering and deepening the scientific collaboration and exchange among scholars from Heidelberg and India. In spite of its challenges the work in an interdisciplinary multicultural and innovative atmosphere is as exciting motivating and rewarding as it can be. — Radu Carciumaru resident representative Heidelberg Centre South Asia German House for Research and Innovation DWIH

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1. What did the German housewife Melitta Bentz invent in 1908 a. Coffee machine b. Coffee flter c. Coffee substitute 2. Which inventor was afraid of the dark a. Thomas Edison b. Karl Benz c. Galileo Galilei 3. In 2015 how many patent applications were fled in Germany a. 21000 b. 66889 c. 99999 4. According to Apollo astronauts what does the moon smell like a. Chloroform c. Gunpowder b. Cheese 5. Where are the taste sensors of butterfies located a. Tongues c. Wings b. Legs 6. Approximately how many Indians are currently studying in Germany a. 13740 b. 10250 c. 6200 7. Where is Germany’s supercomputer JUQUEEN installed 8. What sparked Albert Einstein’s interest in science as a child a. Dinosaurs c. Pocket Compass b. Telescope a. Chancellor Merkel’s residence b.Forschungszentrum Jülich c. Munich University of Applied Sciences Take this science quiz and check if you’re a whiz Don’t forget to send us an image of this page with your answers flled in. Have fun What’s Up Germany style IMPRESSUM EDITORS DISCLAIMER DESIGN CONTENT RESEARCH German Embassy New Delhi 6/50 G Shantipath Chanakyapuri New Delhi–110021 Tel: 011–4419 9199 Email: infonewd.diplo.de All rights reserved. Andreas Lang Mona Joshi We have taken great care in compiling and checking the content featured in the magazine. However we assume no liability for the completeness and accuracy of the information. The content published in What’s Up Germany does not necessarily express the views of the German Embassy. IJR Experiential Design Pvt Ltd New Delhi Krishan Nagrath To subscribe to What’s Up Germany send an email to subscribewhatsupgermany.de. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/germanyindia www.facebook.com/germaninfo FOLLOW US ON TWITTER: GermanyinIndia History Science

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