SPIRITS

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By: Kelvinchan00 (81 month(s) ago)

Can I have this file? Thanks

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-L`alcool nel mondo -L`alcool in numeri -Cos`e l`alcool -Cenni storici -Principio della distillazione -Componenti della distillazione -Derivati della distillazione -Il Maltaggio -Cosa e` la distillazione - - Tipi di Alambicchi -Grappa -Cognac -L`Invecchiamento -Armagnac -Calvados -Whiskey -Rum -Tequila -Gin -Vodka -Class. Liquori

a world of spirits...:

a world of spirits...

Geber is the Latinized form of "Jabir", with the full name of Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān al azdi (Arabic: جابر بن حيان‎), (Perrsian: جابر بن حيان) (born c. 721 in –died c. 815 in Kufa),a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is considered by many to be the "father of chemistry." His ethnic background is not clear; although some sources state that he was an Arab, other sources introduce him as Persian. Geber or Jabir is held to be the first practical alchemist. :

Geber is the Latinized form of "Jabir", with the full name of Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān al azdi (Arabic: جابر بن حيان ‎), (Perrsian: جابر بن حيان ) (born c. 721 in –died c. 815 in Kufa),a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is considered by many to be the "father of chemistry." His ethnic background is not clear; although some sources state that he was an Arab, other sources introduce him as Persian. Geber or Jabir is held to be the first practical alchemist.

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Dried residues on 9,000-year-old pottery found in China imply that alcoholic beverages were used even among Neolithic people.Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by the Persian alchemist, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes, 865–925).

The 13th century was the Achemist time where arabic texts such as The emerald tablet were translate and widespread :

The 13 th century was the Achemist time where arabic texts such as The emerald tablet were translate and widespread

By the 15th century knowledge begun to pass also to monasteries and the use of spirit slowly changed, multiple distillation was applied to spirits such as vodka and whisky and often flavoured with herbs and spices, the Dutch were the best in doing that, they also needed spirit to stabiles wine or water to stop going bad during sea voyages:

By the 15 th century knowledge begun to pass also to monasteries and the use of spirit slowly changed, multiple distillation was applied to spirits such as vodka and whisky and often flavoured with herbs and spices, the Dutch were the best in doing that, they also needed spirit to stabiles wine or water to stop going bad during sea voyages

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a somewhat potent psychoactive drug,:

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol , pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a somewhat potent psychoactive drug,

Carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates Monosaccharide's Fructose, Maltose Disaccharides Sucrose , Lactose · Polysaccharides Starch , Cellulose

Abv – Alcohol Content By Volume:

Abv – Alcohol Content By Volume

Water:

Water Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Distillation Alcohol

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What`s the Distillation ? The distillation process is used to separate the substances composing a mixture. It involves a change of state, as of liquid to gas, and subsequent condensation . The process was probably first used in the production of intoxicating beverages. Today, refined methods of distillation are used in many industries, including the alcohol and petroleum industries. The Basic Distillation Process A simple distillation apparatus consists essentially of three parts: a flask equipped with a thermometer and with an outlet tube from which the vapor is emitted; a condenser that consists of two tubes of different diameters placed one within the other and so arranged that the smaller (in which the vapor is condensed) is held in a stream of coolant in the larger; and a vessel in which the condensed vapour is collected.

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What`s Distillation ? Distillation is an important process behind the production of any spirit; grappa, vodka, rum, whisky, cognac, gin, tequila etc. Generally speaking, the objective of distillation is identical for each:  to extract the alcohol from a fermented or not compound of water and other raw materials through the boiling and subsequently condensation Discontinuous Distillation This plant is simple, but the process is very uneconomical both in time and materials, and the finished alcohol still contained a considerable quantity of aldehydes and higher alcohols. In the manufacture of whisky, brandy, and rum the presence of these by-products is to some extent desirable, as they produce characteristic tastes and odours. For this reason the distillation of these beverages is still sometimes carried out in the above manner in the so-called Pot Still Continuous Distillation Is an ongoing process of separation in which a mixture is continuously (without interruption) fed into the process and separated fractions are removed continuously as output streams as time passes during the operation. The still , also called column still, continuous still , patent still or Coffey still , is a variety of still consisting of two columns invented in 1826 by Robert Stein , a Clackmannanshire distiller and first used at the Cameron Bridge Grain Distillery. The design was enhanced and patented in 1831 by an Irishman, Aeneas Coffey

Pot Still VS Continuos Still:

Pot Still VS Continuos Still

colourless:

colourless colourless colourless

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (+) responsible for fermentation:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (+) responsible for fermentation

Raw materials used for spirits:

Raw materials used for spirits 1- Wine (alcohol available) From which derives Brandy (brandewjin, burnt wine) Such as National Brandy, Cognac, Armagnac, 2- Fruits (sugar available) From which derives Eau de Vieu, Grappa, Pisco, Calvados, Fruit Spirits, Acquaviti 3- Grain (starch available) From which derives Whisky, Gin, Vodka, 4- Others (starch available) From which derives Rum, Cachaca, Tequila, Mezcal,

Section of a Barley kernel:

Section of a Barley kernel Starch

Starch Conversion:

Starch Conversion

Barley Steeping:

Barley Steeping 1 st step Starch Conversion The purpose of steeping is to evenly hydrate the endosperm mass and to allow uniform growth during germination. Steeping begins by mixing the barley kernels with water to raise the moisture level and activate the metabolic processes of the dormant kernel and activating the Diastase enzymes…

Germination Process 2nd Step Starch Conversion:

Germination Process 2 nd Step Starch Conversion The Germination phase is the "control" phase of malting. Germination continues for a further 4-5 days. The grain is kept cool and carbon dioxide is removed by blowing streams of cool, humidified air through the bed. The grain is turned regularly to prevent rootlets matting and maintain a loosely packed grain bed. The maltster manipulates the germination conditions to vary the type of malt.

The malting process aim…:

The malting process aim…

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Kilning 3 rd Step Stop the Conversion Kilning is the process that completes the malting stage trough hot temperature. During this stage of the malting process, water is removed from the green malt. The malt then becomes stable and can be stored without deterioration. It can also be slightly roasted to give it colour and flavour.

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Kilning, dries the grain down to 3-6% moisture and arrests germination. Large volumes of hot air are blown through the grain. By varying air flows and kiln temperatures malts of different colour can be produced with varying flavour profiles. At the end of kilning the malt is cooled and the tiny rootlets removed. If stored correctly, malt at 3-% moisture may be stored for several months with no loss of quality.

Dry Kilning:

Dry Kilning

Peat Kilning:

Peat Kilning

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What`s peat? In a stagnant, acidic swamp, partially decayed plant matter will accumulate forming a peat layer. The nature of peat varies from a recognizable mass of leaves, roots and woody tissue at the surface to a middle partially decayed muck layer to an almost unrecognizable gel-like material after burial to a depth of 20 or 30 feet. The volume of the peat is reduced by half or more as it goes through the burial and decay stages.

Malt Milling (Mashing Process) :

Malt Milling (Mashing Process) The object of milling is to split the husk in order to expose the starchy endosperm and allow for efficient extraction of the wort.

Mash Conversion 5th Step Conversion:

Mash Conversion 5th Step Conversion Mashing is the process of converting starch from the milled malt and adjuncts into fermentable and unfermentable sugars to produce wort of desired composition. Conversion is the extent to which starches in the grain have been enzymatically broken down into sugars. A caramel or crystal malt is fully converted before it goes into the mash; most malted grains have little conversion; unmalted grains, meanwhile, have little or no conversion. Unconverted starch becomes sugar during the last steps of mashing, through the action of alpha and beta amylases

Wort Fermentation:

Wort Fermentation Beer fermentation is the process by which fermentable carbohydrates are converted by yeast into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and numerous byproducts The overall process of fermentation is to convert glucose sugar (C6H12O6) to alcohol (CH3CH2OH) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). C6H12O6    ====>   2(CH3CH2OH)      +        2(CO2) Sugar      ====>       Alcohol             +   Carbon dioxide gas (Glucose)               (Ethyl alcohol)

GRAPPE:

GRAPPE Grappa is extracted from pomace. Pomace is the organic material left over after grapes are pressed into juice for fermentation. A typical batch of pomace includes grape skins, seeds. Grappa is made by heating the pomace, causing it to produce steam, and then forcing the steam through a distillation column. Freshly distilled grappa is colorless, with a strong odor of alcohol, and the alcohol content can vary from around 40 to 80% Abv. While grappa can be drunk fresh, most people like to age it, and the finest Italian grappas are aged in wood, sometimes for extended periods of time. As grappa is aged in wood, it will acquire a warm honey color and a complex flavor. Just like wines, grappas taste very different, depending on where they come from, the grapes used, and the skill of the distiller.

Silo interrato in muratura:

Silo interrato in muratura

Silo in acciao inox:

Silo in acciao inox

Fermentatori o Fermentini:

Fermentatori o Fermentini

Alambicco a Bagnomaria:

Alambicco a Bagnomaria

Disconitnuous VS Continuous:

Disconitnuous VS Continuous

Classification for Grappe min 37.5% abv:

Classification for Grappe min 37.5% abv Grappe Giovani Grappe Affinate at least 6 months aging in wood Grappe Invecchiate at least 12 months aging in wood Grappe Riserva at least 18 months aging in wood Grappe Aromatiche Grappe Di Monovitgno Grappe Aromatiche Grappe Aromatizzate Grappe IGT min. 40% abv

Grappa facts:

Grappa facts Grappa italian spirit UE 1576/89 Since 14 th scuola Salernitana 130 Distilleries in Italy 40 millions of bottle per year Alambicchi: fuoco diretto, bagnomaria, vapore

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?

Can be Grappa very expensive?:

Can be Grappa very expensive?

COGNAC:

COGNAC The Cognac is a French spirit produced in a delimited Area (1909) which extends along the banks of the Charente all the way to the Atlantic coast. It covers a large part of the department of Charente, all of the Charente-Maritime and a few areas of the Dordogne and Deux-Sèvres. dob 1549

Decree 1936:

Decree 1936 Addition of sugar is banned Charente Absolute ban, Charente Maritime Idem, additionnally, a certificate of non-sugaring must be provided. Prohibition of the use of the Archimedes' screw press (continuous press).

Distillation Method 1936 Decree:

Distillation Method 1936 Decree Charentaise method by production of “ BROULLIS " (first distillation) and “ REPASSE " (second distillation). Use of a traditional Charentais still of a total capacity not exceeding 30 hl and a maximum load of 25 hl for the second distillation known as “ BONNE CHAUFFE ". Maximum alcohol content of distillation: 72 % alcohol by volume at 15°C (59 ºF). Distillation must be completed by March 31st following the harvest.

Commercialization Rules 1936:

Commercialization Rules 1936 Minimum alcohol content to be sold to customers in France and abroad: 40 % alcohol by volume. (1936 Decree). All additives are prohibited (1921 Decree) with the exception of: Reduction with distilled or demineralized water sugar, caramel, oak infusion for final adjustment.

*:

* Grande Champagne : cognac made from the grapes grown exclusively in Grande Champagne. Petite Champagne : 100% Petite Champagne. Borderies : 100% Borderies. Fins Bois : 100% Fins Bois. Bons Bois : 100% Bons Bois. Bois Ordinaires : 100% Bois Ordinaires. Fine Champagne : the cognac Fine Champagne is produced from the grapes Grande Champagne and PetiteChampagne (not less than 50% Grande Champagne). * * * * *

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The decree of May 1, 1909 determines the territory; on which produced cognac alcohol can be called as cognac The Soils Grande Champagne. The common square - 35700 he, Cretaceous soil is distinguished by rich lime (calce) carbonate. Vineyards are 13000 he. The cognacs made of the grapes grown on this territory, have subtle floral taste and require long maturing. Petite Champagne. The common square - 68400 he, soil has less dense cretaceous layer, which is strongly influenced by the ocean in the western part of the district. Vineyards are 16000 he. Cognacs, produced here, are similar to cognacs of Grande Champagne, but with less subtle taste. Borderies. The most small of six districts - 13440 he. Situating on the north from city Cognac, it has its own microclimate. 4000 he of the vineyards give weak taste of flower odors (violet, for example) to cognacs. The cognacs Borderies reach optimal quality after shorter period of maturing, than cognacs Grande Champagne. Fins Bois. The territory of this district environs the first three areas, occupying more than 354200 he of rigid stony soil. Less than 33000 he of the vineyards make strong cognacs, which mature faster and have a bouquet that resembles an odor of freshly squeezed grapes. Bons Bois. 386000 he of clay soil with small content of limy rock around Fins Bois. This district is more subjected to coastal climate and it is reflected on some vineyards in the eastern part. The vineyards are 12000 he. The cognacs mature very fast and have rough taste. Bois Ordinaires. Common Square - 274176 he. The vineyards are 1700 he. The soil is completely sandy, gives the odors of the sea, seaweeds and Iodine to cognacs

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"Fine Champagne" is a controlled appellation of origin obtained by blending Grande and Petite Champagne eaux-de-vie, with a minimum of 50% from Grande Champagne. (1938 Decree) and to make the things easier… "Grande Fine Champagne" is a synonym of "Grande Champagne". (1938 Decree) "Petite Fine Champagne" is a synonym of "Petite Champagne". (1938 Decree)

The grape Varieties:

The grape Varieties There is a great variety of grape sorts, however, in production of cognacs are permitted only seven of them, though basically used only three: Ugni Blanc, Folle Blanche and Colombard - 90 % of vineyards. Other 10 %: Blalc Ramé (Meslier Saint-François), Jurançon, Montils, Sémillion, Sélect. All these sorts of white grapes differ by high acidity and low degree.

Distilling Cognac:

Distilling Cognac Double distillation in Pot Still (Charentais alambic) Aka Repasse`method 1936 Decree Distillation is carried out in two steps : two heating cylcles called " chauffes ". The first "chauffe" which lasts between 8 and 10 hours produces a cloudy liquide called " brouillis " with an alcohol content of 24 to 30 %vol. The "brouillis" is then redistilled. This second heating is called "la bonne chauffe " and lasts about 12 hours. This time, only the best, that is "the heart" of the distillation, is kept. The distiller separates the " heart " from the " heads " and the "tails" through a process called "cutting". The heads and the tails are mixed with the next batch of wine or brouillis in order to be redistilled. Thus only the heart, a clear spirit averaging between 68 and 72% vol., is kept for ageing to become Cognac.

Cognac Labelling:

Cognac Labelling The cognac cannot be sold until sustained 2 years from the beginning of the period of distillation (since April 1 of the year, following after the year of harvest). There are labels, which used on cognac labels for definition of the cognac age: V. S. (Very Special) – age not less than 2,5 years V.S.O.P. (Very Superior Old Pale) – not less than 4,5 years Napoleon – X.O. (Extra Old) - more than 6,5 years

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This table shows the minimum mandatory oak cask ageing for the youngest eau-de-vie in a Cognac blend. It does not refer to the age of the finished blend contained in a Cognac bottle.

The ageing in Chai The distilled wine must age before becoming Cognac. This ageing takes place in 270 to 450 litre oak casks. The natural level of humidity in the cellars is one of the main influencing factors on the ageing of the spirits due to its effect on evaporation. The charentais coopers have traditionally used wood from the Limousin and the Tronçais forests. The Tronçais forest, in the Allier department of France, provides soft, finely grained wood which is particularly porous to alcohol. The Limousin forest produces medium grained wood, harder and even more porous. Today, the Cooperage industries of the Cognac region, with their ancestral know-how, export all over the world:

The ageing in Chai The distilled wine must age before becoming Cognac. This ageing takes place in 270 to 450 litre oak casks. The natural level of humidity in the cellars is one of the main influencing factors on the ageing of the spirits due to its effect on evaporation. The charentais coopers have traditionally used wood from the Limousin and the Tronçais forests. The Tronçais forest, in the Allier department of France, provides soft, finely grained wood which is particularly porous to alcohol. The Limousin forest produces medium grained wood, harder and even more porous. Today, the Cooperage industries of the Cognac region, with their ancestral know-how, export all over the world

La part des anges In order to develop all its qualities and also to reduce its alcohol content, Cognac must mature for many years in oaks casks. During this ageing, Cognac loses between 3 and 4 % of its volume every year. This evaporation represents 27 million bottles per year for the Cognac region ! Although it is a loss, it is a necessity for the maturing process and is poetically known as "the angels’ share".:

La part des anges In order to develop all its qualities and also to reduce its alcohol content, Cognac must mature for many years in oaks casks. During this ageing, Cognac loses between 3 and 4 % of its volume every year. This evaporation represents 27 million bottles per year for the Cognac region ! Although it is a loss, it is a necessity for the maturing process and is poetically known as "the angels’ share".

Cognac is famous the all over world and numbers speak for themselves. Out of the 126,5 million bottles of cognac sold in 1996, 119 million (94,3%) were exported. The United states of America are the greatest amateurs with over 27,7 million bottles, followed by Japan (with 18,2 million), the United Kingdom (12 million), and Hong-Kong (11,2 million). :

Cognac is famous the all over world and numbers speak for themselves. Out of the 126,5 million bottles of cognac sold in 1996, 119 million (94,3%) were exported. The United states of America are the greatest amateurs with over 27,7 million bottles, followed by Japan (with 18,2 million), the United Kingdom (12 million), and Hong-Kong (11,2 million).

This evolution in the ageing process is made up of three basic stages: extraction, hydrolysis, and oxidation. 1-EXTRACTION: The new eau-de-vie is stored in new casks where it dissolves the wood’s extractable substances and acquires a golden yellow colour. Part of the volatile components are eliminated... Eaux-de-vie undergo an evolution in terms of colour (they progressively pass from being colourless to a marked yellow colour), flavour and bouquet (aroma of oak with a hint of vanilla). 2-HYDROLISIS: This is a transitory stage that precedes an important evolution of the spirit’s organoleptic characteristics. The eau-de-vie is about to “digest the wood”. Its colour tends to darken. 3-OXIDATION: The taste softens, the notes of steamed oak disappear and give way to floral aromas with hints of vanilla, the colour deepens. With the years, the eau-de-vie becomes increasingly mellow, the bouquet grows richer, and the “rancio” flavour appears. :

This evolution in the ageing process is made up of three basic stages: extraction, hydrolysis, and oxidation. 1- EXTRACTION : The new eau-de-vie is stored in new casks where it dissolves the wood’s extractable substances and acquires a golden yellow colour. Part of the volatile components are eliminated... Eaux-de-vie undergo an evolution in terms of colour (they progressively pass from being colourless to a marked yellow colour), flavour and bouquet (aroma of oak with a hint of vanilla). 2- HYDROLISIS : This is a transitory stage that precedes an important evolution of the spirit’s organoleptic characteristics. The eau-de-vie is about to “digest the wood”. Its colour tends to darken. 3- OXIDATION : The taste softens, the notes of steamed oak disappear and give way to floral aromas with hints of vanilla, the colour deepens. With the years, the eau-de-vie becomes increasingly mellow, the bouquet grows richer, and the “rancio” flavour appears.

Poliphenols are responsible for the roughness mouth sensation:

Poliphenols are responsible for the roughness mouth sensation

PowerPoint Presentation:

Over 100 fine and rare Cognacs were tasted by the ‘noses’, using the tulip shaped glass they had elected to be the best for tasting Cognac VSOP and XO in its pure form. Once the resulting 5,000 tasting notes were compiled and analysed, the final list revealed 63 aromas. Of these, the five principle aromas that characterise Cognac were found to be: vanilla , prune , caramel , orange and apricot .

Consistency of Quality:

Consistency of Quality Making Cognac is the work of the Master Blender. The Cognac Master Blender (Maître de Chai) subtly blends together eaux-de-vie of different ages and from different crus. Rigorously, with experience and intuition, he strives to achieve consistency in his blends and loyalty among the followers of his House.

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and not all french oaks are the same neither… Nevers: The oak of Nevers may be characterised as having medium-tight grain, and is used for a wide range of red and white wines, but primarily big reds. Allier: medium-tight-grained wood. Oak from this region works well with a wide range of red and white wines. Troncais: extremely tight grain. Subtle oak flavors make Tronçais well suited for prolonged barrel aging. The limited production capacity of this sub-forest means that the oak is highly prized and in great demand by makers of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Bordeaux blends and Pinot Noir, among others. Vosges: relatively course grain, and releases more tannic flavors than much of the oak grown at lower altitudes. While not as subtle in the release of flavors as tighter-grained oak, it is suited to faster aging and imparts a distinctive character to Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. Limousin: The wood is at the far end of the scale in terms of looseness of grain; the release of flavors is too aggressive; all of which makes the oak from this region some of the least desirable for wine barrels. Instead, Limousin oak is used primarily for distilled brandy and other spirits. Bourgogne: Unlike the other forests of Nevers, Bertrange contains mostly Quercus patraea oak which, in the favorable conditions of the Nevers region, grows into a consistent, dense grain.

Eastern Europe:

Eastern Europe

Quercius Alba American white oak:

Quercius Alba American white oak American oak tends to be more intensely flavoured than French oak with more sweet and vanilla overtones due to the American oak having two to four times as many lactones

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European Oak VS American Oak One of the main differences between the two families of oaks is the density of the wood, referred to as the tightness of the grain, as well as the porosity afforded by that grain. French oak tends to have a tighter grain, due primarily to the cooler temperatures the French forests enjoy. The end result of this structure is that French oak needs to be cleaved (spaccato)against the grain to prevent excessive exposure of these capillaries, while the less porous American oak can be quarter sawn into staves (doghe). This affects not only the flavor of the wine, by splitting the wood with the grain fewer cell walls are broken thus producing a more subtle impact on the wine, but it also affects the price of the barrels. By quarter sawing the wood, one not only reduces the labor cost involved in barrel construction, but at the same time one increases the yield from a set quantity of wood.

European Split VS American Sawn:

European Split VS American Sawn Splitting affects not only the flavor of the wine, by splitting the wood with the grain fewer cell walls are broken thus producing a more subtle impact on the liquid. Sawing will release more wood element to the wine like coconut, impairing a sweeter taste and certainly an immediate impact to the liquid

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The American barrel makers were more used to building whiskey barrels and used a kiln-dry method to season the wood. The staves for whiskey barrels were also sawn rather than split. The French barrel makers split the wood along the grain of the wood to make the staves. Splitting rather than sawing produced staves (and ultimately barrels) that had more subtle effects on the wine . French oak barrels are more expensive, but that's also in part because they're cut differently than American oak barrels. French oak staves are cut so that only 30 percent of the log is used, whereas American oak staves use the opposite- 70 percent.

The Cooper il Bottaio:

The Cooper il Bottaio

THE TOASTING PROCESS:

THE TOASTING PROCESS

but how much toasted then ?:

but how much toasted then ?

THE TOASTING GRADES:

THE TOASTING GRADES Light, Medium, Medium + or Heavy toasted ?

New or Old Barrel ?:

New or Old Barrel ? and if old, 1 st 2 nd or 3 rd passage ?

and how about the size ?:

and how about the size ? Barrique Burgundy 225 lt Piece Bordeaux228 lt Feuillette de Bourgogne 114 lt American Butt 200 lt Loire 232 lt Tonneau 900 lt Slavonian 1000 lt

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Deep in the bowels of Heidelberg Castle (Germany) is the world’s largest wine barrel. The Heidelberg Tun or Grosses Fass holds over 220,000 liters (58,000 US gallons) and stands an impressive six metres high. To encourage partying, a staircase leads to a dance floor installed on its top so people could drink and dance all evening!

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Previously barrels containing Port Marsala Bourbon Bordeaux Rhum Sherry Etc. etc.

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Exorbitantly priced at 1 Million Pounds Sterling, the liquor is bottled in a bottle dipped in 24 K Yellow Gold & Sterling Platinum and decorated with 6,500 certified brilliant cut diamonds. With an approximate weight of 8 Kilograms, it is filled with 100 cl. of Dudognon Heritage Cognac Grande Champagne that contains an alcohol content of 41%. This jewelled packing was master crafted by the well known jeweller Jose Davalos .

ARMAGNAC:

ARMAGNAC Armagnac is a distinctive kind of frenchbrandy or eau de vie produced in the Armagnac region in Gascony, southwest France. It is distilled from wine usually made from a blend of grapes including UgniBlanc, Colombard, Folle Blanche and Baco 22A, dob 1461 700 yrs 2010 birthday

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Monsieur Vital Dufour This man of the church, known as the Prior of Eauze and Saint Mont, also pursued studies in medicine, and wrote a book dated around 1310 which is preserved in the archives of the Vatican: " De Maitre... a very useful book for maintaining health and keeping in good form...this water, if taken medically and soberly is said to have 40 virtues... It enlivens the spirit, partaken in moderation, recalls the past to memory, renders men joyous, preserves youth and retards senility..."

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The Soils Armagnac is divided into three sub-regions, the Bas-Armagnac , the Ténerèze , and the Haut-Armagnac . Bas-Armagnac The Bas-Armagnac (lower-Armagnac) is named for its lower altitude, rather than lower quality. The highest number of quality-oriented producers is located in the Northwestern portion of the Bas-Armagnac, specifically in the département of Les Landes. This region, unofficially known as the Grand Bas-Armagnac , has sand-based soil, often with a high iron content ( sables fauves ) or with small pieces of clay ( boulbènes ) that tend to yield spirits that are very supple in their youth. The Bas-Armagnac is dominated by Bacco and Ugni Blanc plantings. Ténaréze While several excellent independent producers exist in the Ténaréze, this central region is home to most of Armagnac's négociants . The soil base in the Ténarèze is harder (clay and limestone) giving spirits that are firmer in their youth. Spirits from the Ténarèze, However, generally have the ability to age longer than those from the Bas-Armagnac. Plantings are dominated by Ugni Blanc and Colombard, and many farmers divert a good portion of their crop into excellent Côtes de Gascogne wines or Floc de Gascogne, the region's equivalent of Pineau des Charentes. Haut-Armagnac While the Haut-Armagnac comprises nearly 50% of the Armagnac region and is the most visually compelling, one is hard-pressed to find any vines among its rolling hills. Only a handful of independent producers still exist, and the region's limestone soils generally give spirits that are both flat and hard.

Armagnac Labelling:

Armagnac Labelling Range Age (= youngest eau-de-vie at ...) Denominations Tasting advice Today Tomorrow Entry level More than I year old 3 star 3 star Cocktails or traditional "gourmet" kitchen Middle of the range More than 4 years old VSOP or VO VSOP Good for introductory Armagnac tasting: excellent value for money, easy, approachable product More than 5 years old Extra, XO, Napoleon, Vieille Reserve Top of the range More than 10 years old Hors d'Age Hors d'Age or 10 years old, 15 years, 25 years ... Tasting for pleasure par excellence: product that displays the true chararcteristics of Armagnac in terms of aromas, complexity, richness, etc.. Very top of the range Date matching to the year of the harvest and must be more than 10 years old Vintages Vintages Tasting pleasure for the connoisseur (strong characteristics) and gift idea. The specificity of Armagnac

Armagnac Distillation:

Armagnac Distillation Continuous Still (Armagnacaise Alambic) Traditionally single distilled The eau-de-vie is colourless on leaving the still and its alcohol content may vary from 52% to 72% Abv (but traditionally it ranges from 52% to 60 % Abv). First, the wine enters the fire-driven alambic and is warmed in a pre-heater. From there it passes into the main column where it cascades over a number of heated plates. When it reaches the lower boiler, it begins to steam and evaporate. The alcoholic vapors then rise back through the curved tubes within the plates, forcing the outgoing eau-de-vie into contact with the incoming wine and insuring that additional fruit elements and flavors are transferred to the spirit. Finally the vapors exit through the top of the column and into the condensing coil, where they are cooled from steam into liquid form before dripping into a wooden cask.

Aging, Maturation:

Aging, Maturation After distillation the Armagnac is set to age in oak casks called "pieces". Most of these 400 liter casks are made from wood from the forests of the Limousin or Gascony area and are kept in cellars where the temperature and humidity levels are important factors for the aging.

Coupage:

Coupage When the cellarmaster deems the ageing period to be sufficient, he begins blending. This process is called " coupage " and its aim is to assemble various eaux-de-vie of different origins and ages in a harmonious blend. A mixture of distilled water and Armagnac, called «petites eaux », is gradually added to the blend in order to reduce the alcoholic strength (minimum 40 percent by volume.)

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At the end of 2007, in the Russian capital of Moscow, Domaine de Joÿ launched LES GRANDS ARMAGNACS JOY , of which the first collection of rare armagnacs, in crystal and silver decanters have been designed by the world famous Paco Rabanne. In the presence of the designer, 14 of the decanters went under the hammer of Mikhail Kamensky, patron of Sotheby's Russia. The bottle N° 1 from the collection 'Armagnac d'Exception' achieved a record price of 16 000 euros , becoming the most expensive bottle of Armagnac ever to be sold in the world.

CALVADOS The apples used are either sweet (such as the Rouge Duret variety), tart aspro (such as the Rambault variety), or bitter (such as the Mettais, Saint Martin, Frequin, and Binet Rouge varieties), with the latter category of apple being inedible. dob 1553 :

CALVADOS The apples used are either sweet (such as the Rouge Duret variety), tart aspro (such as the Rambault variety), or bitter (such as the Mettais, Saint Martin, Frequin, and Binet Rouge varieties), with the latter category of apple being inedible. dob 1553

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Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Basse-Normandie or Lower Normandy Calvados is distilled from specially grown and selected apples, of which there are over 200 named varieties. It is not uncommon for a Calvados producer to use over 100 specific varieties of apple to produce their Calvados. The apples used are either sweet (such as the Rouge Duret variety), tart (such as the Rambault variety), or bitter (such as the Mettais, Saint Martin, Frequin, and Binet Rouge varieties)

Distillation:

Distillation There are two kind of alembic for the distillation of Calvados: Continuos Still The alambic of premier jet alembic of first jet or column alembic required in the distillation of Calvados Domfrontais and adopted for the Calvados Aoc apple brandies Double Disillation Pot Still The alambic a repasse` which is the traditional alambic required to produce the Calvados Pays D`auge Aoc which ensure double distillation

The area called "Calvados" was created after the French Revolution, but "Eau de vie de cidre" was already called "calvados" in common usage. In the 19th century output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for "Café-calva". When phylloxera outbreak in the last quarter of the 19th century devastated the vineyards of France and Europe, calvados experienced a "golden age". :

The area called "Calvados" was created after the French Revolution, but "Eau de vie de cidre" was already called "calvados" in common usage. In the 19th century output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for "Café-calva". When phylloxera outbreak in the last quarter of the 19th century devastated the vineyards of France and Europe, calvados experienced a "golden age".

Calvados Labelling:

Calvados Labelling The age on the bottle refers to the youngest constituent of the blend. A blend is often composed of old and young calvados. Producers can also use the terms below to refer to the age. "Fine", "Trois étoiles ***", "Trois pommes"—at least two years old. "Vieux"—"Réserve"—at least three years old. "V.O." "VO", "Vieille Réserve", "V.S.O.P." "VSOP"—at least four years old. "Extra", "X.O." "XO", "Napoléon", "Hors d'Age“ "Age Inconnu"—at least six years old.

WHISK(E)Y:

WHISK(E)Y The word "whisky" is believed to have been coined by soldiers of King Henry II who invaded Ireland in the 12th century as they struggled to pronounce the native Irish words uisge beatha , meaning "water of life“ phonetically became “usky”. Over time, the pronunciation changed from "whishkeyba" (an approximation of how the Irish term sounds) to "whisky". The name itself is a Gaelic calque of the Latin phrase aqua vitae , meaning "water of life".

Scotch Whisky 1-Must be distilled at a Scottish distillery from water and malted barley, to which only other whole grains may be added, have been processed at that distillery into a mash, converted to a fermentable substrate only by endogenous enzyme systems, and fermented only by the addition of yeast, 2-Must be distilled to an alcoholic strength of less than 94.8% by volume so that it retains the flavour of the raw materials used in its production, 4- Must be matured in Scotland in oak casks for no less than three years and a day, 5- Must not contain any added substance other than water and caramel colouring, and 6- May not be bottled at less than 40% alcohol by volume. :

Scotch Whisky 1- Must be distilled at a Scottish distillery from water and malted barley, to which only other whole grains may be added, have been processed at that distillery into a mash, converted to a fermentable substrate only by endogenous enzyme systems, and fermented only by the addition of yeast, 2-Must be distilled to an alcoholic strength of less than 94.8% by volume so that it retains the flavour of the raw materials used in its production, 4- Must be matured in Scotland in oak casks for no less than three years and a day, 5- Must not contain any added substance other than water and caramel colouring, and 6- May not be bottled at less than 40% alcohol by volume. Lowland — only three distilleries remain in operation: Auchentoshan, Bladnoch, and Glenkinchie. Speyside — has the largest number of distilleries, which includes: Aberlour, Balvenie, Glenfiddich, Speyburn, The Glenlivet, The Glenrothes and The Macallan Highland — some Highland distilleries: Aberfeldy, Balblair, Dalmore, Dalwhinnie, Glen Ord, Glenmorangie, Oban and Old Pulteney. The Islands, an unrecognized sub-region includes all of the whisky producing islands (but excludes Islay): Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney and Skye — with their respective distilleries: Arran, Isle of Jura, Tobermory, Highland Park and Scapa, and Talisker. Campbeltown , once home to over 30 distilleries, currently has only three distilleries operating: Glen Scotia, Glengyle and Springbank, the latter two owned and operated by the J.A Mitchell family. Springbank is the oldest independent distillery in Scotland. Islay — has eight producing distilleries: Ardbeg, Bowmore, Bruichladdich, Bunnahabhain, Caol Ila, Lagavulin and Laphroaig.

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Islay Islay is a small island west of the Scottish mainland and is the home of many well-known malt whiskies. Although a few milder versions exits, Islay whisky in general is smoky, peaty and salty and has quite a bit of tang and tar thrown into the mix. The island once had 23 distilleries operating at the same time but the number of active distilleries is now down to seven.

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Lowlands As the name suggests, the Lowlands is a flat region without mountains. It is also the southernmost part of Scotland. Whisky from the Lowlands is smooth and slightly fiery. It is also very light in salt, peat and smoke as opposed to many other whiskies. Any Lowland whisky is a fine aperitif.

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Speyside Speyside is the undisputed centre for whisky in Scotland when it comes to the number of distilleries. The region has received its name from the river Spey which cuts through the area. Speyside is geographically part of the Highlands but is considered a separate region because of its size and the different characteristics of Speyside whisky as opposed to other Highland whisky. Speyside is a good choice with its rich flavor, complexity and relatively mild character.

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Highlands The Highlands is the largest of the whisky producing regions in Scotland. The whisky is often powerfu l, has a rich flavour and is quite smoky although slightly less so than whisky from the Islands. Compared to the Lowlands, Highland whiskies often taste very different from each other. Which allows for greater differences in the microclimate , but variations in raw materials and productions techniques also play an important part.

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Campbeltown The region Campbeltown was once a flourishing whisky region and the city of Campbeltown was considered to be the whisky capital of Scotland. In 1886 there were no less than 21 distilleries in and surrounding the city. Today only three distilleries remain. Campbeltown is still referred to as a separate whisky producing region

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Islands It is not uncommon for this region to be confused with Islay but Islands is in fact a separate production region which consists of the islands Mull, Orkney, Jura, Arran, Shetlands and Skye . It is a source of constant debate whether Orkney belongs to the Islands or in fact should be counted as part of the Highlands region. Whisky from the Islands may be described as a milder version of Islay whisky

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Whisky Common Labelling terms Malt W . is whisky made entirely from malted barley and distilled in an onion-shaped pot still. Grain W . is made from malted and unmalted barley along with other grains , usually in a continuous "patent" or "Coffey" still. Until recently it was only used in blends, but there are now some single grain scotches being marketed. M-Vatted malt W . is blended from malt whiskies from different distilleries. If a whisky is labeled "pure malt" or just "malt" it is almost certain to be a vatted whisky. This is also sometimes labelled as "blended malt" whisky. Pure pot still W refers to a whiskey distilled in a pot-still (like single malt) from a mash of mixed malted and unmalted barley. It is exclusive to Ireland. M-Single malt W , is malt whisky from a single distillery. However, unless the whisky is described as "single-cask" it will contain whisky from many casks, and different years, so the blender can achieve a taste recognizable as typical of the distillery. Blended W . are made from a mixture of malt and grain whiskies. Bourbon W. which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% corn Tennessee W. which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% corn G-Rye W. which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% rye. G-Corn W. which is made from mash that consists of at least 80% corn (maize). (without naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain. G-Canadian W . must be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain, "be aged in small wood for not less than 3 years

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What is cask strength “ Cask strength” whiskies are whiskies which are bottled straight from the cask at the alcohol strength at which the spirit has naturally arrived following the maturation process - with no water added to dilute the strength. An abv value of 50 to 55% would be a typical cask strength, but natural cask strength could be anything from 40% to over 60% depending on the whisky, cask type, maturation conditions and age.

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What is “chill filtering”? The matured spirit has to have a minimum alcohol strength of 40% to be officially designated as “scotch whisky.” Many scotch whiskies are produced at this strength – or sometimes 43% - with water being added to the distilled and matured whisky to achieve the desired strength. However, as water is added to matured whisky straight from the cask, as the alcohol strength drops below 46%abv, the spirit goes “cloudy” as some elements of the whisky such as natural fats go into suspension. This feature is not a problem in terms of taste, but it is undesirable visually as consumers may assume that a problem exists with the spirit. To address this problem, these elements are removed by a “chill filtering” process. The process involves chilling the spirit to a low temperature (0ºC.), running the spirit through a filter to remove the fats which have come out of solution and then allowing the spirit to come back to ambient temperature at which point it will be perfectly clear.

Sour Mash Whiskey:

Sour Mash Whiskey Sour mash is not a type or flavor of whiskey, as is commonly thought. In the sour-mash process, the mash - a mixture of grain, malt and water is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). Sour mash is the name for a process in the distilling industry that uses material from an older batch of mash to start fermentation in the batch currently being made, similar to the making of sourdough bread

Prohibition, a disastrous failure:

Prohibition, a disastrous failure In the history of the United States, Prohibition, also known as The Noble Experiment, is the period from 1920-1933, during which the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol for consumption were banned nationally as mandated in the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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The Effects of Prohibition Prohibition created a vast illegal market for the production, trafficking and sale of alcohol. In turn, the economy took a major hit, thanks to lost tax revenue and legal jobs. Prohibition nearly ruined the country's brewing industry. adulterated or contaminated liquor contributed to more than 50,000 deaths and many cases of blindness and paralysis

The Licensing Act 2003 came into effect on 24th November 2005 in order to reduce the harms that can arise from alcohol misuse . Since then the responsibility for licensing is transferred from Magistrates Courts to the local Councils, which, for the purposes of this Act, are now called Licensing Authorities. The primary purpose of this new Act of Parliament was to provide a new focus on the promotion of four statutory objectives. These are: 1-The prevention of crime and disorder 2-Public safety 3-The prevention of public nuisance; and 4-The protection of children from harm :

The Licensing Act 2003 came into effect on 24th November 2005 in order to reduce the harms that can arise from alcohol misuse . Since then the responsibility for licensing is transferred from Magistrates Courts to the local Councils, which, for the purposes of this Act, are now called Licensing Authorities. The primary purpose of this new Act of Parliament was to provide a new focus on the promotion of four statutory objectives. These are: 1-The prevention of crime and disorder 2-Public safety 3-The prevention of public nuisance; and 4-The protection of children from harm

Distilling Scotch Whisky :

Distilling Scotch Whisky

Double Distilling:

Double Distilling Wash Still Each 11400 liters of wash at about 5% Abv will produce 2300 2700 liters of low wines at about 20-24% Abv Low Wine Still Low Wines are redistilled again producing a spirit at about 65-72% Abv

The Cut Fore shots, Tete, Teste Feints, Queu,Code:

The Cut Fore shots, Tete, Teste Feints, Queu,Code

The spirit safe is a large, padlocked, glass walled, usually brass bound container found at Scotch Whisky distilleries which allow the distiller to analyse and manage the spirit coming out of the spirit stills without coming into contact with the spirit itself. :

The spirit safe is a large, padlocked, glass walled, usually brass bound container found at Scotch Whisky distilleries which allow the distiller to analyse and manage the spirit coming out of the spirit stills without coming into contact with the spirit itself.

Filling into Cask:

Filling into Cask

Maturation:

Maturation

Blending:

Blending

The whisky wheel tasting:

The whisky wheel tasting

Bottling:

Bottling

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When the price of the most expensive bottle of whiskey reaches $38,000, one begins to suspect that there are forces at work besides the desire of a single-malt enthusiast to have an interesting dram from his local liquor store to sip while he watches the ballgame on television

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The last surviving bottle from Irish distillery Nun’s Island has gone up for sale with a price tag of £100,000. Which if sold, will become the world’s most expensive bottle of whisky. The single malt whisky dates from the late 1800s, Nun’s Island Distillery in County Galway was mothballed 1913.

Rum:

Rum The Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane (saccharum officinarum) by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation

The Harvest:

The Harvest

Crushing:

Crushing

Juice Extraction and fermentation or next to molasses production:

Juice Extraction and fermentation or next to molasses production

Boiling the juice:

Boiling the juice

Molasses:

Molasses

Water and Yeast are added:

Water and Yeast are added

Fermentation:

Fermentation Short fermentation= Light Rum Long fermentation= Heavy Rum

Distilling:

Distilling Pot Still = Heavy Rum Column Still = Light Rum

Cask filling:

Cask filling

Aging and Maturation:

Aging and Maturation

Bottling:

Bottling

Grades Classification:

Grades Classification Light Rums , also referred to as silver rums and white rums . In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color. The Brazilian Cachaça is generally this type, but some varieties are more akin to "gold rums". The majority of Light Rum comes out of Puerto Rico. Their milder flavor makes them popular for use in mixed-drinks, as opposed to drinking it straight. Gold Rums , also called amber rums , are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. These gain their dark color from aging in wooden barrels (usually the charred white oak barrels that are the byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey). They have more flavor, and are stronger tasting than Silver Rum, and can be considered a midway-point between Silver/Light Rum and the darker varieties. Spiced Rum : These rums obtain their flavor through addition of spices and, sometimes, caramel. Most are darker in color, and based on gold rums. Some are significantly darker, while many cheaper brands are made from inexpensive white rums and darkened with artificial caramel color. Dark Rum , also known as black rum , classes as a grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking. Most Dark Rum comes from areas such as Jamaica, Haiti, and Martinique, though two Central American countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, produced two of the most award-winning dark rums in the world: Flor de Caña and Ron Zacapa Centenario, respectively.[31] Flavored Rum : Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums which they have infused with flavors of fruits such as mango, orange, citrus, coconut or lime. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol, and are also often drank neat or on the rocks. Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to 160 proof occur commonly. Premium Rum : As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super-premium rums. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients.

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Styles of Rum There are no legal definitions as to the classification of rum but here is a rough guide: White/Light/Silver – Clear coloured, light bodied and dry. Most are column-distilled and work as a fairly neutral base for a cocktail. E.g. Bacardi Carta Blanco, Havana Club Silver Dry. Gold/Oro/Ambre – Medium bodied, slightly sweet rums. Can be made in either type of still. Colour comes from the wood although some caramel can be added. Good mixed or drunk neat/rocks. E.g. Appleton V/X, Mount Gay Eclipse Dark/Black – Usually made in pot stills and aged in heavily charred barrels. These are the more traditional styles of rum. They are very aromatic and full-bodied with a large molasses note. Often caramel is added for colour and flavour. E.g. Lambs Navy Rum, Woods 100 Premium Aged/Anejo/Rhum Vieux – Amber-hued, well-matured rums thought of very highly by rum connoisseurs. The “Cognac of the Caribbean”. E.g. Havana Club 15Yr Old, Appleton Extra Single Marks/Single Barrel – Very rare rums from a single distillery. Often bottled from individual casks or from vintage years. E.g. Cruzan Single Barrel, J. Bally 1976 Overproof – mainly a category filled with white rums. Needs to have an abv over 57%. Very strong, very powerful – not for the faint hearted. Usually used in punches or longer drinks. E.g. Wray & Nephew Overproof (68%)

Rum Agricole VS Rum Industrielle:

Rum Agricole VS Rum Industrielle Rhum agricole is made only with freshly-squeezed sugar cane juice.The freshly-squeezed juice is collected in large vats where it is fermented to make a sugar cane wine, called vesou . Single-Column Still is used (Armagnac like) Rhum Industielle is made from molasses and can be produced at any time and any place. Usually u sing Column Still 10%

General guide line on regional variations taste :

General guide line on regional variations taste Spanish-speaking islands and countries traditionally produce light rums with a fairly clean taste. Rums from Guatemala, Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Venezuela are typical of this style. Rum from the U.S. Virgin Islands is also of this style. English-speaking islands and countries are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. Rums from Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Saint Kitts, Trinidad & Tobago, the Demerara region of Guyana, and Jamaica are typical of this style. French-speaking islands are best known for their agricultural rums ( rhum agricole ). These rums, being produced exclusively from sugar cane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugar cane and are generally more expensive than molasses-based rums. Rums from Haïti, Guadeloupe and Martinique are typical of this style.

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A festival in Europe had the most expensive rum in the world, but not necessarily for drinking. This bottle, dating back to the 1940s, is worth over $54,000 USD. It’s one of four unopened bottles of a blend of Wray and Nephew Rums. In fact, some of the rums used are over ninety years old at this point.

Tequila :

Tequila

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Tequila is a Blue Agave-based spirit made primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila , 65 kilometres (40 mi) northwest of Guadalajara, on the western Mexican state of Jalisco . Mexican laws state that tequila can be produced only in the state of Jalisco and limited regions in the states of Guanajuato, Michoacán, Nayarit, and Tamaulipas.

Production of tequila and agave in 2008. Dark green for tequila and light green for agave :

Production of tequila and agave in 2008. Dark green for tequila and light green for agave 1992 was formed the CRT

Agave Tequilana Weber, commonly called blue agave or tequila agave, is an agave plant more similar to the Yucca plant rather then to a cactus as it is wrongly believed and is an important economic product of Jalisco state in Mexico, due to its role as the base ingredient of tequila, a popular distilled spirit. The tequila agave grows natively in Jalisco, favoring the high altitudes of more than 1,500 m and sandy soil.:

Agave Tequilana Weber , commonly called blue agave or tequila agave , is an agave plant more similar to the Yucca plant rather then to a cactus as it is wrongly believed and is an important economic product of Jalisco state in Mexico, due to its role as the base ingredient of tequila, a popular distilled spirit. The tequila agave grows natively in Jalisco, favoring the high altitudes of more than 1,500 m and sandy soil.

Jimadore Harvesting the Pinas:

Jimadore Harvesting the Pinas

Cutting off the Leaves:

Cutting off the Leaves

Transporting the pinas to the Distillery:

Transporting the pinas to the Distillery

Agave Hearts:

Agave Hearts

Cooking the Pinas Hornos Autoclave:

Cooking the Pinas Hornos Autoclave 24-48 hrs

Cooked Agave:

Cooked Agave

The Inside of a Pina:

The Inside of a Pina

To the Crusher:

To the Crusher

Loading The Crusher:

Loading The Crusher

Extracting Juice from the Crusher:

Extracting Juice from the Crusher Agua miel

Adding yeast for fermentation:

Adding yeast for fermentation

Completed Fermentation ready for the Distillation:

Completed Fermentation ready for the Distillation

Pumping the Wort to the Alambic:

Pumping the Wort to the Alambic Mosto Muerto

The 3 stages:

The 3 stages 1 st Distillation 2 nd Distillation Wort

Steinless steel Pot Still:

Steinless steel Pot Still

Distilling the Wort:

Distilling the Wort

Aging and Maturation:

Aging and Maturation Mostly American Oak

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There are two basic types of tequila : Tequila 100% agave Tequila mixtos . Mixtos use up to 49% of other sugars in the fermentation process and both can be labelled as… Blanco ("white") or plata ("silver") – white spirit, un-aged and bottled or stored immediately after distillation, or aged less than two months in stainless steel or neutral oak barrels; Joven ("young") or oro ("gold") – is the result of blending Silver Tequila with Reposado and/or Añejo and/or extra Añejo Tequila; Reposado ("rested") – aged a minimum of two months, but less than a year in oak barrels; Añejo ("aged" or "vintage") – aged a minimum of one year, but less than 3 years in oak barrels; Extra Añejo ("extra aged" or "ultra aged") – aged a minimum of three years in oak barrels. This category was established in March 2006.

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Tequila Ley .925 Passion Azteca The perfect woman deserves the perfect tequila presented in the rarest of containers. Passion Azteca is 1 liter of six year aged Ultra Premium tequila in s 300 gram platinum and white gold bottle. Only 33 bottles were produced, so you better get your order in early. The price of this agave nectar is $225,000

Gin Gin is a spirit whose predominant flavor is derived from juniper berries The name gin is derived from either the French genièvre or the Dutch jenever, which both mean "juniper The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is credited with the invention of gin :

Gin Gin is a spirit whose predominant flavor is derived from juniper berries The name gin is derived from either the French genièvre or the Dutch jenever , which both mean "juniper The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is credited with the invention of gin

dutch courage…:

dutch courage… Attack on the Medway , June 1667

"Mother's Ruin" Gin became very popular in England after the government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer, and because of its cheapness it became extremely popular with the poor. :

"Mother's Ruin" Gin became very popular in England after the government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer, and because of its cheapness it became extremely popular with the poor.

Other Botanicals:

Other Botanicals All gins include juniper as an ingredient: other botanicals used are coriander, angelica, orange peel, lemon peel, cardomom, cinnamon, grains of paradise, cubeb berries and nutmeg .

Gin Styles:

Gin Styles Distilled gin is crafted in the traditional manner, by re-distilling neutral spirit of agricultural origin with juniper berries and other botanicals. Sometimes macerating the botanicals in the spirit Compound gin is made by simply flavoring neutral spirit with essences and/or other 'natural flavorings' without re-distillation, and is not as highly regarded Low-quality "compound " gins are made by simply mixing the base spirit with juniper and botanical extracts. Mass-market gins are produced by soaking juniper berries and botanicals in the base spirit and then redistilling the mixture. Top-quality "compound " gins and genevers are flavored in a unique manner. After one or more distillations the base spirit is redistilled one last time. During this final distillation the alcohol vapor wafts through a chamber in which the dried juniper berries and botanicals are suspended. The vapor gently extracts aromatic and flavoring oils and compounds from the berries and spices as it travels through the chamber on its way to the condenser.

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Bombay Spirits Co.’s Bombay Sapphire brand of gin is flavored with almond, lemon peel, liquorice, orris root, angelica, coriander, cassia, cubeb, grains of paradise and, of course, juniper berriesFive Revelation bottles were created—each one a handmade crystal bottle topped with a bejeweled stopper with a sapphire centerpiece. The collection was unveiled at Garrard’s in London and then sold at five different airports. Each bottle had a price of $200,000. There were only five bottles of Revelation made

Vodka:

Vodka Vodka is usually made from grain, rye, sorgum, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes, soy, sugar beet molasses, and more from anyone and anywhere It is believed to have originated in the grain-growing region that now embraces Poland, western Russia, Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine

Labelling, Classification, Styles:

Labelling, Classification, Styles There is no universal classification for vodka. Every country has its method for distinguishing quality and the characteristics of its products In Poland, Vodkas are graded according to their degree of purity: standard (zwykly), premium (wyborowy) and deluxe (luksusowy).

Activated carbon, also called Activated charcoal :

Activated carbon , also called Activated charcoal Activated carbon filters can be used to filter vodka of organic impurities which can affect color, taste, and odor. Passing an organically impure vodka through an activated carbon filter at the proper flow rate will result in vodka with an identical alcohol content and significantly increased organic purity, as judged by odor and taste.

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Upon learning more about the most expensive vodka, you might find yourself wondering if the high price is due to the quality of the vodka or what comes with one of these bottles of Diva. Every bottle of the most expensive vodka contains precious and semi-precious stones, including diamonds. If you want to live like a Diva, then you can expect to pay between $70.00 and $1,060,000 USD, depending on how much baling your bottle possesses.

And now...let`s play:

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Liqueurs Classification according to the production method:

Liqueurs Classification according to the production method Maceration The object is to obtain the aromatic substances from the raw materials. This method can take as long as a year and is used when the raw materials would lose some of their flavor or characteristics if they were heated. In basic terms, the raw material is immersed in the raw alcohol until that Spirit absorbs the flavor. The final product is called a 'Tincture' and forms the basis for the Liqueur. Infusion Similar to Maceration in that the flavoring agent is 'Steeped' or soaked in a Base Alcohol. The difference is that the Alcohol is heated. This heat is maintained for several days and the result is a more flavorful and less expensive product. Percolation This method can be done either hot or cold. The raw material (or flavoring agent) is placed in a container of sorts and the raw alcohol is either bubbled through it for a few days to weeks or it is brought to a boil, so that the vapors rise, percolate through the flavoring agent and fall back into the main pot, much like the old coffee percolators. The resulting product is called the 'Extract'. Cold Mixing This is the cheapest and quickest method Distillation Generally uses a 'Pot' Still. Distillation uses heat to extract flavor and then the distillation concentrates the essential oils thus extracted. A typical representative of the technique is double-distilled Triple Sec.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Vermouth is an aromatized wine, flavored with aromatic herbs and spices (also fortified) such as cardamom, cinnamon, marjoram and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; however, unsweetened, or dry, vermouth tends to be bitter. The person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio Benedetto Carpano from Turin, Italy, chose to name his concoction "vermouth" in 1786 because he was inspired by a German wine flavoured with wormwood , an herb most famously used in distilling absinthe. The modern German word Wermut ( Wermuth in the spelling of Carpano's time) means both wormwood and vermouth . The herbs in vermouth were originally used to mask raw flavours of cheaper wines, imparting a slightly medicinal "tonic" flavour.

Vermouths:

Vermouths Wormwood - Artemesia absinthium (Essenzio maggiore) Grows to about 3 ft (1 m) high. Member of the Daisy family and a traditional herb used in childbirth. Absinthium means "without sweetness" due to its extreme bitterness. The name Wormwood comes from the German "wermut", meaning "preserver of the mind", as the herb was reputed to enhance mental functions and alter mental states. The name Artemesia derives from Artemis, Greek goddess of the moon.

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