Influence of moisture

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Welcome 1

INFLUENCE OF SEED MOISTURE AND PACKAGING MATERIALS ON STORABILITY OF MAJOR CEREALS :

INFLUENCE OF SEED MOISTURE AND PACKAGING MATERIALS ON STORABILITY OF MAJOR CEREALS Speaker: H.V. Divya ID No: PAK 8236 2

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The seed is a fragile, living organism which is a cheapest basic input in agriculture production. Guest (1979) in his poem “A package of Seeds” called “ a miracle of life ” Candolle (1832) –vitality of seeds would be prolonged, if stored under conditions to protect them from heat, moisture, and oxygen. Source: ‘ Physiologie Vegetable’ book INTRODUCTION 3

Important cereal crops:

Important cereal crops Crop Scientific name Paddy Oryza sativa Wheat Triticum aeistivum Maize Zea mays Barley Hordeum vulgare Rye Secale cereale 4

Area, production and productivity of major cereals of India:

Area, production and productivity of major cereals of India Crop Area (million hectare) Production (million tonnes ) Productivity (kg/ha) Paddy 43.77 96.43 2203 Wheat 28.15 78.40 2785 Maize 8.26 19.30 2337 (Anon.,2007-08) 5

Seed storage :

Seed storage The preservation of viable seeds from time of collection until they required for sowing (Holmes and Buszewicz,1958) Storage is the conservation of alive seed from harvesting till sowing. 6

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Reasons for storage To conserve the seeds in the best condition to protect the germination capacity from harvesting to sowing. To protect the seeds against destruction by rodents, insects, birds etc. To preserve required quantities of seeds for the years when little or no seed production . (FAO,1955) 7

Storage losses:

Storage losses Storage losses:6.58% (15.18mt) Insects pests :2.55% (5.76mt) Rodents :2.50% (5.77mt) Moisture :0.68% (1.56mt) Birds :0.85% (1.96 mt ) The total preventable (post harvest) loss of seeds was 10 per cent (23.078 mt ) of the total annual production. (In India, the total food grain production is 230.78 mt . ) (Anon., 2009) 8

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Packaging material Storage fauna Oxygen pressure Fluctuating Environment Temperature Relative humidity Seed Moisture Provinces Initial seed quality Genetic factors Factors affecting storage Life 9 Agrawal (2003)

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Seed Deterioration is due to unfavorable storage environment or improper conditions of seeds being stored (SMC, RH, Temperature, seed maturity, genotype etc.), attack of microorganisms etc. Seed deterioration during storage 10

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Genetics: Genotypes / varieties 2. Seed characteristics - Size/surface area, seed coat permeability, Composition 3. Mechanical damage 4. Presence of microflora 5. Decreased enzymatic activity 6. Degradation of membranous structures 7. Accumulation of toxic substances (Alkaloids & Phenolics ) 8. Moisture content 9. Temperature and R.H - Increases air’s ability to suspend water and enhances physiological speed of deterioration reactions. 10.Environmental conditions during seed maturation Factors affecting seed deterioration 11

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Moisture and RH – inter related and enhances physiological speed of deterioration reactions. 12

How to reduce deterioration:

How to reduce deterioration Safe moisture Temperature Relative humidity Storage structures Seed treatments Packaging materials 13

What is seed moisture content?:

The moisture content of a seed sample is the loss in weight when it is dried. It is expressed as percentage of the weight of the original sample. (Agrawal,2003) What is seed moisture content? 14

The role of moisture in life of a seed:

The role of moisture in life of a seed Seed Moisture (%) Effect on seed 40-80 Moisture content of developing seed, seed not mature enough for harvest 18-40 Seed physiologically mature. Seed susceptible to field deterioration, moths and insects very active . 13-18 Moths and insects can be damaging seed 10-13 Seed store reasonably well for 6-18 months in open storage. Insects can still be a problem in susceptible seed. 8-10 Very little insect activity, seed very susceptible to mechanical damage. 4-8 Safe moisture content for sealed storage 0-4 Extreme desiccation can be damaging to seed 15

Importance of seed moisture :

Importance of seed moisture Harrington’s (1960) Thumb rules: For every decrease of 1 per cent seed moisture content, the life of the seed is doubled. A 10 0 F decrease in temperature nearly doubles storage potential of seed. The sum of the temperature in 0 F and the percent relative humidity should not exceed 100. (Applies only when the moisture content is between 5 to 14%) 16 Agrawal (2003)

Relationship between moisture and seed longevity:

Relationship between moisture and seed longevity 17

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Seeds contain moisture above 14% - Begins to exhibit increased respiration, Heating & Fungal invasion This destroys seed viability more rapidly as indicated by the first rule of thumb. Below 5% seed moisture, Breakdown of membrane structure hastens seed deterioration. Influence of moisture on storability of cereal seed 18

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Storage Moisture Content > 8-9 % insects can feed and reproduce > 12-14 % fungi can grow > 18-20 % heating due to seed respiration occurs 20-40 % germination occurs Fluctuation in 0.5 % to 1.0 % moisture significantly affect the rate and extent of insect infestation 19

PRINCIPLES OF MOISTURE MOVEMENT:

PRINCIPLES OF MOISTURE MOVEMENT Moisture (water vapour ) moves from one place to another according to vapour pressure difference. The moisture content which a product attains in a given temperature and RH is known as equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the product at those conditions. 20

Moisture content (%) of seed in equilibrium with air at different relative humidity (25OC):

Moisture content (%) of seed in equilibrium with air at different relative humidity (25 O C) Relative humidity (%) 15 30 45 60 75 90 Paddy 5.9 8.6 10.7 12.8 14.6 18.4 Wheat 6.6 8.5 10.0 11.5 14.1 19.3 Maize 6.6 8.4 10.4 12.9 14.7 18.9 21 Justice and Boss (1979)

Control of Seed Moisture:

Control of Seed Moisture Ventilation Dehumidification Desiccants Seed packaging 22

Ventilation:

Ventilation Ventilation is an effective technique for reducing the temperature of store It helps in further drying of the seeds It alone will not be adequate to improve the storage Maintains uniform seed moisture content and temperature 23

Dehumidification:

Dehumidification If the RH is above room averages i.e., above 60 per cent special dehumidification is necessary Types of dehumidification Refrigeration type. Chemical or adsorption type 24

Desiccants:

Desiccants Moisture – impervious containers are difficult to open and reseal for the breeders. Desiccants are used to store many samples. Seed samples stored in metal boxes with gasketed snap-on lids or with a desiccant ( eg ., silica gel, activated alumina) enclosed with the seed samples. 25

Packaging materials:

Packaging materials CHOICE OF PACKAGING MATERIALS DEPEND ON: Kind of the seed to be packed Duration of storage Storage environment Seed moisture content Cost of the packaging material Geographical area where the seeds will be stored. 26

Classification of packaging materials:

Classification of packaging materials Packing materials classified into three groups based on their relation with moisture, viz ., Moisture pervious materials Moisture resistant material Moisture impervious material 27

Moisture pervious container:

Moisture pervious container Allows transmission of moisture from seed to atmosphere and atmosphere to seed either in the liquid or gaseous form. Cotton bag Gunny bag Paper bag Cardboard boxes 28

Moisture pervious container are used, if the seed moisture is not be reduced to the proper level, packaging the moisture proof or moisture resistant containers.:

Moisture pervious container are used, if the seed moisture is not be reduced to the proper level, packaging the moisture proof or moisture resistant containers. Advantages: Adequately hold the seeds Protect them from mechanical mixtures Economic Eco-friendly . Adequate drying is not needed (Moisture content >10-13 %) Handling is easier. Disadvantages: Do not provide protection against moisture Short period of storage (<1 year) Attack by biotic organism will be more 29

Moisture-Resistant containers:

Moisture-Resistant containers Allows transmission of moisture on either side only in gaseous form. Thin polyethylene (<700 gauge) Cloth and gunny bags with thin lamination of polyethylene Cellophane bags Aluminium foil 30

Moisture resistant containers- should only be used to pack when,:

Seed is at safe moisture content eg .,-below 9% for grains. Storage period will not be too long. Not subjected to high humidity and high temperature. Moisture resistant containers- should only be used to pack when, 31

Moisture-impervious materials:

Moisture-impervious materials Metal containers Aluminum laminated pouches Glass containers Sealed tins Polythene bags (>700 gauge) The container allow moisture neither in the form of liquid or in the gaseous stage. 32

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Precaution : Seed moisture should be <8% Seed should be filled up to brim. Sealing of container should be without leakage. Once used containers should not be used 33

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Advantages : Long term storage (> 3 years) Insect attack will be less Pathogen infection will be less Seed germination and vigour will be preserved Keeping the seeds packed in MVPC at low temperature <5°C will prolong the storability for still longer duration. Disadvantages: Cost involved is high 34

Research findings on the influence of seed moisture and packing materials on seed quality in major cereals:

Research findings on the influence of seed moisture and packing materials on seed quality in major cereals 35

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36 C 1 :Cloth bag; C 2 :Poly lined cloth bag Germination as influenced by containers in Rice hybrid KRH-2 Bhojaraj (2005)

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37 Seedling vigour index as influenced by containers in Rice hybrid KRH-2 Bhojaraj (2005) C1-Cloth bag; C2- Poly lined cloth bag

Effect of storage environment and packaging material on standard germination of paddy variety Bg 300:

I—PT= Improved + Polythene, N-PT= Normal +Polythene, . Effect of storage environment and packaging material on standard germination of paddy variety Bg 300 I- PS= Improved + Polysack , N-PS= Normal+ Polysack Mettananda (2005) 38

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I—PT= Improved + Polythene, N-PT= Normal +Polythene, . Effect of storage environment packaging material on Seed moisture of paddy variety Bg 300 I- PS= Improved + Polysack , N-PS= Normal+ Polysack Mettananda (2005) 39

Seed germination (%) as affected by treatments and containers during storage in rice varieties:

Storage period (month) CO-43 ADT-38 Cloth bag Polylined gunny bag Cloth bag Polylined gunny bag T 0 T 1 T 2 Mean T 0 T 1 T 2 Mean T 0 T 1 T 2 Mean T 0 T 1 T 2 Mean 0 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 6 90 92 89 90 91 92 91 91 83 88 86 86 84 89 87 87 12 83 8 86 86 83 90 87 87 82 84 83 83 83 85 84 84 18 77 84 81 81 79 90 86 85 73 79 76 76 75 84 79 80 24 55 74 70 66 60 82 79 74 41 55 53 50 51 60 56 56 CD at 5% 1.41 2.77 Seed germination (%) as affected by treatments and containers during storage in rice varieties Selvaraju & Krishnasamy (2005) T 0 – Control, T 1 – Halogen mixture @ 5 gm/kg dry dressing T 2 – Thiram 2gm/kg + Carbaryl @ 2gm/kg 40

Germination (%) as influenced by genotypes, containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2:

Treatments Storage period (months) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 G E N O T Y P E S IR 58025 A 91.9 90.9 89.3 87.4 85.5 82.8 80.5 IR 58025 B 91.0 89.7 88.3 86.5 84.2 81.8 79.7 KMR-3 93.7 92.8 91.4 89.8 88.4 86.0 84.1 KRH-2 94.6 93.4 91.9 90.0 88.0 85.6 83.1 S.Em ± 0.25 0.31 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.23 0.23 C.D.(0.05P) 0.70 0.88 0.71 0.72 0.75 0.65 0.65 Contai ners Cloth bag 92.8 91.5 89.8 87.7 85.3 82.4 79.8 Polythene bag(700 guage ) 92.9 92.0 90.7 89.3 87.8 85.7 83.9 S.Em ± 0.18 0.22 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.16 0.16 C.D.(0.05P) NS NS 0.50 0.50 0.53 0.46 0.46 Germination (%) as influenced by genotypes, containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2 Biradar Patil and Shekhargouda ( 2007) 41

Electrical conductivity of seed leachate (mmhos/cm) as influenced by genotypes, containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2:

Electrical conductivity of seed leachate ( mmhos /cm) as influenced by genotypes, containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2 Treatments Storage period (months) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Geno types IR 58025 A 274.6 280.1 285.2 290.3 297.5 305.5 313.1 IR 58025 B 282.7 287.7 292.5 298.1 303.6 311.7 320.0 KMR-3 247.1 252.8 256.9 261.3 267.3 273.2 279.0 KRH-2 255.0 258.7 263.4 268.5 274.3 280.2 286.8 S.Em ± 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 C.D.(0.05P) 2.9 3.6 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.9 Contai ners Cloth bag 265.1 271.0 276.4 282.5 289.1 297.9 305.8 Polythene bag(700 guage ) 264.6 268.6 272.6 276.6 282.2 287.4 293.6 S.Em± 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 C.D.(0.05P) NS NS 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.6 42 Biradar Patil and Shekhargouda ( 2007)

Moisture content (%) as influenced by the containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2:

43 Moisture content (%) as influenced by the containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2 C1- Cloth bag C2- Polythene bag (700- gauge) Pham Long Giang and Rame Gowda ( 2007)

Germination(%) as influenced by the containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2:

44 Germination(%) as influenced by the containers during storage in rice hybrid KRH-2 C1- Cloth bag C2- Polythene bag (700- gauge) Pham Long Giang and Rame Gowda ( 2007)

Effect of moisture content and packaging materials on paddy storage Karaikal-paddy (Var. ADT 39):

Moisture content/Container Seed quality parameters after 4 months storability Germination(%) Moisture(%) Insect incidence(%) Initial quality status 96 9.9, 11.3, 12.6 Nil M 1 C 1 88 12.9 1.50 M 1 C 2 87 12.7 1.50 M 1 C 3 91 11.8 1.00 M 1 C 4 90 11.4 0.50 M 2 C 1 85 13.0 2.25 M 2 C 2 90 13.0 1.75 M 2 C 3 91 12.2 1.50 M 2 C 4 92 11.5 0.40 M 3 C 1 83 13.8 6.25 M 3 C 2 88 13.6 3.25 M 3 C 3 89 13.1 1.50 M 3 C 4 91 12.8 1.50 S.Em ± 0.43 0.06 0.17 CD 0.85 0.11 0.34 Effect of moisture content and packaging materials on paddy storage Karaikal - paddy (Var. ADT 39) M 1 -10% M 2 -12% M 3 - 14% C 1 -PLJC (Poly lined Jute canvas bag) C 2 - PLCB C 3 - HDPE Bag C 4 - Super Bag Anon (2008 ) 45

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Treatments Months after storage Initial 2 months (Dec-07) Containers : CB: Cloth bag PB: Polythene bag G(%) SL(cm) SVI G(%) SL (cm) SVI T 0 : Untreated control CB 88 8 704 87 6.9 600 PB 90 8.2 738 89 7.9 703 T 1 :Polykote @ 4 ml/kg CB 89 8.2 730 88 7.9 695 PB 91 8.3 755 90 8 720 T 2 : T 1 +Thiram 75% WDP @ 2.4g/kg/ Thiram flowable 40% @2.4 ml/kg CB 90 8.1 729 84 7.8 655 PB 92 8.2 754 90 8 720 T 3 +Imidachloprid @ 6ml/kg CB 89 7.8 694 86 7.5 645 PB 90 7.9 711 88 7.6 668 T 4 - T 1 +T 2 +T 3 CB 87 7.9 687 85 7.4 629 PB 89 8 712 87 7.6 661 T 5 : T 1 +Vitavax 200 @2g/kg CB 90 8.1 729 89 7.9 703 PB 92 8.2 754 90 8 720 T 6 : T 4 +Super red @ 0.1 ml/kg seed CB 85 7.8 553 82 7.3 598 PB 87 7.9 687 85 7.6 646 T 7 -Insecticide +Fungicide+Polymer+super red CB 84 7.4 622 83 CB 647 PB 86 7.5 645 84 8 672 Effect of Coating material and packaging material on quality during storage under ambient conditions at Hyderabad – Hybrid paddy (KRH-2) Anon (2008) 46

Effect of different storage containers on black point incidence, germination and moisture content of wheat seeds:

Effect of different storage containers on black point incidence , germination and moisture content of wheat seeds Storage container Per cent black pointed seeds Germination (%) Moisture content (%) Dole 24.11 68.38 13.76 Earthen pitcher 20.81 87.30 12.65 Tin container 18.86 91.18 1l.86 Polyethylene bag 18.34 92.93 11.17 LSD (0.05 P) 0.11 0.06 0.04 Malaker et al. (2008 ) 47

Prevalence of fungi associated with wheat seeds stored in different containers of wheat seeds:

Prevalence of fungi associated with wheat seeds stored in different containers of wheat seeds Storage Containers Prevalence of fungi (%) Storage fungi A C N P R Dole 28.60 5.32 9.12 5.42 4.60 Earthen pitcher 18.52 3.75 7.40 2.67 3.42 Tin Container 12.60 3.42 5.67 1.70 2.70 Polyethylene bag 9.50 2.52 5.42 1.20 1.05 F = Aspergillus , C = Chaetomium , N = Nigrospora P = Penicillium R = Rhizopus . Malaker et al. ( 2008) 48

Effect of packaging materials on Moisture Content (%) during storage period in Wheat:

Effect of packaging materials on Moisture Content (%) during storage period in Wheat 49 Rahima Noori (2008)

Effect of wheat genotypes on Moisture Content (%) during storage period:

Effect of wheat genotypes on Moisture Content (%) during storage period 50 Rahima Noori (2008)

Effect of packing materials on Germination (%) during storage of wheat genotypes:

Effect of packing materials on Germination (%) during storage of wheat genotypes 51 Rahima Noori (2008)

Levels of CO2 at moisture contents of 14%, 16%, 18%,20% and 22% at 300C throughout the tested hermetic storage period in maize :

Levels of CO 2 at moisture contents of 14%, 16%, 18%,20% and 22% at 30 0 C throughout the tested hermetic storage period in maize 14% m.c 16% m.c 18% m.c 20% m.c 22% m.c Weinberg et al. (2008) 52

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14% m.c 16% m.c 18% m.c 20% m.c 22% m.c Levels of O 2 at moisture contents of 14%, 16%, 18% ,20% and 22% at 30 0 C throughout the tested hermetic storage in maize period Weinberg et al. (2008) 53

Percentage germination during hermetic storage of maize at various moisture contents:

Percentage germination during hermetic storage of maize at various moisture contents 54 Time (days) Moisture(%) 14 16 18 20 22 0 84.3 82.8 76.0 75.0 28.6 15 79.9 78.1 68.3 27.7 10.3 35 81.7 79.7 3.0 0.0 0.0 55 72.3 61.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75 58.3 21.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Weinberg et al. (2008)

Effect of storage devices on moisture percentage, oxygen level, and 1000-seed weight on aman rice seed (BR-11):

Storage devices Seed moisture (%) Oxygen level(%) 1000 seed weight(g) 1 st sampling ( prestorag ) 2 nd sampling (After storage) 1 st sampling ( prestorag ) 2 nd sampling (After storage) Organic cocoon 11.92 11.87 19.093 3.70 23.40 Germax Cocoon 11.80 11.97 19.09 13.23 23.60 IRRI made storage bag 11.63 11.97 19.07 7.00 23.40 Rexin Cocoon 11.80 12.90 19.10 15.167 24.33 Polythene bag 11.63 14.33 19.00 16.00 24.57 Thick poly bag 11.67 13.13 19.00 15.00 24.53 Polythene in gunny bag 11.73 14.30 19.00 16.00 24.87 Gunny bag 11.67 15.27 19.00 19.10 26.00 LSD 0.01 NS 1.317 NS 0.91 1.11 CV (%) 3.12 5.76 1.32 4.02 2.65 Effect of storage devices on moisture percentage, oxygen level, and 1000-seed weight on aman rice seed (BR-11) Alam et al . (2009 ) 55

Effect of storage devices on germination percentage, vigor index, shoot and root length, shoot and root dry mass/10 seedlings of aman rice seed:

Storage device G% Vigor index Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm) Organic Cocoon 93.33 23.5 13.63 10.80 Germax Cocoon 91.10 23.48 13.60 10.53 IRRI made storage bag 91.10 23.16 13.57 10.43 Rexin Cocoon 86.66 21.44 11.73 9.90 Polythene bag 82.22 20.80 11.77 9.27 Thick poly bag 86.66 21.52 12.00 9.93 Polythene in gunny bag 82.22 20.82 11.67 9.30 Gunny bag 73.33 20.00 10.80 8.37 LSD 0.01 6.23 0.84 0.62 1.34 CV (%) 4.19 2.24 2.93 7.92 Effect of storage devices on germination percentage, vigor index, shoot and root length, shoot and root dry mass/10 seedlings of aman rice seed Alam et al. (2009 ) 56

Average weekly temperature in organic cocoon-USA and rexin cocoon-RDRS after 7 days interval in aman rice:

Average weekly temperature in organic cocoon-USA and rexin cocoon-RDRS after 7 days interval in aman rice Alam et al . (2009 ) 57

Average weekly relative humidity in organic cocoon-USA and rexin cocoon-RDRS after 7 days interval in aman rice:

Average weekly relative humidity in organic cocoon-USA and rexin cocoon-RDRS after 7 days interval in aman rice 58 Alam et al . (2009 )

EFFICACY OF TRADITIONAL MAIZE (Zea mays L.) SEED STORAGE METHODS IN WESTERN KENYA:

EFFICACY OF TRADITIONAL MAIZE ( Zea mays L.) SEED STORAGE METHODS IN WESTERN KENYA Germination percentage with different seed treatment and storage methods after a-6 month storage period. Wambugu Peterson (2009 ) 59

Electrical conductivity for different storage methods during a-6 month storage period. High electrical conductivity values represent low seed vigour:

Electrical conductivity for different storage methods during a-6 month storage period. High electrical conductivity values represent low seed vigour EFFICACY OF TRADITIONAL MAIZE ( Zea mays L.) SEED STORAGE METHODS IN WESTERN KENYA Wambugu Peterson (2009 ) 60

SUMMARY:

SUMMARY REVIEWS RESEARCH WORK Bhojaraj (2005) Poly lined cloth bag showed good results in all the seed quality parameters in rice hybrid upto 10 months of storage. Mettananda (2005) Low moisture permeable packaging material such as polythene bags increased the seed storability of paddy up to 10 months in moisture sensitive cultivar Bg 300. Selvaraju & Krishnasamy (2005) Minimum seed certification standards of 80 per cent germination n was maintained upto 18 months when the rice seeds treated with halogen mixture at 5 gm/kg and stored in polylined gunny bag Biradar Patil and Shekhargouda ( 2007) Hybrid rice seed stored in polythene bag recorded highest germination (83.9% ) than the cloth bag (79.8 %) at the end of 12 months of ambient storage in rice hybrid KRH-2. Giang and Rame Gowda (2007) KRH-2 paddy seeds stored in polythene bag maintained safer limit of moisture (< 13%) compared to cloth bag (14.30%) at the end of 8 months storage. Anon (2008) Paddy (Var. ADT 39) storage in super bag at 12% moisture will helps in maintaining seed quality parameters upto 6 months. 61

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62 REVIEWS RESEARCH WORK Anon (2008) Polythene bag is better than cloth bag for rice hybrid KRH-2 storage at Hydrabad . Malaker et al. (2008) Highest germination in polyethylene bag followed by tin container and earthen pitcher after 9 months of storage due to decrease in the fungal population which cause black point disease in wheat especially by the species of Aspergillus and Penicillium . Rahima Noori (2008) 700 gauge polythene bag helps in maintaining the safer moisture level and given good germination percentages upto 7 months in different wheat genotypes. Weinberg et al. (2008) Maize seeds stored at 14 and 16 per cent moisture content , the respiration was aerobic and no excess of pressure was observed. Alam et al. (2009) Aman rice seeds stored in organic cocoon storage container performed better and maintained higher germination during storage . Wambugu Peterson (2009 ) Cow dung treated Maize seeds stored in plastic container maintained highest germination percentage and vigor index.

Conclusion:

Conclusion The moisture content of the seeds during storage is no doubt the most influential factor affecting seed longevity. Maintenance of safer level of seed moisture throughout the storage period is a great task. This could be achieved by using improved, suitable packaging materials. Combined effect safe moisture level and suitable packaging material improves the physical and physiological quality of the seeds during storage and prolongs the shelf life of the seed 63

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Thank You 64

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