comparatives + superlatives

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 1 Comparisons of inequality With adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, use these constructions to make comparisons of inequality (more than/less than). Sus creencias son menos liberales que las mías. El presidente tenía menos poder que el ejército. His beliefs are less liberal than mine. The president had less power than the army. Adjective Noun ¡Llegaste más tarde que yo! ¡ Nos peleamos más que los niños! You arrived later than I did! We fight more than the kids do! Adverb Verb

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 2 Before a number (or equivalent expression), more/less than is expressed with más/menos de . Necesito un vuelo a Santiago, pero no puedo pagar más de quinientos dólares. Será difícil, señor. Déjeme buscar y le aviso en menos de una hora. I need a flight to Santiago, but I can’t pay more than five hundred dollars. That will be difficult, sir. Let me look, and I’ll let you know in less than an hour.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 3 Comparisons of equality The following constructions are used to make comparisons of equality ( as...as ). El debate de anoche fue tan aburrido como el de la semana pasada. La señora Pacheco habló con tanta convicción como el señor Quesada. Last night’s debate was as boring as last week’s. Ms. Pacheco spoke with as much conviction as Mr. Quesada. Adjective Noun Nosotros discutimos tan intensamente como los candidatos. Ambos candidatos son insoportables. Ella miente tanto como él. We argued as intensely as the candidates. Both candidates are unbearable. She lies as much as he does. Adverb Verb

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 4 Tan and tanto can also be used for emphasis, rather than to compare. tan so tanto so much tantos/as so many ¡Tus ideas son tan anticuadas! Your ideas are so outdated! ¿Por qué te enojas tanto? Why do you get so angry? Lo hemos hablado tantas veces y nunca logro convencerte. We’ve talked about it so many times, and I never manage to convince you. ¡ATENCIÓN!

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 5 Superlatives Use this construction to form superlatives ( superlativos ). The noun is preceded by a definite article, and de is the equivalent of in , on , or of . Ésta es la playa más bonita de la costa chilena. This is the prettiest beach on the coast of Chile. Es el hotel menos caro del pueblo. It is the least expensive hotel in town.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 6 Absolute superlatives The suffix –ísimo/a is added to adjectives and adverbs to form the absolute superlative . This form is the equivalent of extremely or very before an adjective or adverb in English. malo ➙ malísimo mucha ➙ muchísima rápidos ➙ rapidísimos fáciles ➙ facilísimas Adjectives and adverbs with stems ending in c, g, or z change spelling to qu, gu, and c in the absolute superlative. rico ➙ riquísimo larga ➙ larguísima feliz ➙ felicísimo Adjectives that end in –n or –r form the absolute by adding –císimo/a . joven ➙ jovencísimo trabajador ➙ trabajadorcísimo ¡ATENCIÓN!

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 7 The noun may also be omitted from a superlative construction. Me gustaría comer en el restaurante más elegante del barrio. I would like to eat at the most elegant restaurant in the neighborhood. Las Dos Palmas es el más elegante de la ciudad. Las Dos Palmas is the most elegant one in the city.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 8 Irregular comparatives and superlatives

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 9 When grande and pequeño refer to size and not age or quality, the regular comparative and superlative forms are used. Ernesto es más pequeño que yo. Ese edificio es el más grande de todos. Ernesto is smaller than I am. That building is the biggest one of all.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 10 When mayor and menor refer to age, they follow the noun they modify. When they refer to quality, they precede the noun. Lucía es mi hermana menor . La corrupción es el menor problema del candidato. Lucía is my younger sister. Corruption is the least of the candidate’s problems.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.3- 11 The adverbs bien and mal also have irregular comparatives. Ayúdame, que tú lo haces mejor que yo . Give me a hand; you do it better than I do.

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