Post harvest training

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Rice post harvest management-Bangladesh context Debashish Chanda, Ph.D Post Harvest & Business Model Specialist IRRI Bangladesh

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Why is Post-Harvest Management Important? Food Safety Quality assurance Better storage Better protection from pests Reduce losses (quantity & quality) Better marketing opportunities

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Post harvest losses in Bangladesh (Present scenario) Production of Rice per year = around 30 million tons Post harvest loss of Rice = 10 – 15 % per year (approx) Post harvest loss of F & V = 30 – 40 % per year (approx) In value losses (all crops) cost = around 30,000 crore BDT If we can reduce these losses only 3% , we can save 1.0 million tons food crops.

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Causes of post harvest losses Generally these include: Inefficient harvesting and handling methods Labor shortage during harvest season Harvesting immature and over-mature crops Poor processing techniques Limited drying facility Excess rain-fall expose Lack of storage facilities Rough transportation/load/unload No or poor access to new technology No farmers friendly business model

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Post harvest steps Harvesting (cutting – field drying – hauling) Stacking/Piling - Threshing (and winnowing ) Moisture control (drying) Fine cleaning (for seed) Bagging Fumigation (for seed) Storage (paddy storage) Parboiling & milling Transportation - Marketing

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Harvest Handling Harvest in dry and sunny weather to avoid extra moisture Harvest only in appropriate ripening stage (80-85%) Use combine harvester if available/possible Do not mix grain for milling with seed production Take moisture measurement after harvesting Avoid delays in threshing and drying after harvesting

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Harvesting Harvesting mainly manually (almost 99 %) Very rare use of reapers and combine harvesters Combine harvester is more appropriate and cost effective

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Field drying Leaving the cut crop in the field and exposing it to the sun for drying Panicle drying, usually farmers dry their paddy 2-3 days in the field Dry up to 17-18% For seed its better thresh after cutting and then dry

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Threshing Most of the farmers now use mechanical thresher like fully mechanized open drum power thresher and pedal thresher

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Drying for storage Drying traditionally (sun drying) Use bite test to get m/c

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Mechanical dryer Low-cost seed dryer Flat bed dryer Mechanical dryer

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Cleaning & grading for seed Pre-cleaning (for both seed and milling) Fine cleaning (for seed) Grading (for wheat, barley, maize, etc)

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Storage

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Storage technology IRRI Super bag Cocoon

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Parboiling Parboiling (5-10 min) Soaking (min 12 hours) Parboiling (5-10 min) Drying (12% - 16%)

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Milling

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Post harvest flow chart Harvesting Pre-drying in field Threshing Winnowing Drying Storage Parboiling and drying For milling Processing (pre cleaning, fine Cleaning, grading) and fumigation for seed Harvesting Packaging Marketing Marketing Utilization by consumer Hauling

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Thank You

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