Process Maps - An Intro

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Process Maps : 

Process Maps Mira Sykorova OperMngt 345 Boise State University

Process Maps: Training Session : 

Process Maps: Training Session What is a process? Why use process maps? Attributes of process maps Process mapping symbols How to create process maps? A real world example Types of process maps Summary References

What Is a Process? : 

What Is a Process? A group of activities which , together, achieve a specific goal. The essence of operation management: inputs are transformed into outputs.

Process Examples : 

Process Examples Sales order processing Demand forecasting Sales operations planning Bought-ledger invoice processing New product development

Process Maps: : 

Process Maps: Visual Tools of a Process

Process Maps Allow To: : 

Process Maps Allow To: Understand a process Simplify the process based on that understanding Implement or eliminate processes through a multi-step methodology Redesign the process

Process Maps Cont’d : 

Process Maps Cont’d Diagrams which show each step of the process Similar to flowcharts Represent the logic necessary to achieve the desired result

Why Use Process Maps? : 

Why Use Process Maps? “ Everything from globalization to collaborative relationships demands maps that are clear and can be read by all the partners in the process. Process models are those maps. We use them to navigate our way through complex business practices of today.” Chris Cummins Vice President, Process Development Group Uniform Code Council, Inc.

Process Maps: A Picture Is Worth 1000 Words : 

Process Maps: A Picture Is Worth 1000 Words © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

Attributes of Process Maps : 

Attributes of Process Maps Intuitive Understood at every level of an organization Sophisticated enough to model complex activities Prevent ambiguity Make effective use of time available to analyze a process Identify process-related issues

Terms to Know Before We Start Mapping : 

Terms to Know Before We Start Mapping Alternative Path: One or more options are presented that create a path off the primary path. Decision Criteria: When incorporating alternative paths into a map, there must be a choice to be made between 2 or more options; the question being asked should be specific. Inspection Point: A pass/fail decision to test an output in process.

Key Terms (Cont’d) : 

Key Terms (Cont’d) Input: Materials, money, people, information, or other factors that are essential to the process Output: The end result -- the product or service that a customer receives Parallel Process: Another process that can be executed at the same time as the primary process Primary Process: The tasks must be carried out in order to achieve a desired output from given inputs

Process Mapping Symbols : 

Process Mapping Symbols The rectangle represents each task of step within the map The parallelogram represents inputs The oval represents the process boundary The diamond represents a decision

How to Create a Process Map? : 

How to Create a Process Map? Select a process 2. Define the process Goals Input Output

3. Map the Primary Process : 

3. Map the Primary Process Define the tasks that will be required to reach the desired output Incorporate appropriate symbols in your map Make sure to show parallel processes

4. Map Alternative Processes : 

4. Map Alternative Processes Map points along the primary process where decision are made Recognize one or more alternative paths Merge those paths back into the primary path

5. Map Inspection Points : 

5. Map Inspection Points Use these points to error-proof your map Useful to better satisfy customers and/or cut down on costs and time Points could lead into rework loops or do-over loops

6. Use Your Map to Improve the Process : 

6. Use Your Map to Improve the Process Eliminate non-value-added steps Set standards for the process What will pass and what will fail

Real World Example:Mapping the Student Course Registration Process : 

Real World Example:Mapping the Student Course Registration Process Define the process Output: schedule The goal of the student: obtain classes needed to graduate Inputs: the course catalog, an advisor, a computer, and professors Map the primary process Tasks of the registration process in logical order

Student Course Registration Process (Cont’d) : 

Student Course Registration Process (Cont’d) Map alternative paths 3 points in the map where alternative paths are necessary Has registration started? YES/NO Are the classes still available YES/NO If not, can the student get an override? YES/NO Diamonds are the appropriate symbols Alternative paths merge back to the primary process

Registration Process Map(Simplified) : 

Registration Process Map(Simplified)

Benefits of Process Maps : 

Benefits of Process Maps Simplified processes Higher efficiencies in employee tasks Greater understanding of processes and procedures Cost savings from elimination of redundant or unnecessary tasks “Opportunities” are addressed and corrected faster Better training programs

Maps Used in the Reengineering Process : 

Maps Used in the Reengineering Process © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

1. High-level Process Maps : 

1. High-level Process Maps Useful in beginning of the redesign process Contain the essential parts of a process Focus on performance goal Helpful for generating innovative ideas

High-level Process Maps Cont’d : 

High-level Process Maps Cont’d © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

2. Detailed Process Maps : 

2. Detailed Process Maps Prepared for each subprocess in the high-level map Guide decisions on allocation of resources Determine and set in place key performance measures

Summary : 

Summary Process maps are: Simple and effective ways of visualizing and understanding of a process Valuable and unique quality improvement tools Waste management tools Everyone involved can take part in improving the process

References : 

References Internet Berry college; Campbell school of business http://campbell.berry.edu/faculty/jgrout/bus453/Gallowaymapping/p3_basicp.htm Chris Cumming , process development group, uniform code council, inc. www.magazine.org/retail/downloads/Process_Mapping.ppt Integrated process solutions limited, 1999 http://www.ips-uk.com/ProcessMapping.htm Energy consulting group, Georgia, 2000 http://www.ecg-llc.com/process46.html

References Cont’d : 

References Cont’d 5. RCG university: business process reengineering http://rockfordconsulting.com/bpr.htm 6. Jack Mulhern, Penn state university, 2002 http://www.freequality.org/beta%20freequal/fq%20web%20site/training/FlowchartsJackMulhern[1].ppt Books Galloway, Dianne. Mapping work processes. Milwaukee: ASQ quality press, 1994 Russell/Taylor. Operation management 3/e. Prentice-hall, 2000

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