Lesson 3 - London Olympics 2012

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London Olympics 2012:

London Olympics 2012 By: Chloe Troulan

Background:

Background Olympics began in Ancient Greece Called the Olympic festival and was held every four years Lasted 5 days and the winners were crowned with a wreath of wild olives and gained great honor The first modern Olympic games took place in Athens in 1896 and were founded by Baron Pierre de Coubertin

Voting for the City to hold the Olympics:

Voting for the City to hold the Olympics Began with 9 countries: Paris, New York, London, Moscow, Leipzig, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Madrid and Havana . After inspections the IOC reduced the cities to: Paris, New York, London, Moscow and Madrid. Voting was on 6 th July 2005 London was chosen to hold the 30 th Olympiad after receiving 54 votes close to Paris with 50 votes Will become the first city to hold the Olympics 3 times (1908, 1948 and 2012)

International Olympic Committee :

International Olympic Committee Based in Lausanne, Switzerland Consists of 205 member countries Can have up to 115 members that help select the host cities

London:

London London Wins! Hold the Olympics between 27 th July 2012 and 12 th August 2012 After the summer Olympics they will also hold the Paralympics between 29 th August 2012 and 9 th September 2012 It will be London’s 3 rd Olympics and 1 st Paralympics Paralympics – Olympics for disabled people

Location in London:

Location in London There are so many events that not all can take place in central London Events such as: sailing, rowing and shooting need specific areas to take place in Some events are even taking place in Glasgow and Cardiff Most events are located in East London in the borough district of Newham – chosen because it gave it a chance to be regenerated and had a large area of available land

Newham :

Newham Chance to be regenerated Was a very important location 100 years ago but since ships became bigger, the River Thames less useful and manufacturing moves overseas Newham went into a state of decline Many factories went derelict causing unemployment to rise Because of the Olympics the area has been cleaned and built on, residents have been able to find jobs in construction and any other jobs in relation to the Olympic preparation

Factors affecting the location:

Factors affecting the location Economic – money, business Social and Cultural – accommodation, tourists, regeneration of areas Political – government comes together Physical (environmental) – pollution, climate, available land, transportation

Economic:

Economic There are 5 international airports in London London city is located very close to the Olympic Village The rail network in London is very effective. Newham is connected by the underground, overground , mainline rail, Docklands light railway and Eurostar Lots of the venues such as: Wembley , Lord’s, Wimbledon and the O2 arena already existed The government was in agreement to cover the cost of the Olympics The Uk as a whole has a great record when it comes to hosting major sporting events such as: The European football championships in 1996 and the Commonwealth Games in 2002 The city of London is a world city so it is easy for them to attract people for sponsors and to advertise at the venues

Social and Cultural:

Social and Cultural Both London and the UK have traditions with sports. They have homes for cricket, tennis and rugby. Also has other famous venues in the capital. Poor areas could be regenerated and venues would be left there for future use Many celebrities were backing their city, Lord Sebastian Coe (former Olympic champion) and David Beckham helped with the bid process 30 of the final 100 bid team in Singapore for the vote were locals from London All the venues will be able to be used after the Olympics In London there are many hotels and rooms available for people

Political:

Political London had the support of the local and national government. Tony Blair was the only leader to attend the bid decision. The former mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, came together with Tony Blair to fully support the London bid.

Physical (Environmental):

Physical (Environmental) In Newham there were many areas of land that could be used to construct the Olympic Village. East London is built on a floodplain which makes the land flat and easy to build on. Also the East of London should be protected from flooding by the Thames Flood Barrier The climate during July and August in London is normally very good for participating in and viewing sport London is in Europe which means it is close to many of the Olympics potential athletes and spectators

Problems with the location:

Problems with the location Takes away opportunities for less developed cities like Havana to develop One of the World’s most expensive cities to visit and live in Some businesses had to be closed and relocated in order to make room for the Olympic Village People wonder if the transport network can handle the influx of visitors Risk of terrorist attack, the day after London won the Olympics it experienced a major terrorist attack

Transport:

Transport London’s Transport seemed as though it could be a problem but since they wont the right to host the Olympics improvements have been made to their transport systems. About $17 billion has been spent since the vote Types of transport: London Dockland’s Light Railway Overground and Mainline Underground Eurostar Airports Roads Walking and Bikes

London Dockland’s Light Railway:

London Dockland’s Light Railway Contains no drivers Covers a large area of East London Will have direct links to the Olympic Village, London City airport, the north Greenwich arena and ExCel arena

Overground and Mainline:

Overground and Mainline There is an estimate that 80% of spectators will arrive by train A train will arrive at the Olympic Village area every 15 seconds Main East London line is going through major improvements and extensions that will be ready in time Some new trains have also been introduced in order to transport visitors from central London The new trains are known as Javelin trains and will take less than 10 minutes to travel from Central London

Underground:

Underground There are 3 underground lines: the District, Jubilee and Hammersmith and city travel out to the East of London These will play an important role in transporting spectators between venues

Eurostar:

Eurostar New terminal for Eurostar built in Stratford, right next to the Olympic Village Has direct connections to paris and Brussels Makes connections to European rail network easier

Airports:

Airports Five international airports: Stanstead , Luton , Gatwick, Heathrow and London City London City is the closest airport to the Olympic Village and is connected by the Docklands Light Railway Heathrow is the world’s busiest international airport Spectators and athletes will be able to travel to London from nearly any country in the world

Roads:

Roads Do not want anyone to arrive at the Olympic Village by car Many park and rides schemes will be set up around London where people can transfer onto trains and buses About 15% of spectators will arrive using this park and ride The London congestion charge will also discourage people from wanting to drive into London at any point during the games

Walking and Bikes:

Walking and Bikes Many people are encouraged to walk around the Olympic venues Many walkways around the Olympic Village Cable car is being constructed across the Thames to connect the Village to other venues Major has introduced a bike scheme where spectators can borrow bikes About 5% of spectators will walk or use bikes to get to venues The current mayor of London has also recently introduced a bike

Where is the money coming from?:

Where is the money coming from? Government, London coundcil tax payers, National Lottery – 6 billion pounds IOC TV and Marketing deals – 560 million pounds Sponsorship and official suppliers – 450 million pounds Ticket revenues – 300 million pounds Licensing – 60 million pounds London Development Agency – 250 million pounds http://www.confused.com/cms/~/media/Images/infographic/2012-London- Olympics.png

Costs:

Costs 15 th March 2007 the government announced that the budget for the games had risen from e.4 billion pounds to 9.35 billion pounds New venues will cost about 3.1 billion pounds. These new venues would be: Olympic Park at Stratford and the athletes’ village 1.7 billion pounds will be spent on regeneration and infrastructure 600 million pounds spent on extra security Set aside 2.7 billion incase the costs rise again The Olympics will end up having to pay an 840 million tax bill 390 million pounds will be spent on other things: the Paralympics and community sport Income will come from: London council tax payers, National Lottery, IOC, sponsorship and official suppliers, ticket revenues, licensing, London Development Agency

Venues and Sports:

Venues and Sports 26 different types of sports In 39 different disciplines Necessary to have many different venues to facilitate each sport 31 different venues are being used Most are located in the Olympic Village and London Events such as: football and sailing are being staged around the UK

Venues around the UK:

Venues around the UK Olympic Village London Outside London Aquatic center Olympic Stadium Basketball Arena Velodrome (cycling) BMX Circuit Water polo arena Hockey center Eton Manor (Paralympic tennis) Handball arena Hampton Court Palace (road cycling) Lord's cricket ground (archery Wembley (football Wembley Arena (badminton Wimbledon (tennis) Horse Guards Parade (beach volleyball) North Greenwich Arena (Gymnastics) Earls Court (volleyball) Hyde Park (triathlon) The Mall (marathon) ExCel (table tennis, fencing, judo) Greenwich Park (show jumping) Royal Artillery Barracks (shooting) Millennium Stadium (football) Villa Park (football) St. James Park (football) Hampden Park (football) Weymouth and Portland(sailing) Old Trafford (football) Eton Dorney (rowing) Lee Valley White Water Centre (kayaking) City of Coventry Stadium (football) Hadleigh Farm (mountain biking)

Athletes and Spectators:

Athletes and Spectators Athletes: 10,500 athletes will compete from all 205 member countries of the IOC. Olympics is a global event and the sphere of influence is the world as a whole Spectators: Not sure exactly how many people will visit London for the Olympics. About 10 million tickets went on sale which allowed an estimate of about 4 million different individuals are going to v isit the games. They will come from all around the world, mostly from: UK, Europe and North America. It will be very expensive so most will come from MEDC’s. Sphere of Influence: The area in which people travel from to access a service, visit or attend an event.

Tickets:

Tickets 9.6 million tickets for sale – 8 millions for Olympics and 1.6 million for the Paralympics 75% of tickets will cost less than 50 pounds and will offer free transport in London 82% sell-out rate for Olympics and 63% for Paralympics Tickets for athletics will start at 15 pounds and 20,000 tickets will be at 10 pounds for the Olympic park (watch events on big screens)

Impacts:

Impacts Can be: short term positive or negative, long term positive or negative All link with: social and cultural, economic, political and environmental

Short Term Positive:

Short Term Positive Social and Cultural Economic Political Environmental Short Term Positive Local residents have opportunity to watch sport on their doorstep A new school/college has been built on the site of the Olympic Village to be the media center Jobs will be created selling merchandise, tickets, food, etc at the venues . Hotels and restaurants will see a massive increase in business before and during Olympic merchandise being sold will increase revenue from the games Sponsorship should cover many costs Government will get publicity Prime Minister will be I the spotlight Increase in tax revenue during the games Air pollution will not be as high due to less cars driving because of public transportation

Short Term Negative Effects:

Short Term Negative Effects Social and Cultural Economic Political Environmental Short Term Positive Road closures causing more traffic Attractive time for terrorists and may become a target Cost of hotels and restaurants will increase Some businesses may have to close due to access and problems (deliveries) Government will have less money to put towards: hospitals, schools, roads etc while paying for the Olympics Increase in flights into the UK=increase in air pollution More energy in hotel venues Increase in litter and waste due to increase in spectators

Long Term Positive Effects:

Long Term Positive Effects Social and Cultural Economic Political Environmental Short Term Positive Venues will be available for the future increasing athletes disciplines etc Olympic Village accommodation can turn into other accommodation Equipment will be given to charities for free Values of house may increase due to regeneration of the areas Infrastructure will benefit locals for years after Image of London will be enhanced causing people to want to do business in London If the Olympics are successful the government will be seen in a good light and may have a chance of re-election Improve the UK’s international standing Cause people to use public transport more than their own transport Areas have been cleaned from pollutants left over from factories Rivers have been cleared and cleaned

Long Term Negative Effects:

Long Term Negative Effects Social and Cultural Economic Political Environmental Short Term Positive Increased tax bill for 10 years to pay for the Olympics Many of the jobs are only for short term causing unemployment to rise after Oversupply of hotels after the games. 15,000 are being added for the Olympics Increased demand for facilities generated for the games may create inflation Government may have to pay long term debt to pay for the games More structures, hotels and accommodations will increase the country’s carbon footprint Creation of impermeable surface may affect the hydrological cycle

Why was London chosen?:

Why was London chosen? A lot of available land to regenerate Government was in favor Many hotels and restaurants Has the right facilities A good transport system In Europe, close to many spectators and potential athletes A good climate during July and August