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Slide 3: Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the processes involved, including the Waterfall model (which was the original SDLC method). There are lot of SDLC methodologies and lately several models are combined into some sort of hybrid methodologies. Waterfall Model : Waterfall Model Requirements – defines needed information, function, behavior, performance and interfaces. Design – data structures, software architecture, interface representations, algorithmic details. Implementation – source code, database, user documentation, testing. Waterfall Strengths : Waterfall Strengths Easy to understand, easy to use Provides structure to inexperienced staff Milestones are well understood Sets requirements stability Good for management control (plan, staff, track) Works well when quality is more important than cost or schedule Waterfall Deficiencies : Waterfall Deficiencies All requirements must be known upfront Deliverables created for each phase are considered frozen – inhibits flexibility Can give a false impression of progress Does not reflect problem-solving nature of software development – iterations of phases Integration is one big bang at the end Little opportunity for customer to preview the system (until it may be too late) When to use the Waterfall Model : When to use the Waterfall Model Requirements are very well known Product definition is stable Technology is understood New version of an existing product Porting an existing product to a new platform. V-Shaped SDLC Model : V-Shaped SDLC Model A variant of the Waterfall that emphasizes the verification and validation of the product. Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a corresponding phase of development V-Shaped Strengths : V-Shaped Strengths Emphasize planning for verification and validation of the product in early stages of product development Each deliverable must be testable Project management can track progress by milestones Easy to use V-Shaped Weaknesses : V-Shaped Weaknesses Does not easily handle concurrent events Does not handle iterations or phases Does not easily handle dynamic changes in requirements Does not contain risk analysis activities When to use the V-Shaped Model : When to use the V-Shaped Model Excellent choice for systems requiring high reliability – hospital patient control applications All requirements are known up-front When it can be modified to handle changing requirements beyond analysis phase Solution and technology are known Rapid Application Model (RAD) : Rapid Application Model (RAD) Requirements planning phase (a workshop utilizing structured discussion of business problems) User description phase – automated tools capture information from users Construction phase – productivity tools, such as code generators, screen generators, etc. inside a time-box. (“Do until done”) Cutover phase -- installation of the system, user acceptance testing and user training RAD Strengths : RAD Strengths Reduced cycle time and improved productivity with fewer people means lower costs Time-box approach mitigates cost and schedule risk Customer involved throughout the complete cycle minimizes risk of not achieving customer satisfaction and business needs Focus moves from documentation to code (WYSIWYG). Uses modeling concepts to capture information about business, data, and processes. RAD Weaknesses : RAD Weaknesses Accelerated development process must give quick responses to the user Risk of never achieving closure Hard to use with legacy systems Requires a system that can be modularized Developers and customers must be committed to rapid-fire activities in an abbreviated time frame. When to use RAD : When to use RAD Reasonably well-known requirements User involved throughout the life cycle Project can be time-boxed Functionality delivered in increments High performance not required Low technical risks System can be modularized Incremental SDLC Model : Incremental SDLC Model Construct a partial implementation of a total system Then slowly add increased functionality The incremental model prioritizes requirements of the system and then implements them in groups. Each subsequent release of the system adds function to the previous release, until all designed functionality has been implemented. Incremental Model Strengths : Incremental Model Strengths Develop high-risk or major functions first Each release delivers an operational product Customer can respond to each build Uses “divide and conquer” breakdown of tasks Lowers initial delivery cost Initial product delivery is faster Customers get important functionality early Risk of changing requirements is reduced Incremental Model Weaknesses : Incremental Model Weaknesses Requires good planning and design Requires early definition of a complete and fully functional system to allow for the definition of increments Well-defined module interfaces are required (some will be developed long before others) Total cost of the complete system is not lower When to use the Incremental Model : When to use the Incremental Model Risk, funding, schedule, program complexity, or need for early realization of benefits. Most of the requirements are known up-front but are expected to evolve over time A need to get basic functionality to the market early On projects which have lengthy development schedules On a project with new technology Spiral SDLC Model : Spiral SDLC Model Adds risk analysis, and 4gl RAD prototyping to the waterfall model Each cycle involves the same sequence of steps as the waterfall process model Spiral Model Strengths : Spiral Model Strengths Provides early indication of insurmountable risks, without much cost Users see the system early because of rapid prototyping tools Critical high-risk functions are developed first The design does not have to be perfect Users can be closely tied to all lifecycle steps Early and frequent feedback from users Cumulative costs assessed frequently Spiral Model Weaknesses : Spiral Model Weaknesses Time spent for evaluating risks too large for small or low-risk projects Time spent planning, resetting objectives, doing risk analysis and prototyping may be excessive The model is complex Risk assessment expertise is required Spiral may continue indefinitely Developers must be reassigned during non-development phase activities May be hard to define objective, verifiable milestones that indicate readiness to proceed through the next iteration When to use Spiral Model : When to use Spiral Model When creation of a prototype is appropriate When costs and risk evaluation is important For medium to high-risk projects Long-term project commitment unwise because of potential changes to economic priorities Users are unsure of their needs Requirements are complex New product line Significant changes are expected (research and exploration) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) : Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. CMMI Levels : CMMI Levels Level 5 – Optimizing (< 1%) -- process change management -- technology change management -- defect prevention Level 4 – Managed (< 5%) -- software quality management -- quantitative process management Level 3 – Defined (< 10%) -- peer reviews -- intergroup coordination -- software product engineering -- integrated software management -- training program -- organization process definition -- organization process focus Level 2 – Repeatable (~ 15%) -- software configuration management -- software quality assurance -- software project tracking and oversight -- software project planning -- requirements management Level 1 – Initial (~ 70%) Slide 26: CMMI Agile SDLC : Agile SDLC Agile aims to reduce risk by breaking projects into small, time-limited modules or timeboxes ("iterations") with each iteration being approached like a small, self-contained mini-project, each lasting only a few weeks. Each iteration has it own self-contained stages of analysis, design, production, testing and documentation. In theory, a new software release could be done at the end of each iteration, but in practice the progress made in one iteration may not be worth a release and it will be carried over and incorporated into the next iteration. The project's priorities, direction and progress are re-evaluated at the end of each iteration. Slide 28: Agile's aims and characteristics include: Customer satisfaction by rapid, continuous delivery of useful software Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months) Working software is the principal measure of progress. Even late changes in requirements are welcomed. Close, daily, cooperation between developers and customers. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted (rather than micro-managed). Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design. Simplicity Self-organizing teams Regular adaptation to changing circumstances Slide 29: Agile You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.