social security

Category: Education

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Definition : 

Definition According to I.L.O, “Social security is the protection which society provides for its members trough a series of public measure, against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial prediction of earning resulting from sickness, maternity, employment, injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and death”

Purpose of Social Security : 

Purpose of Social Security To give individuals and families the confidence that their level of living and quality of life will not erode by social or economic eventuality. To provide medical care and income security against the consequences of defined contingencies To facilitate the victims physical and vocational rehabilitation To prevent or reduce ill health and accidents in the occupations To protect against unemployment by maintenance and promotion of job creation To provide benefit for the maintenance of any children.

Contingencies of Social Security : 

Contingencies of Social Security Medical Care Sickness Benefit Unemployment Benefit Old Age Benefit Employment Injury Benefit Family Benefit Maternity Benefit Invalidity Benefit Survivors Benefit

Social Security in India : 

Social Security in India According to article 41 of the India constitution lays down,“the state shall with in the limits of its economic capacity and development make effective provision securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness, and disablement, and other cases of unserved wants”

Social Security Strategy in India : 

Social Security Strategy in India Social insurance with the participation of the beneficiary pooling risks and resources Social assistance financed from general revenues and granting benefits on the basis of means test Employers liability schemes where there is an identifiable employer and within the economic capacity of the employer National Provident Funds Universal schemes for social security

Social Security Schemes in India : 

Social Security Schemes in India Preventive Schemes Promotional Schemes Protective Schemes

Preventive Schemes : 

Preventive Schemes Preventive Schemes are the Schemes aimed at risk prevention. In the strategy of social management of risks, preventive approach tries to prevent poverty and helps people under below poverty line to come above poverty line. Preventive health care, vaccinations against diseases forms part of the preventive strategies. Majority of the schemes are of social assistance in nature.

Promotional Schemes : 

Promotional Schemes Promotional social security schemes are mainly of Means tested Social Assistance type, where to guarantee minimum standards of living to vulnerable groups of population, the Governments at the State and Center draft schemes financed from the general revenues of the Government. These are the strategies of risk mitigation. These guarantee: Food and Nutritional Security Employment security Health Security Education Security Women Security

Examples of schemes in the Promotional Social Security : 

Examples of schemes in the Promotional Social Security Food for work Jawahar Rojgar Yojana Antyodaya Rural Landless Labourers Employment Guarantee Schemes Programmes of Integrated Rural Development Project Drought prone area Programmes Sakshara Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) Public Distribution System Reservations for the disabled in services Special educational institutions for the disabled persons etc.

Protective Social Security Programmes : 

Protective Social Security Programmes The protective social security programmes help the poor in removing/reducing contingent poverty. In India, the protective social security programmes have been designed to address the contingent poverty or the contingencies defined by the ILO. These programmes take care of , Old-age income needs (Old age pension) Survival benefits (Provident Funds) Medical need of insured families (Medical Insurance) Widow and children/dependant economic needs (Widow/Children/orphan, and dependent pension) Maternity benefits Compensation for loss of employment and Work injury benefits.

Protective Social Security Programmes : 

Protective Social Security Programmes The benefits are extended only to working population majority of whom are in the organized sector through legislations like: Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 Maternity Benefits Act, 1961 Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

The Workmen's compensation Act, 1923 : 

The Workmen's compensation Act, 1923 Compensation to employee in case of: Industrial accident- disability, death. Occupational diseases causing death. (Compensation subject to state insurance Act 1948) The Act applies to any person who is employed otherwise than in a clerical capacity, in railways factories, mines, plantations, mechanically propelled vehicles, loading and unloading work on a ship, construction, maintenance and repairs of roads and bridges, electricity generation, cinemas, catching or trading of wild elephants, circus, and other hazardous occupations

Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 : 

Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 Provide Medical facility and unemployment Insurance to industrial worker during their sickness. It is compulsory and contributory in nature. It is applicable to all factories who employ more then 20 workers. Benefits of this Act Medical benefit. Sickness benefit. Maternity benefit. Disabled benefit. Dependent benefit

The Employees’ Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 : 

The Employees’ Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 The object of the Act is the institution of compulsory contributory Provident Funds, Pension and Insurance for employees. Presently the following three Schemes are in operation under the Act through the Employees' Provident Fund Organisation: Employees’ Provident Funds Scheme, 1952 Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976 Employees' Pension Scheme, 1995 (Superannuation pension will be payable on attaining the age of 58 years and on completion of 20 years of service or more.)

Maternity Benefits Act, 1961 : 

Maternity Benefits Act, 1961 The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 regulates employment of women in certain establishments for a certain period before and after childbirth and provides for maternity and other benefits. The services of a woman worker cannot be terminated during the period of her absence on account of pregnancy except for gross misconduct. Maximum period for which a woman can get maternity benefit is twelve weeks. Of this, six weeks must be taken prior to the date of delivery of the child and six weeks immediately following that date.

Payment of Gratuity Act,1972 : 

Payment of Gratuity Act,1972 The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 provides for a scheme of compulsory payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories, mines, oil fields, plantations, ports, railway companies, motor transport undertakings, shops or other establishments. The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 applies to factories and other establishments employing ten or more persons. On completion of five years service, the employees are entitled to payment of gratuity @15 days wages for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of six months subject to a maximum of Rs.3.50 lakh.

Conclusion : 

Conclusion The current Social Security programmes are employment related and do not appear to have any special attention to the disabled persons. To be eligible for the benefits one has to become disabled after getting into employment.



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