impact of mining on environment

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IMPACT OF MINING ON

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Suvam Patel By:-

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Concept of Environment:- Sum total of materials & forces surrounding the living organism. All the surrounding-Self=Environment. Environment is comprised of the interacting systems of physical , biological & cultural elements & these are interlinked individually & collectively in various ways. Man being the most intelligent creature , interacts with the environment vigorously. With the growth of human population the requirements are also increasing. The earth has certain amount of water ,air , soil ,raw materials & minerals...But these are being recklessly consumed . Impossible to replace fuels like coal, gas & oil….We exploit, alter , destroy & pollute the environment around us. But as a social creature we also realise the importance of environment & make efforts for its protection in order to ensure a healthy & comfortable living.

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What is Mining??? Mining  is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological  materials from the earth from an  ore body/vein ,  which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner . Ores recovered by mining include metals,  coal  and oil shale,   gemstones,  limestone, and dimension stone, rock salt and potash,  gravel , and clay . Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even  water. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.

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Mine reclamation:- Mine reclamation  is the process of restoring land that has been mined to a natural or economically usable purpose.   Although the process of mine reclamation occurs once mining is completed; the preparation and planning of mine reclamation activities occur prior to a mine being permitted or started. 

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Mine reclamation:- In 2006 in 2008

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Types of Mining :- 1.Surface Mining 2.SubSurface Mining

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Surface Mining:- Surface mining , including strip mining, open-pit mining and  mountain top removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed. It is the opposite of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral removed through shafts or tunnels . Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth century  and is practiced throughout the world, although the majority of surface mining occurs in North America .   It gained popularity throughout the 20th century, and is now the predominant form of mining in coal beds.

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Surface Mining(Contd.) 1.Strip Mining:- Mostly for coal where minerals occur in layers paralleling the surface. Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface. This type of mining uses some of the largest machines on earth, including bucket-wheel excavators .

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Strip mining at  Germany. The lignite being extracted is at left, the removed overburden being placed at right. Note that it is a largely flat mine for a horizontal mineral.

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Surface Mining(Contd.) Bagger-288, A bucket-wheel excavators.

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Surface Mining(Contd.) 2. Open-pit mining" refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth through their removal from an open pit or borrow . Exposed rocks prone to weathering and polluting . Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred as  quarries.

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A rock quarry in Germany

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Mountaintop Removal M ining:- " Mountaintop removal mining" (MTR) is a form of coal mining that uses explosives to blast "overburden" off the top of some mountains . Excess mining waste or "overburden" is dumped by large trucks into fills in nearby hollow or valley fills. MTR involves the mass restructuring of earth in order to reach the coal seam as deep as 400 feet (120 m) below the surface. Mountaintop removal replaces the original steep landscape with a much flatter topography, which may be suited to various different uses.

Mountaintop Removal:-:

Mountaintop Removal:-

Underground mining:-:

Underground mining:- Subsurface mining - deposits that are too deep for surface mining. It is the act of extracting minerals from under the Earth's surface It consists of digging tunnels into the Earth. Disturbs less produces less waste but also less effective and dangerous.

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Underground mining( contd ) S ub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts.   Drift mining  utilizes horizontal access tunnels,  slope mining  uses diagonally sloping access shafts, and  shaft mining  utilizes vertical access shafts .

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Drift Mining. Shaft Mining

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Environmental Impact of Mining

A.How Mining affects Environment??:

A.How Mining affects Environment??

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Environmental Impact of Mining The  environmental impact of mining  includes  erosion, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater  and surface water  by chemicals from mining processes. Besides creating environmental damage, the contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals also affect the health of the local population. Some mining methods may have significant environmental and public health effects .  In forest areas mining may cause destruction and disturbance of ecosystems  and habitats, and in areas of farming it may disturb productive grazing and croplands. In urbanised environments mining may produce noise pollution, dust pollution and visual pollution.

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Impact of Mining on Ecology:-

Impacts on Ecology:-:

Impacts on Ecology:- Impact of Opencast Mining:- 1.Removal of all vegetation (flora) and thereby fauna from the area required for mining. 2. Pollution of water in the surrounding water bodies, This affects the aquatic ecology of these water bodies. 3. Dust in atmosphere, contributed by mining and associated activities, when deposited on the leaves of the plants in the surrounding areas may retard their growth. 4. Noise and vibrations due to blasting and operation of the machines drive away the wild animals and birds from the nearby forest. 5. Water scarcity due to the impacts of opencast mining on water regime affects the growth of vegetation and agriculture in and around the complexes.

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Water Pollution Air & Noise pollution

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Water Scarcity

Impacts on Ecology(Contd.):

Impacts on Ecology(Contd.) Impact of Underground Mining:- Clearing of area for developing shaft complex, infrastructure, colonies, etc Water scarcity, caused due to the impacts of mining on water regime, along with pumping and release of polluted water on the surface may affect vegetation in the surrounding areas. Top-soil in tensile zones of subsiding areas may loose its vegetation supporting capability Release of polluted water from the underground mines into the surface water bodies may affect their aquatic ecology & dependent society.

Impacts on Ecology(Contd.):

Impacts on Ecology(Contd.) Impacts of Mineral handling and preparation:- Land clearance of almost all vegetation in the area earmarked for the construction Disturbances to fauna of the nearby areas from the noise and vibrations from the mineral handling and preparation units Impacts on aquatic ecology due to discharge of effluents from the units. Impacts of other Activities:- The growth of mining complexes need land and thus affects the ecology of the land and the surrounding areas. Cutting and felling of the trees to meet the timber requirement for various purposes

Control of Ecological Impacts:-:

Control of Ecological Impacts:- Plan the mining layout so as to have the least requirement of the forest land . Develop a suitable compensatory forest. Develop a flora bank to preserve the typical floral species. Surface layout of the mining complexes be designed to have the least impacts on the ecology of the area. The noise and vibration producing activities in the mines and the associated activities be planned to have the minimum possible intensity and impact on the wild life in the surrounding area.

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Impact of Mining on Land

Impact on Land :

Impact on Land Large scale excavation. Removal of topsoil. Dumping of solid wastes. Creation of derelict land. Subsidence. Noise and vibrations.

Impacts on Land:-:

Impacts on Land:- Impacts of opencast mining:- Topography and land scenario changes due to digging of open pits and dumping of overburden rock mass. The land-use pattern undergoes a change due to the use of the land for mining, dumping & associated activities. The land-use in the surrounding areas may get affected due to the impacts of mining on water regime. In the mines having mineral concentration it is required to make tailing dams to store the tailings form the concentration plants. These dams need land and may cause pollution of nearby underground and surface water sources. The drainage pattern on the surface undergoes a change due to the alterations in the surface topography due to mining and associated activities.

Impact on Land(Contd.):

Impact on Land(Contd.) Impacts of underground mining:- Changes in land use due to constructions and infrastructure development. Changes in topography and drainage pattern due to subsidence. Disturbances in the effective land-use due to damage to the surface, sub-surface and underground water bodies. Discharge of polluted water from the underground mines affects the top-soil on the surface. The rock mass having carbonaceous shales may develop mine fires and when these fires become surface fires they tend to damage the land over and adjacent to them due to subsidence and heat. In the non-coal mining sector there are chances of sudden collapse of underground workings causing a marked depression on the surface. This was observed at Zawar and Khetri .  

Impacts on Land(Contd.):

Impacts on Land(Contd.) Impacts of Mineral handling and preparation:- Changes in the land use due to the construction of mineral handling and preparation plants. Impacts on top-soil due to effluent discharge from the plants. Pollution of underground water bodies (water table) . Impacts of other Activities:- Urbanisation , development of infrastructure and expansion of colonies and villages cause changes in the land use. Impacts on the top soil due to solid and liquid wastes discharged from the colonies, etc. Changes in the overall land scenario.

Control of the Impacts:-:

Control of the Impacts:- Minimized by planning carefully the surface layout of the mining areas and optimizing the land requirement for the various uses. Design of land reclamation and development of the post mining land use, which is a requirement for the efficient management of the land as well as the overall environmental scenario.

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IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERE INCLUDING AIR &NOISE POLLUTION

Impact on Atmosphere:-:

Impact on Atmosphere:- Impacts of opencast mining :- Removal of vegetation from the area designated for mining produces dust which when air-borne causes an increase in the concentration of SPM in the surrounding air. Removal, handling, transportation and storage of soils also causes an increase in the concentration of SPM in the atmosphere. The use of diesel equipment in these activities causes an increase in the level of NO x . Drilling and blasting of overburden and the mineral contribute SPM and explosive fumes into the atmosphere. In-pit crushing, loading and transportation of the mineral and the overburden rock mass and making the dumps contribute SPM and NO x . Minerals and rock mass having sulfur and its compounds may contribute SO 2 .

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.):

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.) Impacts of opencast mining:- Some of the sedimentary rocks may have CH 4 and when mined they may contribute this gas to the surrounding air. Fires in opencast mines contribute heat, SPM, SO 2 , CO 2 and CO. Use of petrol vehicles in the mines contributes hydrocarbons and lead. The equipment used in the opencast mines including the transport of the overburden and mineral generate continuous noise, while blasting produces impulsive noise.

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.):

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.) Impacts of underground mining:- The exhaust air from the underground mines contributes SPM, CO 2 , CH 4, NO x , SO 2, and other pollutants. The surface activities in the underground mining areas, e.g., diesel generating stations, boilers, etc. contribute SPM, NO x , and CO 2. The machines and equipment installed at the shafts, inclines, compressor houses, workshops, etc. generate noise, which tends to become ambient noise as it is generated on the surface.

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Impact of Underground M ining

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.):

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.) Impacts of mineral preparation activities:- Mineral handling & associated activities mainly contribute SPM to the atmosphere. The crushers, conveyors and other equipment installed in the mineral handling and preparation plants produce continuous noise. In the mineral preparation plants having chemical processes producing gases the atmosphere may get polluted due to emission of the gases.

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.):

Impact on Atmosphere(Contd.) Impacts of other activities:- Domestic burning of coal and other fuels produce SPM and CO 2. The transport network using diesel and petrol vehicles and generation of power by DG sets contribute SPM, NO x , CO 2 , CO and other atmospheric pollutants. Smoking contributes SPM and CO 2 . Industrial activities depending upon their processes, inputs and outputs contribute various air pollutants. Paddy cultivation contributes CH 4. Use of pesticides, insecticides and other chemicals for spraying and in agricultural and horticultural activities may contribute air borne chemicals.

Control of the Impacts:-:

Control of the Impacts:- Use of dust extractors with the drill machines can be expected to minimize air pollution due to drilling. By optimizing the blast design the generation of dust due to blasting can be reduced. Proper maintenance of the roads can minimize the generation of air dust due to movement of dumpers on them. Water spraying at the transfer points tends to reduce air pollution. Enclosing the mineral handling and preparation units tend to reduce the contribution of SPM to the atmosphere. Proper maintenance of the equipment and machines in the mines and other places in the complexes helps not only in minimizing the contributions to the air pollution but also the noise generation. The locations of the residential locations should be planned such that they are on the up wind side of the mines and plants so that for most of times the atmospheric pollutants are taken away rather then being brought towards these locations. Green belts of adequate widths, say 25 -50 m, may be planned between the residential areas and the mines not only to attenuate noise but also to arrest dust.

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Impact of Mining on Water

Issues:-:

Issues:- Water Pollution:- Mining can have adverse effects on surrounding surface and ground water if protective measures are not taken. The result can be unnaturally high concentrations of some chemicals, such as  arsenic ,  sulfuric acid , and  mercury  over a significant area of surface or subsurface. Mining affects fresh water through heavy use of water in processing ore, and through water pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments. Increasingly, human activities such as mining threaten the water sources on which we all depend. Water has been called “Mining’s most common need”. Mining by its nature consumes, diverts and can seriously pollute water resources.

Impacts on Water:-:

Impacts on Water:- Impacts of opencast mining:- All the surface water bodies have to be removed from the area designated for opencast mining and associated activities. All the aquifers, including the water-table aquifer, above the mineral deposit to be extracted are damaged because for exposing the mineral for extraction the overburden rocks are removed. If there are high pressure aquifers below the mineral deposit it becomes necessary to pump out water from these aquifers to reduce water pressure to facilitate mining. Water in the nearby water bodies gets polluted due to leaching from overburden dumps, discharge of pumped out mine water, and other activities in the vicinity of the water bodies. In the areas having pyrites and sulfides in the rock mass the mine water as well as the leachets may be acidic and their discharge in the surface water bodies may enhance heavy metal pollution potential.

Impact on Water(Contd.):

Impact on Water(Contd.) Impacts of underground mining:- If the subsidence movements on the surface are more than the safe limits for the surface water bodies it becomes necessary to remove them. Due to underground mining the overlying underground water bodies are disturbed .The disturbances reduce the availability of water not only in the mining area but also in the neighboring areas. The underground mine workings not in use may become waterlogged. These water bodies are sometimes very useful. The polluted underground water when pumped out and discharged on the surface may pollute the surface water bodies.

Impacts on Water(Contd.):

Impacts on Water(Contd.) Impacts of Mineral preparation:- The effluents from the mineral preparation plants when discharged into the surface water bodies, pollute their water. The effluents when discharged on the surface pollute the top soil and sub soils and also the water table. Impacts of other Activities:- Domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents when discharged into the surface water bodies cause water pollution. The effluents when discharged on the surface pollute the soils and the water table water. Decaying of domestic and industrial solid wastes and use of open spaces for natural calls by the human beings also cause pollution of water in the surface water bodies and water table

Control of the Impacts:-:

Control of the Impacts:- It is necessary to plan the mining and associated activities in such a manner that their impacts on the water regime are minimum. In order to do such a planning comprehensive knowledge of the water regime is essential. It is also necessary to plan the layout for the minimum possible alterations in the surface drainage pattern. Such a planning is possible with the help of three dimensional(3D) modeling. In the opencast mining surface as well as underground water bodies can be planned with reclamation

Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining:

Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Heavy Metal Contamination Processing chemical pollution. Erosion and Sedimentation.

Acid Mine Drainage:-:

Acid Mine Drainage:- Acid mine drainage or  acid rock drainage  (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from  metal mines or coal mines. However, other areas where the earth has been disturbed may also contribute acid rock drainage to the environment. Acid rock drainage occurs naturally within some environments as part of the rock weathering process

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Acid Mine Drainage in Portugal. Rio Tinto river in Spain.

Heavy Metal Contamination & Leaching:- :

Heavy Metal Contamination & Leaching:- Heavy metal pollution is caused when such metals as arsenic, cobalt, copper, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc contained in excavated rock or exposed in an underground mine come in contact with water. Metals are leached out and carried downstream as water washes over the rock surface. leaching is particularly accelerated in the low pH conditions such as are created by Acid Mine Drainage.

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3. Processing Chemicals Pollution occurs when chemical agents spill, leak, or leach from the mine site into nearby water bodies. These chemicals can be highly toxic to humans and wildlife. 4. Erosion and Sedimentation Mineral development disturbs soil and rock in the course of constructing and maintaining roads, open pits, and waste impoundments. erosion of the exposed earth may carry substantial amounts of sediment into streams, rivers and lakes. Excessive sediment can clog riverbeds and smother watershed vegetation, wildlife habitat and aquatic organisms.

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COAL MINING

Coal can be treated as a reliable energy source only if::

Coal can be treated as a reliable energy source only if:

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COAL SHEARER WITH SELF HYDRAULIC ADVANCEMENT. MAY BE UPTO 1.5 TO 3 METERS TALL.

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ROOF BOLTS

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION::

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: Dust burdened with heavy metals and clay in soil and air. Surface water and ground water pollution. Degradation of agricultural terrains, forest terrains and natural aquaculture. Cut across aquifers and bring other wise separate bodies of water into communication. Noise pollution. Exhaust gases like CO 2 , SO 2 , NO 2 etc. Sediment accumulation and ash flows. THUS CREATING SOIL, WATER, AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION.

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AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION

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POLLUTED SURFACE WATER TAILINGS

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DEGRADATION OF WATER QUALITY

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At Ha Long

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LAND SUBSIDENCE

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FOREST AREA DEGRADATION

FEW MEASURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION:

FEW MEASURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION

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ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING: WATER QUALITY CONTROL (USED FOR COAL PREPARATION, DUST SUPPRESION, EQUIPMENT WASHDOWN & WORKSHOP USE, SO SHOULD BE RECYCLED AS FAR AS POSSIBLE & TREATED BEFORE DISCHARGING). IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCE, USAGE, TREATMENT & DISPOSAL SHOULD BE WELL EVALUATED. NOISE CONTROL OCCURS DURING OPENCUT OVERBURDEN STRIPPING & COAL WINNING, LARGE TRUCKS MOVEMENT, PLANTS AND DURING LOADING. MUCH SOUND OCCURS DURING BLASTING, RAIL WAGGON MOVING ETC. SO, BLASTINGS ARE INFREQUENT AND OCCURS DURING DAYLIGHT ONLY. NOISE ATTENUATION IS DONE BY PILES OF OVERBURDEN AND ALSO IS ACHIEVED BY BOX-CUT OPENINGS.

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COAL REFUSE DISPOSAL DISCARDED COAL IS CALLED COAL REFUSE. IT IS DISPOSED KEEPING THE STABILITY & ENVIRONMENT IN MIND. EG., PYRITE BEARING REFUSES ARE SEALED SO THAT DO NOT PRODUCE ACID LEACHATE . SOME REFUSES ARE PRONE TO IGNITION SO THEY ARE SPREAD IN A WAY SO THAT ATMOSPHERE CAN’T IGNITE THEM. REVEGETATION LAND USE & VEGETATION SHOULD BE RETAINED. TOP SOIL IS DUMPED IN SEPARATE PLACE TO RETAIN FERTILITY. BOTANISTS PLANT THE NATURAL VEGETATION AND FAST GROWING TREES IN A 1:1 RATIO. TREES ALSO HELP IN DUST REDUCTION. HENCE PROPER PRIOR PLANNING IS MADE. REHABILITATION IS DONE FOR LOCAL PEOPLE WITH ESTABLISHMENT OF TOWNSHIPS .

Pollution Mitigation:

Pollution Mitigation Dust extractors on drilling equipment. Sprinkler systems. Effluent Treatment Plants. Sewage Treatment Plants. Land reclamation and rehabilitation. Siltation ponds. Removed topsoil utilization. Stoping-in worked out mines.

DEFORESTATION:

DEFORESTATION With open cast mining the overburden, which may be covered in forest, must be removed before the mining can commence. Although the deforestation due to mining may be small compared to the total amount it may lead to species extinction if there is a high level of local endemism.

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DEFORESTATION

Environmental Impact of the Oil Shale Industry :

Environmental Impact of the Oil Shale Industry Environmental impact of the oil shale industry  includes the consideration of issues such as land use, waste management & water & air pollution caused by the extraction and processing of oil shale.  Surface mining of oil shale deposits causes the usual environmental impacts of open-pit mining.   In addition, thermal processing  generate waste material, which must be disposed of, and harmful atmospheric emissions, including  carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas.

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Oil Shale Industry

Impacts from Sand Mining:- :

Impacts from Sand Mining:- Sand mining and gravel mining creates large pits and fissures in the earth's surface. At times, mining can extend so deeply that it affects ground water, springs, underground wells, and the water table. Sand mining is becoming an environmental issue in India. Environmentalists have raised public awareness of illegal sand mining in the state of Maharashtra and Goa. Fluoride rich waters were drawn from 22 and 26 meters depth. Conservation and environmental NGO Awaaz Foundation filed a public interest litigation(PIL) in the Bombay High Court seeking a ban on mining activities along the Konkan coast. Awaaz Foundation, in partnership with the Bombay Natural History Society also presented the issue of sand mining as a major international threat to coastal biodiversity.

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Sand Mining

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The Present Scenario in India

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India:-:

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India:- Several accidents have taken place in underground & opencast mines in last few years, which have killed score of mineworkers. Recently in our native coal mines of MCL, Basundhara about 30 people were killed. Kudermukh Iron Ore Company Ltd.(KIOCL) have caused large scale destruction of hills, pollution of ground water & severely affected KUDERMUKH NATIONAL PARK. In 1973  7 mining disasters. In 2001 30 miners lost their lives in Bagdigi mines in Bihar.

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India(Contd.):

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India (Contd.) Wide spread of illegal mining all over the country & lack of effective Govt supervision in both Govt & Pvt mines are aggravating the problem. Directorate General of Mines Saftey (DGMS) who is responsible for supervision & enforcement of mining rules is unable to do its job effectively because of lack of manpower. Miners face health hazards arising out of on-site pollution . Health related issues are increasingly coming into focus.

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India(Contd.):

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India(Contd.) Year Fatal Accidents Serious Accidents   Accidents Fatalities Accidents Injuries 1972 200 217 1534 1616 1975 222 664 2135 2211 1985 176 204 1007 1060 1993 156 176 854 903 1994 156 241 717 775 1995 137 219 757 813 1996 131 146 677 723 1997 143 165 677 725 1998 128 146 523 560 1999 127 138 595 650 2000 117 144 661 707 2001 106 141 667 720 2002 81 97 629 650 2003 83 113 563 578 2004 90 99 599 608 2005 34 35 340 344 Key risks faced by miners: Gas and coal dust exposure. Mine roof and wall collapses. Mine fires.

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India(Contd.):

Effects of Mining on the Environment in India(Contd.) However, now the Govt is taking drastic actions against the mafias involved in illegal mining. E.g.-The Shah Commission is inquiring on illegal mining in the state of Karnataka , Odisha etc.

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Acts & Legislations

Mines Act of 1952:

Mines Act of 1952 Key piece of Indian legislation that regulates health, safety, and welfare of miners. Administered by Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS). Falls under control of Ministry of Labour DGMS mission: “Reduction in risk of occupational diseases and casualty to persons employed in mines, by drafting appropriate legislation and setting standards, by overseeing compliance thereof and through a variety of promotional initiatives and awareness programmes creating an environment where safety is given due priority.” Among issues covered by the Mines Act are the following: Appointment of Chief Inspector. On-site medical care. Sufficient potable water within mines. Timely reporting of accidents to Chief Inspector. Right of government to appoint of court of enquiry to look into accidents.

Key Environmental Legislation:

Key Environmental Legislation Water Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1974 (1988) Forest Conservation Act, 1980 Air Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1981 Environmental Protection Act, 1986 Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1957 (1987) Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988

Water Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1974 (1988):

Water Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1974 (1988) Initiated the Pollution Control Boards and the Central Pollution Control Board. Power of entry and inspection in industrial establishments and authority to take samples. Empowered to set standards of effluents that may be discharged into water sources. Power to impose penalties for contravention of provisions.

Forrest Conservation Act, 1980:

Forrest Conservation Act, 1980 Legislation enacted to check deforestation. Prohibits use of forest land for non-forest purposes (including mining) without prior approval of the Central Government. Reforestation or compensatory reforestation is primary condition for approval of proposals for diversion of forest land.

Air Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1981:

Air Prevention and Pollution Control Act, 1981 Act enjoins industry not to discharge emissions of any pollutant in excess of standards established by State Board. Establishes power to inspect and collect samples and vests power with the Central and State Pollution Control Boards.

Environmental Protection Act, 1986:

Environmental Protection Act, 1986 Act widens scope of environmental protection activities of Central and State Boards. Prohibits all pollution in excess of standards set by State Board. Requires mandatory environmental audits. Prohibits expansion or modernization of any existing industry or new projects without prior environmental clearance by the Central or State Government.

Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988:

Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988 Rules administered by the Indian Bureau of Mines, a department of the Central Government under the Ministry of Mines. Requires every mining operation to be in accordance with a mining plan. Requires review of approved mining plans every 5 years. Requires every mine operator to take all possible precautions for protection of environment and control of pollution while conducting any mining activities. Requires that the air, water, and noise pollution levels are within the permissible limits.

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KYOTO PROTOCOL The Kyoto Protocol to the   United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  (UNFCCC) is an international treaty that sets binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC is an environmental treaty with the goal of preventing dangerous anthropogenic (i.e., human-induced) interference of the climate system.