resource conservation technologies for improving sustainability in ric

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this is for seminar in rice-wheat for sustainability in productivity

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Sushil Kumar Kharia L-2012-A-128-M

RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM (RWS):

RWS cover 13.5 mha area in the Indo- Gangetic Plains of South Asia, Out of this India cover 10.5 mha RWS contributes about 40% of total food grain production of India In Punjab, RWS covers 2.7 mha area and produces about 12.5 t/ha RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM (RWS)

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The recent stagnation and decline in productivity of the RWS are a result of degradation of the soil and water resource base and inefficient nutrient management. Hence, increasing productivity and keeping pace with the rising food demand with minimum environmental disturbance has become a challenge to farmers and scientists .

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Reduction in cost of production Saving in water and nutrients Increased productivity Improvement in soil health Reduced incidence of weeds Environmental benefits

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Research Finding

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Leveling Planting methods Yield (t ha -1 ) Irrigation water applied (m 3 ha -1 ) Irrigation WP (kg grain m -3 water) Laser Raised 5.19a 2170a 2.39a Flat 4.78b 3060c 1.56c Traditional Raised 4.74b 2870b 1.65b Flat 4.42c 4309d 1.03d Effect of land leveling and planting methods on wheat grain yield and water productivity Sandy loam, pH-8.5 Jat et al (2011)

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Leveling Planting methods Total N uptake (kg ha -1 ) Total P uptake (kg ha -1 ) Total K uptake (kg ha -1 ) Laser Raised 115a 19.5a 112a Flat 106b 17.6b 110b Traditional Raised 100c 15.1c 96.2c Flat 90d 13.3d 83.5d Sandy loam, pH-8.5 Jat et al (2011)

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Leveling Planting methods Rice (t ha -1 ) Wheat (t ha -1 ) RWS (t ha -1 ) Laser ZTDSR-ZTW 5.7b 6.0a 11.8ab PTR-CTW 7.5a 5.0bc 12.5a Traditional ZTDSR-ZTW 5.3b 5.4b 10.7b PTR-CTW 7.2a 4.6c 11.8ab Sandy loam, pH 8.2 Jat et al ( 2009)

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Sandy loam, pH 8.2 Jat et al ( 2009) Leveling Planting RWS (t ha -1 ) Total water applied (cm ha -1 ) WP (kg grain m -3 water) Cost of production ($) Profitability ($) Laser ZTDSR-ZTW 11.8ab 171d 0.52a 852d 1654a PTR-CTW 12.5a 215b 0.46b 1059b 1440b Traditional ZTDSR-ZTW 10.7b 203c 0.41c 874c 1416bc PTR-CTW 11.8ab 234a 0.41c 1088a 1260c

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In this method, wheat is sown on raised beds accommodating 2-3 rows of wheat Bed planting reduces the population of  Phalaris  minor  on the top of the bed Bed planting reduce the lodging Less seed and nutrient requirement by 25 % Good for irrigation as well as for drainage Less water requirement by30- 40% Furrow irrigated raised bed system

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Planting pattern Seed rate (kg ha -1 ) No. of spikes/m 3 Grain yield (t ha -1 ) Water productivity ( kg grain m -3 ) Bed 90 cm 80 445 6.18a 2.25a Flat bed 100 426 5.28b 1.26c CD (0.05) 19.84 0.343 0.11 Kumar et al (2010) Silty loam

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Planting methods G rain yield (t ha -1 ) water applied (mm ) WUE (g grain L -1 water ) ZT-Raised bed 5.31 214 1.86a CT- Flat 5.09 249 1.57b LSD (p=0.05) NS 0.27 Sandy loam Aggarwal and Goswami (2003)

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Sites Soil type Years Yield (t ha -1 ) Total Water applied PB FB PB FB Rajshahi Silty clay loam 3 3.65a 3.17b 130b 169a Nashipur Sandy loam 5 3.90a 3.41b 118b 158a Lauren et al (2008)

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Zero-Tillage : Benefits Timely planting of wheat Water saving 20-30%  Energy saving 80% Maintain or increase SOC and Total soil N Increase in yield ?

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Source Years ZT (t ha -1 ) CT (t ha -1 ) Singh and Sharma (2005) ( Average of 6 years) 5.33a 4.90b Singh et al (2005) ( Average of 3 years) 5.22a 5.01b

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Treatments Soil Organic Carbon (g kg -1 ) 0-10 cm Tillage 1993 1998 2008 ZT 11.1 13.0a 15.5a CT 11.0 10.1b 10.8b Soil Total Nitrogen (g kg -1 ) Mazzoncini et al (2011) Loam, pH-8.2 ZT 1.35 1.46a 1.68a CT 1.37 1.22b 1.19b

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Treatments Wheat yield (kg ha -1 ) Profitability (yen ha -1 ) WUE ( kg grain m -3 water) ZT + Mulching 4679a 3379 1.22a RT-M 3937b 1687 1.11b CT-M 4125b 1625 1.13ab Loamy soil, Mean of 6 years Su et al (2007)

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Rice is sown directly in dry soil (dry seeding) and irrigation is given to keep the soil sufficiently moist for good plant growth, but the soil is never flooded.

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Tillage Yield (t ha -1 ) Total Water applied (mm) Total WUE (g grain L -1 water) PTR 7.2a 3145a 0.23a ZT-DSR 6.6a 2768c 0.24a ZT-Transplanting 7.0a 3013b 0.23a Bhushan et al (2007) Silt loam

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Treatment At rice harvest Bulk density OC ZT 1.40 0.671 CT 1.37 0.623 LSD (p=0.05) 0.02 0.028 Sandy clay loam,pH-6.4 Bhattacharya et al 2008 0-15 cm depth, after 4 years

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Treatments Rice (t ha -1 ) Wheat (t ha -1 ) System productivity (t ha -1 ) Total Cost of production (US $ ha -1 ) Net return (US $ ha -1 ) PTR CTW 5.80a 2.85b 8.65b 1112 849d ZTW 5.78a 2.93b 8.70b 1022 961c DSR CTW 5.23c 3.68a 8.90b 927 1174b ZTW 5.38b 3.75a 9.13a 867 1261a Jat et al (2009) Average of 4 years Sandy loam, pH-8.2

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Rice Residue Management Sidhu et al (2007) The Happy Seeder is a tractor-powered machine that cuts and lifts the rice straw, sows into the bare soil, and deposits the straw over the sown area as a mulch. The Happy Seeder combines stubble mulching, seed and fertilizer drilling into a single pass Turbo seeder is an advance version of happy seeder Developed by PAU in collaboration with ACIAR  Capable of seeding into any residue load

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Year (no. of sites) Wheat grain yield (t/ha) % increase over CT CT HS 2007-08 (46) 4.50 4.59 2.0 2008-09 (14) 4.34 4.54 4.6 2009-2010 (94) 4.32 4.43 2.5 Overall (154) 4.42 4.56 3.2 Sidhu et al (2007)

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Treatments Grain yield (t ha -1 ) N uptake (kg ha -1 ) ANR (%) No mulch 1.96b 66.8b 43.4 Rice straw mulch (4 t ha -1 ) & removed 20 DAS 3.74a 96.8a 62.4 R ice straw mulch (4 t ha -1 ) & retained 3.92a 100a 64.6 LSD (p=0.05) 0.25 8.1 N applied (120 kg ha -1 ) Rahman et al (2005) Loam, pH-5.3

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A simple handy, ever-lasting pocket tool, made up high quality plastic material and consists of 6 strips of different shades of green from yellowish green to dark green - Easy to use and inexpensive alternative to chlorophyll meter - Measures leaf color intensity which is related to leaf N status - Helps farmers determine the right time of N application LEAF COLOUR CHART

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Treatments 2000 (n=7) 2001 (n=6) Grain yield (t ha -1 ) Mean total N applied (kg N ha -1 ) Grain yield (t ha -1 ) Mean total N applied (kg N ha -1 ) LCC 6.6 ± 1.43 86 6.4 ±1.67 80 Recommended N 6.6±1.32 120 6.6 ± 1.62 120 Bijay -Singh et al (2003)

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Treatments Total N applied (kg ha -1 ) Grain yield (t ha -1 ) Total N uptake (kg ha -1 ) AE N (kg grain kg -1 N) RE N (%) No-N (control) 0 3.6c 54c - - LCC 120 6.1a 114 a 21.2a 50a Recommended N 120 5.5b 105 b 15.8b 43b Shukla et al (2004) Sandy loam

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Treatments Total N applied (kg ha -1 ) Grain yield (t ha -1 ) AE N (kg grain kg -1 N) RE N (%) No-N control 0 1.73b - - LCC 105 4.61a 24.3b 71.7a Recommended N 120 4.64a 27.5a 68.9a LSD (p=0.05) 0.24 2.48 7.5 Varinderpal -Singh et al (2012)

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GREEN MANURING Co-culturing of  Sesbania   with rice for 25-30 days and then knocking down with 2,4 –D

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Treatments No-N N 60 (kg/ha) N120 (kg/ha) -GM 3.6a 5.5a 6.4a +GM 5.9b 6.3b 6.4a Meelu et al (1994) (Mean of 10 experiments)

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Treatment Grain yield (t/ha) OC (%) Urea-N (120 kg N/ha) 5.74a 0.41b Green manure + 60 kg N/ha 5.70a 0.45b Wheat straw + 120 kg N/ha 5.37b 0.53a Wheat straw + GM + 60 kg N/ha 5.76a 0.59a Yadvinder -Singh et al (2004) (Mean of 8 years)

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Mandal et al (2004 ) Clay loam, pH-7.7 Depth (0-15 cm ) Treatments At rice harvest (PTR) At wheat harvest (CT) SOM (g Kg -1 ) Total N (g Kg -1 ) SOM (g Kg -1 ) Total N (g Kg -1 ) -GM 8.81 0.63 8.48 0.59 +GM 10.28 0.67 9.14 0.61 LSD (0.05) 0.47 0.031 0.51 NS

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Treatments Bulk density (Mg m -3 ) MWD (mm) Hydraulic conductivity (cm day -1 ) -GM 1.51 0.543 3.89 +GM 1.45 0.781 4.68 LSD (0.05) 0.042 0.101 0.70 Mandal et al (2004 ) Depth (0-15 cm) Clay loam, pH-7.7

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Treatments SOC (%) MBC (g kg -1 ) PTR CT-DSR PTR CT-DSR Control( no-N) 0.60 0.55 160 137 NPK 0.67 0.57 170 144 NPK+GM 0.70 0.58 177 157 LSD (0.05) Treatment=0.03 Puddling=0.04 Treatment=11 Puddling=15 Banerjee et al (2006) Silty clay (120N, 26P, 40K kg ha -1 )

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Tensiometers installed in rice fields

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Kukal and Sidhu (2008)

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Intermittent irrigation Flooding field with shallow water depth and then waiting for a few days after the floodwater has dissipated before irrigating again. AWD reduces deep drainage losses IGP showing large irrigation water savings (15 – 40% of the applied water or up to 840mm) with AWD in (PTR) in comparison with continuous flooding

Rice residue Burning:

Rice residue Burning One tone burning of crop residue releases- 1515 kg CO 2 , 92 kg CO, 3.83 kg NO x , 0.4 kg SO 2 2.7 kg CH 4

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Tillage Tractor operation Time (hr ha -1 ) Fuel (lit ha -1 ) Time saving (%) Fuel Saving (%) ZT 1 1.56 6 83.42 90.76 CT 10 9.41 65 - - Sharma et al (2004)

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Treatments Denitrification rate (mg kg -1 day -1 ) 0-5 cm 5-10 cm ZT-NPK 272b 379b CT-NPK 172c 368b ZT+NPK 366a 469a CT+NPK 269b 389b Silty clay loam Jian -She et al (2011)

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Bhatia et al (2012)

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Bhatia et al (2012)

Conclusion……:

Conclusion…… RCTs improving the crop and water productivity, and environmental quality RCTs also saving inputs like seed and fertilizer etc RCTs improves the soil physical and chemical health RCTs are more effective in combinations rather than their individual application

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