Integrated pest management: Integrated pest management sushama Mechanical and Physical Controls : Methods included in this category utilize some physical component of the environment, such as temperature, humidity, or light, to the detriment of the pest. Common examples are tillage, flaming, flooding, soil solarization , and plastic mulches to kill weeds or to prevent weed seed germination. Mechanical and Physical Controls IPM is a continuum, not an end.: IPM is a continuum, not an end. Poor Fair Good Better Best “Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics…………..”: Pesticides Cultural Mechanical Sanitary Natural Biological Host Plant Resistance “Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics…………..” NOTE: Some tactics fall Into several categories. Mechanical and Physical……………………………………………: Heat or steam sterilization of soil is commonly used in greenhouse operations for control of soil-borne pests. Floating row covers over vegetable crops exclude flea beetles, cucumber beetles, and adults of the onion, carrot, cabbage, and seed corn root maggots. Insect screens are used in greenhouses to prevent aphids, thrips , mites, and other pests from entering ventilation ducts. Large, multi-row vacuum machines have been used for pest management in strawberries and vegetable crops. Cold storage reduces post-harvest disease problems on produce. Mechanical and Physical …………………………………………… Pest Identification : A crucial step in any IPM program is to identify the pest. The effectiveness of both proactive and reactive pest management measures depend on correct identification. Misidentification of the pest may be worse than useless; it may actually be harmful and cost time and money. Help with positive identification of pests may be obtained from university personnel, private consultants, the Cooperative Extension Service, and books and websites . Pest Identification Food for Brain…: What plants are hosts and non-hosts of this pest? When does the pest emerge or first appear? Where does it lay its eggs? In the case of weeds, where is the seed source? For plant pathogens, where is the source(s) of inoculum ? Where, how, and in what form does the pest overwinter? How might the cropping system be altered to make life more difficult for the pest and easier for its natural controls? Food for Brain… Monitoring : Monitoring involves systematically checking crop fields for pests and beneficials , at regular intervals and at critical times, to gather information about the crop, pests, and natural enemies. Sweep nets, sticky traps, and pheromone traps can be used to collect insects for both identification and population density information. Leaf counts are one method for recording plant growth stages. Square-foot or larger grids laid out in a field can provide a basis for comparative weed counts. Records of rainfall and temperature are sometimes used to predict the likelihood of disease infections. Monitoring Monitoring : Monitoring for squash pests (aphids and whiteflies). Monitoring Key points…: Key points of this definition include: It is a philosophy where we try to manage a pest instead of controlling or eradicating a pest. It requires a greater knowledge of the pest, crop and the environment. We will explain the general types of management methods are and give examples. We will define what an Economic Injury Level is and how it should be used in an IPM program We will also must indicate that all management techniques must be environmentally sound AND that these techniques must be economically feasible for the producer Key points… What is Biological Control??: De Bach (1964)-- The action of parasites, predators or pathogens in maintaining another organism density at a lower average than would occur in their absence Biological control of pests In agriculture is a method of controlling pests(including insects ,mites , weeds and plant diseases) that relies on predation , parasitism, or other natural mechanisms. What is Biological Control?? PowerPoint Presentation: Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Predators Predators , such as lady beetles and lacewings , are mainly free-living species that consume a large number of prey during their lifetime. Parasites An organism that lives intimately in, or on, a host organism from which it derives nourishment. How Can We Protect Crops from Pests?: Concept We can sharply cut pesticide use without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of cultivation techniques, biological pest controls, and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort (integrated pest management). How Can We Protect Crops from Pests? Nature’s Pest Control: Polycultures – pests controlled by natural enemies Monocultures and land clearing Loss of natural enemies Require pesticides Nature’s Pest Control Spiders: Natural Enemy of Pests: Spiders: Natural Enemy of Pests PowerPoint Presentation: Parasitoid: A is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism which it ultimately kills (and often consumes) in the process Pathogen :A pathogen , infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host . Pheromone trap: Pheromone trap Natural biological control: Natural biological control results when naturally occurring enemies maintain pests at a lower level than would occur without them, and is generally characteristic of biodiverse systems. Mammals, birds, bats, insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses all have a role to play as predators and parasites in an agricultural system. Natural biological control Applied biological control: Applied biological control, also known as augmentative biocontrol , involves supplementation of beneficial organism populations, for example through periodic releases of parasites, predators, or pathogens. Applied biological control Biological control agents: BCAs can be classified as follows : (I)Predatory Vertebrates: Gambusia affinis – mosquito larva , Rana tigrana – pupa of mosquito, Giant toad of maxico –white grubs of Hawaii (on sugarcane) , ducks – Tetroda histeroides (bug of rice in south India) . Biological control agents (II)Predatory/Parasitic Insects : Monophagous predator : feeding on one single host. Eg . Rodolia cardinalis - Icerya purchasi Stenophagous predator: feeding on limited hosts.Eg . Coccinallids and syrphids . Oligophagous predators : feeding on many hosts.Eg . Mantids and Neuropterans (II) Predatory / Parasitic Insects Predatory/Parasitic Insects : 1. Ladybugs are heralded as a natural, effective killer of soybean aphids, 2. Rodolia cardinalis - Icerya purchasi 3. Bracon gelechiae - Gnorimoschema operculella (potato tuber moth) 4. Tricogramma minutum - Chilo infuscatellus (sugarcane borer) 5. Aphelinus mali - Eryosoma lanigerum (wooly aphid) Predatory / Parasitic Insects Predatory/Parasitic Insects…: 6. Apanteles flavipes - Chilo partelus ( jowar stem borer) 7. Telenomus nawai - Achaea janata (caster semilooper ) 8. Spoggosita bezziana - Nephantis serinopa (coconut caterpillar) 9. Opius vandenboschi -Dacus (fruit fly) 10. Aphytis mytilaspidis - Quadraspediotus pemiciosus ( sanjose scale) 11. Syngamia haemorrhoidalis - Lantana weed Predatory / Parasitic Insects… (III) Microbial : virus, fungi, bacteria,protozoa : Microbial : virus, fungi, bacteria, Viruses :Balch (1946) used viruses( Polyhydroses and Granuloses ) on Spruce sawfly ( Diprion hercyniae ) Fungi: 1. Beauvaria bassiana (infected silk moth which was later used to control ) Blessus lucupterous (chinch bug) 2. Metarrhizium anisopliae - Anisoplia austriaca of wheat & now for coconut beetle 3. Blastocladials (group) softens the chitin and mycotoxins cause titanus like effect. (III) Microbial : virus, fungi, bacteria,protozoa Microbial : virus,protozoa…: Bacteria: de Herelle (1911) used 1. Cocobacillus acridiorum to control Locust 2 . Bacillus papilliae & B. lentimorbus – grub & caterpiller of Lapedoptera (milky disease) 3. B. thuringiensis – prodoce cry protein during spore formation in gut of insects Protozoa: Tanada (1959) 1. Perezia pyraustae - Austrinia nobilalis ( jowar & maize stem borer) 2. Malamoeba locustae / Nosema locustae -locust control Microbial : virus,protozoa … Macrobial : beneficial nematodes, : 1.DD136 Neoplactena carpocapse : imported from japan to control Lepidopterans . 2.Neotylenchus, Rhabditis , Pseudonymus are the indian varieties and possibilities are being searched. Macrobial : beneficial nematodes, (IV)Control of weeds: 1. Lantana camera : was controlled by Orthezia insignis bug 2. Opuntia vulgaris : controlled by Dactylopius tomentosus bug from SriLanka 3. Opuntia stricta (from America to Australia) : controlled by Cactoblastis cactorum moth. 4. Salvinia molesta floating fern(of s. america came to shri lanka & spread in waters of africa , india , s.e . asia , & australia ): controlled by Cyrtobagous salviniae weevil. (IV)Control of weeds Genetic Engineering and Biological Control: Genetic Engineering and Biological Control Fig. 10-24, p. 222 Fig. 10-25, p. 222 How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably?: Concept Sustainable agriculture involves reducing topsoil erosion, eliminating overgrazing and overfishing, irrigating more efficiently, using integrated pest management, providing government subsides for sustainable farming and fishing, and promoting agrobiodiversity . How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably? (V)Genetic control: In1 st plan the genetic manipulation of the plant increases the resistance against the pest. In 2 nd plan pest are modified in such a way that the rate of reproduction reduces and their number sufficiently reduces. Vitis vinifera -was spoiled by Phyllocera (aphid) damaged wine industry Vitis lebrusca was found to be resistant for Phyllocera . Using B. thuringiensis crop is improvised and by selective breeding / recombinant DNA tech plants are made resistant for pest. (V)Genetic control (VI)Male sterility Technique: By causing the change in the genome pest is controlled . Many ways are available for sterilization : Irradiation or chemicals is the most way --- male insects are sterilized by ɤ rays and re leased in affected area .** (VI)Male sterility Technique Techniques of biological control: 1. Introduction or Importation 2 . Augmentation 3. Conservation Introduction or Importation If sufficient effective natural enemies are not present to control pests, introduction of effective natural enemy species is necessary. Techniques of biological control Techniques of biological control…: Augmentation Augmentation is the periodic release of a natural enemy that does not occur naturally insufficient numbers to keep a pest below damaging levels. Conservation : Conservation as a biological control method includes crop management practices that protect and encourage natural enemies and increase their impact on pest. Techniques of biological control… Biopesticides and Bio-control Agents : Biopesticides are derived from animals, plants and micro-organisms such as bacteria and viruses. The advantages are : They are inherently less harmful than chemical pesticides ; They are more target specific than chemical pesticides affecting only the target pests and their close relatives. In contrast, chemical pesticides often destroy friendly insects, birds and mammals. They are often effective in small quantities. Also, they decompose quickly and do not leave problematic residues Biopesticides and Bio-control Agents PowerPoint Presentation: The most commonly used biopesticides include Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),Baculoviruses and neem. In addition to these, trichoderma, which is a fungicide , is also used. Biocontrol agents, such as Trichogramma, are parasites and predators of pests and their eggs. Mass Production of Trichogramma for the control of lepidopterous pests : Trichogramma Corcyra cephalonica Forester Moth ( lepidopterous pest) Mass Production of Trichogramma for the control of lepidopterous pests PowerPoint Presentation: Lepidoptera is an order of insect that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most speciose orders in the class Insecta , encompassing moths and the three super families of butterflies , skipper butterflies, and moth- butterflies. Members of the order are referred to as lepidopterans Butterflies / skippers , moths Corcyra(Corcyra cephalonica) : Corcyra( Corcyra cephalonica ) COMMON NAME:- Rice moth ( English) . C.cephalonica is a major pest of stored grains of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ) and sorghum. Considering the long storage period of pearl millet,which may be several years. Corcyra( Corcyra cephalonica ) Trichogramma (moth egg parasitoid) : The nameTrichogramma refers to an umber of tiny wasps belonging to the family Trichogrammatidae. They are stout bodied, minute wasps that attacks the eggs over 150 species of moths , including cabbage looper, codling moth, oriental fruitmoth, twig borers and fruitworms Trichogramma (moth egg parasitoid) Trichogramma (moth egg parasitoid): Adults are less than 1mm (1/25inch) long Fore wings are broader and hairy. Larvae develop entirely inside the eggs of moths, which darken when they are parasitized. Trichogramma (moth egg parasitoid) Biology of Trichogramma : It completes its life cycle on the eggs of lepidopteran pests. Duration of differentstages are as follows - Summers -8-10 days, Winters -12 days A single adult female lays about 100 eggs. It can fly up to 18-20 m . Biology of Trichogramma Biology of Trichogramma: Egg stage -16-24 hrs ,Larval period -2-3 days , Pupal period- 2-3 days , Adult lives for 1-2 days Biology of Trichogramma Trichogramma Use in Biocontrol: Trichogramma is an important biocontrol agent as they are egg parasitoids, mainly of Lepidopteran eggs. Upto three wasp larvae may develop in each Lepidopteran egg. They are very important biological control agents because they kill pests before they hatch and start feeding on your crop . Trichogramma Use in Biocontrol Trichogramma Use in Biocontrol: Several different species of Trichogramma are used invarious crop ecosystem . Trichogramma chilon is in sugarcane, tomato, capsicum, beans and cotton. Trichogramma japonicum in sugarcane and paddy , T. embryophagum for codling moth. Optimum conditions are moderate temperatures of 20-27ºC (68-81ºF) and relative humidity 60 %. Trichogramma Use in Biocontrol Mass rearing Trichogramma for commercial release: The idea of " farming"Trichogramma for control of caterpillar pests was discussed in detail in 1895 at a meeting of the London Entomological and Natural History Society. Rearing Trichogramma requires first rearing an insect, typically a species of moth, to produce eggs in which the wasps will develop. Mass rearing Trichogramma for commercial release Mass rearing…: The Angoumois grain moth , Sitotroga cerealella , and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella , are easily and inexpensively reared on wheat or other grains and are commonly used to rear Trichogramma . They are mass multiplied in captivity on surrogate host like Corcyracephalonica Mass rearing… REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCTION OF TRICHOGRAMMA CARDS: Leminar flow 1 Incubator 1 deep freezer 1 Humidifier 1 oven 1 Culture boxes 50 (15x 12x10 inches) Vaccum cleaner 2 Ovipositon cages 10 Bucket big size 2 Culture of trichogramma species, T.chilonis Formalin Crushed maize Yeast powder Water soluble gum Sieve Honey REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCTION OF TRICHOGRAMMA CARDS Flowcharts for the preparation of Trichogramma cards: Charging of culture boxes Collection of adults of host of Trichogramma (Corcyra cephalonica ) Egg collection from adults Preparation of trichocards from these eggs Flowcharts for the preparation of Trichogramma cards Flowcharts…: UV treatment of eggs for 15 min These cards are exposed totrichogramma sp. for parasitization The parasitized eggs turn black on 5th day Trichocards stored for up to 10-15days in refrigerator at 10°C at pupa stage Flowcharts… How the parasitoids are released?: For field release, the trichocards are cut into small pieces and the pieces are stapled underneath the leaves . This method is relatively easier and the distribution of the parasitoid is uniform . Trichogramma should preferably be released in the evening hours . Thirty minutes after emergence, the parasitoids actively search for their hosts. How the parasitoids are released? PowerPoint Presentation: Trichogramma is available in the form of cardscontaining 20,000 parasitized eggs which have 90-96 %hatching within 7-10 days of parasitization . Trichocards are released @1 trichocard / acres . (add Pic ) Why use Trichogramma?: Trichogramma parasitizes the eggs, thus killing bollworms and other lepidopterous pests before they could inflict damage on the host plant. The use of trichogramma reduces chemical spraying and preserves predators or natural enemies . They are host-specific, thus safe to use. They are cheap and can be mass-reared cheaply and conveniently in the laboratory on unnatural hosts. Why use Trichogramma ? Things to keep in mind when using Trichogramma : Wasps live longer when they have access to flower nectar. Flowering plants in the field may enhance parasitism levels. Choose insecticides carefully when you have to spray . Broad spectrum chemical insecticides , including the synthetic pyrethroids , are usually very toxic to Trichogramma and should be avoided whenever possible Things to keep in mind when using Trichogramma PowerPoint Presentation: Maintaining habitat diversity on-farm - This can be achieved by growing a mixture of crops and avoiding monocultures . Sorghum and maize are particularly good nursery crops for Trichogramma because they often contain high numbers of eggs. Limitations of Trichogramma: Limitations of Trichogramma Trichogramma eggs have to be used with in a short period(before the eggs hatch ). This limits their production and marketing on a large scale, and is also the reason why Trichogramma is not sold through dealers and shopkeepers. Blocks on the Pesticide Treadmill : Resistance: Pesticide use exerts a powerful selection pressure for changing the genetic make-up of a pest population. Resurgence: Pesticides often kill off natural enemies along with the pest. Secondary Pests: Some potential pests that are normally kept under good control by natural enemies become actual pests after their natural enemies are destroyed by pesticides. Blocks on the Pesticide Treadmill Blocks ………………………….. : Residues: Only a minute portion of any pesticide application contacts the target organism. Blocks …………………………..