Soil Erosion

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Soil Erosion:

Soil Erosion

Polluted soil.:

Polluted soil.

What is soil pollution? :

What is soil pollution? Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste . The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals . Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage.

What causes soil pollution? :

What causes soil pollution? Soil contamination can be caused by: Corrosion of underground storage tanks (including piping used to transmit the contents) Application of pesticides and fertilizers Mining Oil and fuel dumping

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Disposal of coal ash Leaching from landfills Direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil Discharging urine and faeces in the open The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals .

The downside of the pollution. :

The downside of the pollution. Health effects Contaminated or polluted soil directly affects human health through direct contact with soil or via inhalation of soil contaminants which have vaporized; potentially greater threats are posed by the infiltration of soil contamination into groundwater aquifers used for human consumption, sometimes in areas apparently far removed from any apparent source of above ground contamination.

The downside of the pollution:

The downside of the pollution Ecosystem effects Not unexpectedly, soil contaminants can have significant deleterious consequences for ecosystems. [5] There are radical soil chemistry changes which can arise from the presence of many hazardous chemicals even at low concentration of the contaminant species. These changes can manifest in the alteration of metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods resident in a given soil environment.

Cleanup options. Microbes can be used in soil cleanup:

Cleanup options . Microbes can be used in soil cleanup

Cleanup options.:

Cleanup options. Clean up or environmental remediation is analyzed by environmental scientists who utilize field measurement of soil chemicals and also apply computer models ( GIS in Environmental Contamination ) for analyzing transport [6] and fate of soil chemicals. There are several principal strategies for remediation: Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact. This technique also applies to dredging of bay muds containing toxins. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution )

Cleanup options.:

Cleanup options. Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapour extraction. Technologies include ISTD, electrical resistance heating (ERH) , and ET- DSP tm . Bioremediation , involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals. Techniques used in bioremediation include landfarming , biostimulation and bioaugmentating soil biota with commercially available microflora . Extraction of groundwater or soil vapor with an active electromechanical system, with subsequent stripping of the contaminants from the extract. Containment of the soil contaminants (such as by capping or paving over in place). Phytoremediation, or using plants (such as willow) to extract heavy metals.

Thank You. By:-surya:

Thank You. By:- surya

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