Six Sigma Yellow Belt Training : 1 Six Sigma Yellow Belt Training Introduction to Statistical tools and DMAIC To
Understand the need for improvement and how to do it Why Yellow Belt : 2 Why Yellow Belt Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification provides an overall insight to the techniques of Six Sigma, its metrics, and basic improvement methodologies Why Yellow Belt : 3 Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification improves:
The effectiveness of employees in their support role of Six Sigma
Personnel buy-in of Six Sigma
Day-to-day workplace activities(resulting in a reduction of cycle times, improved quality, and less waste) Why Yellow Belt Course structure : 4 Course structure An introduction to Six Sigma
Problem Solving using basic tools
Using Basic Statistical Tools
Ideas Generation & Selection
Control Plans What is Six Sigma? : 5 It is a methodology for continuous improvement
It is a set of statistical and other quality tools arranged in unique way
It is a Quality Philosophy and a management technique What is Six Sigma? History of Six Sigma : 6 History of Six Sigma The roots of Six Sigma can be traced back to the early industrial era, during the eighteenth century in Europe
Walter Shewhart showed how sigma deviations from the mean required a process correction
In 1980, the term Six Sigma was used for this quality management process The Japanese connection : 7 The Japanese connection It all began when they took over a television-manufacturing unit of Motorola in 1970
Japanese management made sure that they placed a high emphasis on all the activities leading to production
Bringing down the defect margin to only 5% defects Core Concept of Six Sigma : 8 Core Concept of Six Sigma Core concepts concentrate around defects and process variations
Process Variability is the second Six Sigma core concept.
Defects are measured by metrics known as Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) Path to Six Sigma : 9 Sigma levels and Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) Path to Six Sigma The Growth of Six Sigma : 10 The Growth of Six Sigma Problem Solving using basic tools : 11 This is achieved through a methodology known as DMAIC, which is an acronym for
Control performance Problem Solving using basic tools Approach to DMAIC : 12 Approach to DMAIC Practical
Solution Methodology : 13 D
Control Identify and state the practical problem Validate the practical problem by collecting data Convert the practical problem to a statistical one, define statistical goal and identify potential statistical solution Confirm and test the statistical solution Convert the statistical solution to a practical solution Methodology Define : 14 VoC - Who wants the project and why ? The scope of project / improvement Key team members / resources for the project Critical milestones and stakeholder review Budget allocation D
Control Define Measure : 15 Ensure measurement system reliability Prepare data collection plan Collect data - Is tool used to measure the output variable flawed ?
- Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ? - How many data points do you need to collect ?
How many days do you need to collect data for ?
What is the sampling strategy ?
Who will collect data and how will data get stored ?
What could the potential drivers of variation be ? D
Control Measure Analyze : 16 Understand statistical problem Baseline current process capability Define statistical improvement goal Identify drivers of variation (significant factors) D
Control Analyze Improve : 17 Map improved process Pilot solution Identify operating tolerance on significant factors D
Control Improve Control : 18 Ensure measurement system reliability for significant factors Improved process capability Sustenance Plan - Is tool used to measure the input / process variables flawed ?
- Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ? - Statistical Process Control
- Mistake Proofing
- Control Plan D
Control Control Tools : 19 Tools Project Charter
Fishbone Diagram 5-Why Analysis
Corrective Action Matrix
Control Charts Problem solving task and tools : 20 Problem solving task and tools Problem solving task and tools : 21 Problem solving task and tools Project Charter sample : 22 Project Charter sample Process Map : 23 Process Map A process map visually depicts the sequence of events to build a product or produce an outcome
It may include additional information such as cycle time, inventory, and equipment information 5-Why Analysis : 24 5-Why Analysis By repeatedly asking the question "Why" you can peel away the layers of symptoms that can lead to the root cause of a problem
Benefits Of The 5 Whys
It helps to quickly identify the root cause of a problem.
It helps determine the relationship between different root causes of a problem.
It can be learned quickly and doesn't require statistical analysis to be used FMEA : 25 FMEA Handout of Rate scale of S-O-D Pareto Chart : 26 Pareto Chart A Pareto chart is a special type of bar chart where the values being plotted are arranged in descending order (80:20 rule) Error Proofing : 27 Error Proofing Error proofing is an activity of awareness, detection and prevention of errors
Also known as the Poke-yoke
There are five error proofing principles:
Elimination: of the possible error
Replacement: is a change to a more reliable process
Facilitation: occurs when the process is made easier to perform
Detection: occurs when the error is found prior to the next operation
Mitigation: minimizes the effect of the error Histogram : 28 Histogram A histogram is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution of a process data set Fishbone Diagram : 29 Fishbone Diagram Fishbone diagrams (also called Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event
Ishikawa diagrams were proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa
The 6 M's
Mother Nature (Environment) Fishbone Diagram : 30 A more modern selection of categories are
Causes should be derived from brainstorming sessions
Causes should be specific, measurable, and controllable Fishbone Diagram Brainstorming : 31 Brainstorming Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem
There are four basic rules in brainstorming
Focus on quantity
Welcome unusual ideas
Combine and improve ideas Exercise Brain storming : 32 Exercise Brain storming Corrective Action Matrix : 33 Corrective Action Matrix No action is effective unless it is implemented, and no action gets implemented unless someone is responsible to make it happen
The Corrective Action Matrix is used by problem-solving teams to keep track of who is doing what - by when Control Plan : 34 Control Plan It is a management tool
To identify and monitor the activity required to control the critical inputs
It should use a balanced control approach in six sigma, ISO-9000
A Control Plan is usually supported by a Control Chart which captures the specific measurements
It is used in the control phase to identify and record controls, targets, and specification limits Control Charts : 35 Control Charts A control chart is a line graph that represents measurements of a process performance
The chart also contains the Target Value for the attribute being measured
the upper control limit (UCL)
and the Lower Control Limit (LCL)
These lines are determined from historical data
Types of Control Chart: Among the most used are
P chart All this sweat is to find out what are the causes of gaps in processes which is ultimately effecting the customer Because : 36 All this sweat is to find out what are the causes of gaps in processes which is ultimately effecting the customer Because By and large, customers don’t judge a product by averages like performance but by what they actually get out of each product : 37 By and large, customers don’t judge a product by averages like performance but by what they actually get out of each product Thank you : 38 Thank you Questions