Television CRTs and camera tubes.....

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On TV CRTs and camera tubes

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Slide 1: 

Pioneers in CRT’s and TelevisionSir William Crookes,Sir J J Thomson, Philo Farnsworth and Vladimir Zworykin

Early CRT tubes : 

Early CRT tubes

Television pioneerPhilo Farnsworth : 

Television pioneerPhilo Farnsworth

Slide 4: 

Pioneer in Television Vladimir Zworykin - at RCA in and around the mid 1930's as he and his team were developing the Iconoscope.

The first Iconoscope built by RCAThe unit scanned 120 lines at 24 frames/secondRCA, 1934 : 

The first Iconoscope built by RCAThe unit scanned 120 lines at 24 frames/secondRCA, 1934

The first Iconoscope and test patternRCA, 1934 : 

The first Iconoscope and test patternRCA, 1934

Early TV Picture (RCA)from first Iconoscope-1934 : 

Early TV Picture (RCA)from first Iconoscope-1934

Slide 8: 

RCA Image Orthicon(1948) and Hitachi single tube colour camera

Slide 9: 

8 mm colour camera tube

The Iconoscope : 

The Iconoscope

The Iconoscope : 

The Iconoscope The Iconoscope was developed by  Vladimir Zworykin, and used in electronic TV broadcasting from 1939 until it was replaced by more advanced tubes. Inside the Iconoscope, the image is projected on a mosaic (M) consisting of granules of photo-emissive material. Emission of photo-electrons from each granule in proportion to the amount of light  results in a charge image being formed on the mosaic. Each granule, together with the conductive plate behind the mosaic, forms a small capacitor, all of these having a common plate. The capacitors are discharged in succession when the mosaic is scanned by a high velocity electron beam (E) from the electron gun, and the resulting changes in potential at the metal plate constitute the picture signal.The "sensitivity" is 75 000 lux.The picture shows RCA 1850A. The price in 1948 was USD 540,-An unusual application with an Iconoscope can be found here at Tubepedia

Image-Iconoscope : 

Image-Iconoscope This has a kind of electron multipier to improve the sensitivity which has been increased to 1000 lux.

P.E.S-Photikon : 

P.E.S-Photikon Here, a bias light further improves the sensitivity to 300-500 lux

Orthicon : 

Orthicon The electron beam has a relatively low speed and magnetic focusing is needed to keep the beam narrow. The anode is placed in the same end as the electron gun and the return beam is modulated according to the light input.Sensitivity 3000 lux

Image Orthicon : 

Image Orthicon

Image Orthicon : 

Image Orthicon The Image Orthicon was a big step forward. It includes a five stage electron multiplier. The picture shows the 3" RCA 5820.Sensitivity 200 luxDimensions: 75 mm diam,  385 mm length, weight 400 grams.Vidicon  Sensitivity 500 lux Picture shows:  Philips XQ1270 3/4", diam 19 mm, length 100 mm, weight 23 g.Philips XQ1030 1", diam 27 mm, length 140 mm, weight 50 g. Vidicon with magnetic deflection unit. The Spectraplex vidicon type 4445 was RCA's attempt to create a single tube color TV camera. They made one camera model with this tube. Further history is unknown.The size is : diam: 25 mm, length 140 mm.Weight: 50 grams. Plumbicon Philips improvement of the vidicon. The picture shows XQ1074 which were available in three versions, R, G and B for colour TV camera. And for comparison only:   A small solid state color TV camera "Mintron" with C-mount for lens. Dimensions: 110 x 55 x 50 mm. Weight: 360 grams excl. lens, 470 grams incl. F1,4/16mm lens. Power needed: 12 VDC, 100mA. Sensitivity:  4 lux.  Output signal: 1,0 Vpp composite video. Can be externally synchronized. An ultra miniature solid state pin hole color TV camera with 1/4" CCD sensor. Built in 4,3 mm lens / f2,8. Dimensions: 19 x 33 x 29 mm. Weight:  50 grams. Power needed: 5 VDC Sensitivity: 2 lux, 330 lines resolution, 290 000 pixels. B/W version of camera has 0,1 lux sensitivity !!! Output signal: 1,0 Vpp composite video. Made by COP Security Taiwan.(Yes, it is the same matchbox) A micro sized monochrome camera for surveillance use, type CAMZWCMM. It measures 15 x 15 x 17 mm. Weight: 5 grams, Power needed 12 VDC. Sensitivity 0,5 lux. Made somewhere in Taiwan.(Still the same matchbox) NEW 2002-01-27 HOME © 2001, Åke Holm, Sweden

TheVidicon TVcamera : 

TheVidicon TVcamera

Plumbicon : 

Plumbicon Philips improvement of the vidicon. The picture shows XQ1074 which were available in three versions, R, G and B for colour TV camera.

Solid-state CCD cameras : 

Solid-state CCD cameras A small solid state color TV camera "Mintron" with C-mount for lens. Dimensions: 110 x 55 x 50 mm. Weight: 360 grams excl. lens, 470 grams incl. F1,4/16mm lens. Power needed: 12 VDC, 100mA. Sensitivity:  4 lux.  Output signal: 1,0 Vpp composite video. Can be externally synchronized. A micro sized monochrome camera for surveillance use, type CAMZWCMM. It measures 15 x 15 x 17 mm. Weight: 5 grams, Power needed 12 VDC. Sensitivity 0,5 lux. Made somewhere in Taiwan.(Still the same matchbox)

Crookes Maltese Cross Tube : 

Crookes Maltese Cross Tube

The Maltese Cross tube is one of the most famous Crookes tubes.The tube demonstrates that electrons go in a straight line and don't go through metal.  The cross can actually lay down and stand up (mechanical).  When the cross lies down, the glass face of the tubeemits a green glow when the electrons strike the glass wall, when it's right up you will see the shadow of the cross.

The Cathode Ray Deflecting tube : 

The Cathode Ray Deflecting tube The Cathode Ray Deflecting tube demonstrates the influence of a magnetic field to the electron beam. The beam will bent away from the center when a magnet is held near the tube.

Crookes Mineral Tube : 

Crookes Mineral Tube

Crookes Flower Tube : 

Crookes Flower Tube

Crookes Railway Tube : 

Crookes Railway Tube

The Goldstein Canal Ray tube. : 

The Goldstein Canal Ray tube.

Sir J J Thomson : 

Sir J J Thomson Excuse me... how can you discover a particle so small that nobody has ever seen one?

Cathode Ray Tube : 

Cathode Ray Tube J J Thomson at office J J Thomson’s Cathode ray Tube

Cathode-Ray Demonstration Tube : 

Cathode-Ray Demonstration Tube

Geissler Tubes : 

Geissler Tubes

Colour Science : 

Colour Science

Vectorscope Display & Graticule : 

Vectorscope Display & Graticule

References-Internet Resources : 

References-Internet Resources Wikipedia website Ake’s CRT Tube data site Sparkmuseum site Brittanica Online Texas A&M Univ.- Color Science web-site Monochrome and Colour Television- R R Gulati http://members.tripod.com/~FrameMaster/ Zworykin images credit to Steve Restelli,Restelli Corporation,USA. Compiled by S R Norman,Faculty SSNCE,Chennai (for educational use only)

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