The Civil War

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A non-traditional, economics-rich, anti-slavery (including conscription), pro-secessionist, constitutionalist presentation of the American Civil War.

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The Civil War:

The Civil War US History 7 By: Brian Surkan

Background:

Background States power v. Federal power debate since 1787 South -> less federal power Slavery to be left up to the States North & West -> more federal power National Bank Infrastructure / Improvement projects Protective tariffs Slavery: Poster child for states rights States w/slavery preferred more states rights Free states preferred more central power

Attempts at Compromise:

Attempts at Compromise Constitution: Allows slavery (imports end in 1808) Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise) Maintains balance of slave and free states (11/11) Added Maine (free) and Missouri (slave) 36°30' parallel north (KY/TN) separates Slave/Free Compromise of 1850 CA enters as free Slave trade ends in DC / slavery continues there Fugitive Slave Act – stringent fugitive return requirements TX compensated for giving up land West of Rio Grande Popular Sovereignty in unincorporated territories

Compromises Collapse:

Compromises Collapse Revolt in North against Fugitive Slave Act Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) Kansas - Nebraska Act (1854) Cancelled Compromise of 1820 Popular Sovereignty above Mason Dixon Line Bleeding Kansas : pro slave v. free settlers fought (John Brown) Charles Sumner caned in Senate by Preston Brooks (1856) Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Slaves not citizens: Only citizens have right to file suit Federal gov’t cannot determine slavery law in territories John Brown raids Harpers Ferry to start slave revolt (1859)

The Road to Secession:

The Road to Secession Election of 1860 South feels they have little remaining voice in DC Free states control both houses of Congress North and West want to strengthen federal power Democratic presidency is last chance to protect states rights Only Supreme Court still largely populated by southerners Republican Party = Anti-slave party Republican President = Ability of North to pass any laws Lincoln: Republican candidate for election Personally disliked slavery Willing to accept containment instead of abolition Most conservative / tolerant available Republican candidate

South Secedes:

South Secedes Confederate States of America Lincoln’s election triggers secession SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX secede before inauguration Seek to leave peacefully CSA: New Constitution and President in Feb 1861 Seize all Federal military bases within their territory Fort Sumpter resists South lays siege Lincoln sends supplies to Sumpter South attacks on April 13, 1861 (no human casualties/ 1 horse)

The United States in 1861:

The United States in 1861 ██  States that seceded before April 15, 1861 ██  States that seceded after April 15, 1861 ██  Union states that permitted slavery ██  Union states that forbade slavery ██  Territories, unaffiliated

Why Fight the Civil War?:

Why Fight the Civil War? North: Yankee Tyrants Second war of Independence Constitution violated by excess central government D. of I. protects right of governed to choose their own government Texas Indep . from MX and US indep . from UK set precedents Defending their way of life Short war: Just leave us alone South initiated violence ( Sumpter ) Constitution is permanent Cannot allow precedent If all men have rights, then slavery is evil and must be eliminated Constitution allows for suppression of rebellion Short war: Strong show of force will bring South back Confederate States Union

Relative Advantages:

Relative Advantages North More resources Moral beliefs (anti-slave) Control seas (blockade) South Defending homes Defending way of life Need only deter North Both Fight for Honor Excitement of Youth Believe in Short War Fight for buddies

Advantage to the Defense:

Advantage to the Defense New Technology Rifled guns (canon, hand rifles and Gatling gun) Fire far and accurate Caplock more reliable than flint lock Breech-loaders introduced later Railroads move men and supplies quickly Hard to build Easy to destroy Photography (B&W) Iron Ships New Tactics Take cover when attacking Trench warfare Total War

Strategies for the War:

Strategies for the War Union Strategies Anaconda – War of Attrition Naval blockade to cut off trade Slowly starve Confederacy into submission Blitzkrieg (Lightning war) Quickly take Richmond End the war in minimum time w/ minimum resources Divide and Conquer Divide South into sections and conquer separately Mississippi R. / Cumberland R. / Tennessee R. / East Confederate Strategy Defend when attacked Cause pain in the North to secure foreign recognition & end war

What Are We Willing to Die for?:

What Are We Willing to Die for? Home and family Our principles Honor Patriotism Freedom Independence Justice Our friends, especially those on the battlefield

1861: First Year:

1861: First Year Fort Sumpter Attacked (April 12) Lincoln Calls for 75,000 volunteers (April 15) VA, TN, NC, AK secede (April 17 – May) Lincoln proclaims blockade of southern ports (April 19) First Battle of Bull Run – Union loses (July 21) Union humbled / Confederates overconfident McDowell fired / Replaced by McClellan Trent Affair (Nov) Confederate Diplomats seized from British ship “Trent” Union Armies train endlessly

1862: Western Theater:

1862: Western Theater Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson fall to Grant (Feb 6-16) Shiloh (April 6/7) 13K Union Casual. 10K Confed. Casual. New Orleans Seized April 25 The War in the West, 1861-1863

1862: Virginia Theater:

1862: Virginia Theater Ironclad Merimac sinks two Union ships (March 8/9) McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign Battle Seven Pines (May 31) Robert E. Lee replaces wounded Johnston (June 1) Seven Days Battles (June 25 – July 1) Second Battle of Bull Run (August 29/30) 75k Union defeated by 55k Confederates Antietam (Sept. 17) Attack into Union territory (MD), 40k Confederates / 87k Union For supplies, foreign recognition, and to weary the northern public Lee lost 10,700 / McClellan lost 12,410

Monitor v. Merimac:

Monitor v. Merimac

Virginia Theater 1862:

Virginia Theater 1862

1862: Virginia Theater:

1862: Virginia Theater Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (Sept. 22) McClellan Replaced by Burnside (Nov. 7) Lincoln to McClellan after Antietam: “If you don't want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while.” Mid-term Elections in Union (Nov.) Fredericksburg (Dec. 13) Burnside loses 12, 653 to Lee’s 5,309 Persistent assault by Union of entrenched Confederates Confederates held the high ground Ambrose E. Burnside

1863: Virginia Theater:

1863: Virginia Theater Emancipation Proclamation (Jan 1) Frees ONLY slaves held by Confederates “Fighting Joe” Hooker replaces Burnside (Jan 25) Union Draft enacted (March 3) Men 20-45 Exemption for $300 or substitute Poor northerners complain Chancellorsville (May 1-4) Stonewall Jackson dies (May 10) Meade replaces Hooker (June 28)

1863: Gettysburg (July 1-3):

1863: Gettysburg (July 1-3) Lee moves North after Chancellorsville Cut Union rail / communications lines in PA Win foreign recognition of the Confederacy Find supplies for his troops Stalls near Gettysburg due to lack of information Union cavalry take the high ground Confederates neglect to take high ground (July 1) Union re-enforced overnight Lee tries to flank Union forces (July 2) Picket’s Suicidal Charge (July3) Lee withdraws back to VA some days later

1863:Gettysburg (July 1-3):

1863:Gettysburg (July 1-3)

1863: Miscellaneous Events:

1863: Miscellaneous Events Vicksburg falls (July 4) Anti-draft riots in New York (July 13-16) Confederate victory at Chickamauga (Sept. 19-20) Grant appointed commander in West (Oct 16) Gettysburg Address (Nov. 19) Union Victory at Chattanooga (Nov. 23-25)

1863: Gettysburg Address:

1863: Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

1864:

1864 Grant given control of all Union armies (March 9) Union Offensive against Lee’s Army of N. Virginia Grant with 120k men v. Lee with 64k Wilderness (May 5-6) Spotsylvania (May 8-12) Cold Harbor (June 1-3) Gen. Philip Sheridan takes Shenandoah Valley, VA (Oct 19) Union Offensive against Joe Johnston’s Army of TN William Sherman with 100k men v. Johnston with 60k Atlanta falls to Sherman (Sept. 2) March to the Sea / Savannah (Dec. 21) 300 miles long / 60 miles wide of utter destruction ( Total War )

1864 Battle Maps:

1864 Battle Maps

1865:

1865 US Congress approves 13 th amendment (Jan 31) Submitted to states for ratification Grant takes Petersburg, VA (April 2) Petersburg and Richmond evacuated Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox (April 9) Lincoln Shot (April 14) Remaining Confederate Forces Surrender (May) Victory Parade in Washington (May 23/24)

Union Legislation (1861-2):

Union Legislation (1861-2) 1861 Revenue Act (August 5) First income tax (3%) on income > $800 ($17,630 in 2005$) 1862 Legal Tender Act Creates US Treasury Notes not backed by specie Indirect taxation through inflation 1862 April 10 – Federal compensation to slave owners in states undertaking gradual emancipation

Union Legislation (1862):

Union Legislation (1862) 1862 April 16 Slavery abolished in D.C. w/compensation to owners Congress appropriates monies for sending former slaves back to Africa 1862 Pacific Railroad Acts (July 1) Created the famous Union and Central Pacific UP from Omaha, NB / CP from Sacramento, CA Updated in 1864, 1865, 1866 1862 Slaves allowed to join Union Army (July) Mostly only for menial duties, not for fighting Emancipation Proclamation made black soldiers possible

Union Legislation (1863-4):

Union Legislation (1863-4) 1863 Union Adopts Conscription (March 3) Male citizens ages 20-45 may be called Finding a replacement or $300 payment instead Poor northerners riot against draft in NYC (July 13-15) 1863 W. Virginia Admitted to the Union (June 20) Unconstitutional: such subdivisions require state approval 1863 War Dep. orders black recruitment in Union (Oct) Compensation given to owners of recruited black slaves 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction All property (except slaves) to be returned to loyal ex-Confederates 1864 Compensation of blacks made equal to whites (June 15)

Confederate Civil War Legislation:

Confederate Civil War Legislation 1861 Voluntary Southern Embargo on Exports Severely impeded southern economy and war effort Well before Union blockade was effective 1862 Draft Act (April 16) Exempted key workers and slave owners 1862 Black Union Soldiers NOT POWs (Dec 23) “Confederate President Davis issues proclamation ordering that black Union soldiers and their officers captured by Confederate troops are not to be treated as prisoners of war; instead, they are to be remanded to Confederate state authorities” 1865 Slaves allowed to fight in Confederate Army (Mar 9)

United States in 1864-5:

United States in 1864-5 ██  Union states ██  Union territories not permitting slavery ██  Border Union states, permitting slavery ██  Bleeding Kansas, entered Union ██  Confederate states ██  Union territories permitting slavery

War Finance:

War Finance Fiat Currency (Greenbacks & Confederates) Government creates money from nothing Inflationary Government Bonds Both sides borrowed heavily Requisitioning Food and supplies stolen from citizens, esp. from enemy Donations Supporters of the war effort donated goods and $ Self-provisioning Many soldiers provided their own provisions (esp. in Confed.)

Racism and the Civil War (North):

Racism and the Civil War (North) Racism common both before and after Civil War Lincoln forbids Secretary of War Simon Cameron from advocating emancipation and employment of former slaves in war effort (Dec 1861) Strict Blacks Codes existed in IL, IN, OR, OH No entry into the state No ownership of property Blacks only allowed to vote in 5 Northern (N-England) states Blacks were not treated equally in the military Northern states (e.g. IL) refused black suffrage until 15 th amend. (1870) Blacks paid less and segregated, especially in the military

Racism and the Civil War (South):

Racism and the Civil War (South) Racism before and after the Civil War Blacks were largely protected by owners prior to Civil War Resentment of emancipation fueled existing racism Freed blacks unprotected by whites after Civil War Black Codes aimed to establish quasi-slavery after the War in ALL former Confederate states

Bibliography:

Bibliography http://www.americancivilwar.com/tl/tl1862.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Note http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/index.html http://dig.lib.niu.edu/civilwar/race.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_codes http://cniss.wustl.edu/workshoppapers/artpaper.pdf http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9F02E2D71F3FEE34BC4953DFB6678389679FDE http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/chronol.htm

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