Strong foundations

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Strong foundations Early childhood care and education New York 26 October 2006 Global Launch

About the Report:

2 About the Report Prepared by an independent team based at UNESCO Paris Funded by nine bilateral donors, advised by an editorial board Charts progress toward the six EFA goals Assesses aid to education Highlights effective policies and practices to accelerate progress Draws attention to emerging challenges Four reports since 2002: Overall trends Gender Quality Literacy Evidence and analysis for policy and action

Education for All Dakar Goals and Millennium Development Goals:

3 Education for All Dakar Goals and Millennium Development Goals Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality, and other health goals Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education Universal primary education by 2015 Learning and life skills programmes for youth and adults 50% increase in adult literacy rates by 2015 Gender parity by 2005 and gender equality by 2015 Improving quality of education MDGs EFA Goals No country in need should be denied international assistance

Presentation roadmap:

4 Presentation roadmap Education for All Overview The Primary Education, Quality, Gender and Literacy Goals Early Childhood Care and Education International Aid for Education Agenda for the Future

EFA: Where do we stand?:

5 Far from EFA (EDI below 0.80) Intermediate position (EDI between 0.80 and 0.94) EFA achieved or close (EDI between 0.95 and 1.00) 50 28 2 18 2 1 3 6 2 2 11 4 8 19 47 15 6 17 3 4 1 1 EFA: Where do we stand? Sub-Saharan Africa Arab States Central Asia East Asia/Pacific South and West Asia N. America /West. Europe Latin America/Caribbean Central/Eastern Europe Out of 125 countries, 47 have achieved the EFA goals. Countries showing the greatest progress are in the lowest scoring group Excludes many countries far from goals, e.g. those in conflict Total

Education finance: A mixed picture:

6 Number of countries where public expenditure on education as % of GNP has: Education finance: A mixed picture 41 65

Aid to basic education: On the increase:

7 Constant 2003 US$ billions Aid to basic education: On the increase Total aid to basic education in low-income countries almost doubled between 2000 and 2004 Total aid to basic education Total aid to education

More and more children are starting school :

8 More and more children are starting school 1999 2004 80 100 120 140 Arab States Central/East. Europe N. America/ West. Europe East Asia/ Pacific Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America/ Caribbean South/West Asia Gross intake rate in primary education (%) Sharp increases in Grade 1 access in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia

Primary school participation on the rise:

9 Primary school participation on the rise Almost all countries with ratios below 85% in 1999 improved their situation 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sub-Saharan Africa Arab States South/West Asia Central/Eastern Europe Central Asia East Asia Pacific Latin America Caribbean N. America West. Europe Net enrolment ratios in primary education (%) 1999 2004

77 million children still not in school:

10 77 million children still not in school Half in sub-Saharan Africa One-third in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Ethiopia Drop of 20 million since 1999, mainly in South Asia

Who is out-of-school? Rural, poor, uneducated mother:

11 Who is out-of-school? Rural, poor, uneducated mother Out-of-school children by schooling experience

Too few pupils complete primary school:

12 Too few pupils complete primary school In addition to increasing access, improving retention is a key to reducing out-of-school children 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rwanda Burundi Lesotho Madagascar Ghana Swaziland Benin Niger Togo Eritrea Mali Cape Verde Cameroon Mauritius Mauritania Morocco Saudi Algeria Lebanon Oman Kuwait Mongolia Azerbaijan Tajikistan Kazakhstan Lao P. D. Myanmar Nepal Bangladesh Nicaragua Ecuador Guatemala Colombia Panama Bolivia Dominica Costa Rica Barbados Belarus Survival rates to last grade (%) Cohort completion rates (%)

Quality: Growing number of learning assessments:

13 Quality: Growing number of learning assessments More governments are carrying out national assessments of learning outcomes and taking part in international exercises

Needed: more trained teachers:

14 Needed: more trained teachers Sub-Saharan Africa needs to recruit at least 1.6 million more teachers to reach UPE by 2015 Too few female teachers in countries with low enrolment of girls Slight improvement in pupil-teacher ratios in most regions between 1999 and 2004 Only slight increase in % of trained teachers

Progress towards gender parity:

15 Progress towards gender parity About two-thirds of countries out of 181 with data have achieved gender parity in primary education Gender parity 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1999 2004 Secondary education GPI in GER Only one-third of countries have achieved parity at the secondary level Gender parity Primary education 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 GPI in GER Africa Sub-Saharan Arab States South/West Asia Latin America Caribbean Centr ./ East . Europe N. America/ West. Europe Central Asia East Asia/ Pacific Sub-Saharan Africa Arab States South/West Asia Latin America Caribbean Centr ./ East . Europe N. America/ West. Europe Central Asia East Asia/ Pacific

Secondary under pressure:

16 Secondary under pressure Participation increasing, mainly at lower secondary level Large gaps between lower and upper secondary in some regions 30 51 73 66 86 90 90 101 0 40 80 120 Sub-Saharan Africa South/West Asia East Asia/Pacific Arab States Lat. America/ Caribbean Central Asia Central/East. Europe N. America/ West. Europe Gross enrolment ratio 2004 (%) Lower secondary Total secondary Upper secondary

Literacy remains elusive:

17 Literacy remains elusive One in five adults – 781 million – lack basic literacy skills The vast majority live in South and West Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia

Tackling disadvantage :

18 Tackling disadvantage Offsetting poverty and disadvantage Abolish school fees Grants and scholarships for marginalized groups Better opportunities for the disabled; mainstreaming Incentives and community-based efforts to overcome need for child labour Early childhood programmes Mother tongue instruction Second chances Bridging programmes for youth and adults lacking formal schooling Youth and adult literacy programmes Programmes in post-conflict situations Policies to overcome barriers to education are in place in many countries but need to be expanded Poverty keeps children out of school

The ECCE imperative: Young children under threat:

19 The ECCE imperative: Young children under threat Child born in developing world has 40% chance of living in extreme poverty 31% of children in developing countries moderately or severely stunted 10.5 million under-5 children die each year, most from preventable diseases High under-5 mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and South/West Asia Each day 1,800 children infected with HIV Children in emergency, conflict and post-conflict situations highly vulnerable

ECCE: strong foundations:

20 “Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children” Rights UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Development Poverty reduction and the MDG health and education goals Education Future participation and achievement Equity Reducing social inequality ECCE: strong foundations

Thinking comprehensively:

21 Nutrition Thinking comprehensively Holistic programmes encompass: Nutrition Health and hygiene Physical and emotional development Social skills Education

Early childhood, nutrition and education:

22 Early childhood, nutrition and education Iron, nutrition, deworming and psycho-social stimulation impact on learning Combining nutrition and education has larger and longer-lasting impact Access to primary school Retention in primary school Lower repetition Better language development Higher achievement Nutrition and Education Reinforce Each Other Early Childhood Participation Improves Later Education

Acting early pays off :

23 Acting early pays off Most rigorous studies on benefits come from developed countries U.S. High/Scope Perry study of low-income African-American children higher IQ at age 5 enhanced success at school higher earning at age 40 High returns to programmes in India, Egypt, Colombia, Bolivia Returns greatest for poorest and most disadvantaged children ‘It is a rare public policy initiative that promotes fairness and social justice and at the same time promotes productivity in the economy and in society at large. Investing in disadvantaged young children is such a policy.’ James Heckman, Nobel economics prizewinner

A diverse field:

24 A diverse field Providers Governments (national, subnational) P rivate sector (non-profit and for-profit) I nternational non-governmental organizations C ommunity-based organizations Informal provision of care for children aged 0 to 8, by parents or extended family, mainly at home but sometimes in other family or community settings. Primary education (age 6 up) ECCE policies and programmes for ages 3 and up -pre-primary education -non-formal education ECCE policies and programmes for ages 0 to 2 -organized care and education -non-formal care or education -support to parents Informal care and child rearing Organized care and education - parental leave

A public-private mix:

25 A public-private mix Region Countries according to % of private pre-primary enrolment Low (0% to 32%) Medium (33% to 66%) High (67% to 100%) Sub-Saharan Africa 8 7 12 Arab States 3 4 13 Central Asia 8 East Asia and the Pacific 8 5 6 South and West Asia 1 2 1 Latin America/Caribbean 19 8 12 North America/West. Europe 11 8 1 Central and Eastern Europe 18 Total 76 34 45 Across the developing world, the private sector plays a prominent role

Programmes for the under-3s:

26 Countries with at least one formal programme for children under 3 in 2005 (%) Programmes for the under-3s Many countries lack programmes addressing health, nutrition, care and education of the under 3s, a critical period in the child’s life

Regional trends in pre-primary:

27 Regional trends in pre-primary Developed/transition countries Latin America/Caribbean East Asia/Pacific South and West Asia Arab States Sub-Saharan Africa A three-fold increase in pre-primary enrolments over 30 years More than 1 in 3 children now enrolled but huge regional differences

Recovering lost ground in transition countries:

28 Recovering lost ground in transition countries Czech Republic Russian Fed. Ukraine Kyrgyzstan Romania Armenia Public spending cuts led to sharp enrolment declines after 1989 Now rising again, with the private sector becoming important Central Asia the exception

Poverty limits access:

29 Poverty limits access 0 20 40 60 80 Niger D. R. Congo U. R. Tanzania Lao PDR Tajikistan Uganda Rwanda Senegal Egypt Bolivia Myanmar Azerbaijan Madagascar Sierra Leone Philippines Cameroon Kenya Nicaragua Mongolia Haiti Lesotho India Venezuela Viet Nam Colombia Trinidad/Tobago Attendance rates (%) Poorer households Richer households Higher attendance for children from richer households Lower attendance among poor who would benefit most

The gender factor:

30 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 Arab States Central/East. Europe Central Asia East Asia/ Pacific South/West Asia N. America/ West. Europe Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America/ Caribbean GPI in GER in pre-primary education Gender parity line The gender factor The gender gap in early childhood programme enrolments is small in most countries Programmes relieve older sisters from caring for the youngest, a common barrier to girls’ schooling Programmes can promote different values through pedagogy, teaching and play

Which factors limit attendance?:

31 Which factors limit attendance? Poverty Large gaps in access between richest and poorest households Lack of mother’s secondary education Place of residence Rural enrolment 10 to 30 percentage points lower than urban Lack of centre close to home Lack of birth certificate , often reflecting marginalization Disadvantaged and vulnerable children stand to benefit most from early childhood programmes

Why the policy neglect?:

32 Why the policy neglect? Slow response to social and economic trends Role of the family vs role of the state Diversity of sector makes coordination difficult Child development research results not well known Lack of rigorous studies in developing countries Governments prioritize primary education International aid focuses on other education levels Early childhood is still not a priority in many developing countries

Strong policies for young children: What is needed?:

33 Strong policies for young children: What is needed? Top-level political endorsement A national early childhood policy grouping multiple players A lead agency to coordinate early childhood policies Integration in national development plans and PRSPs Staffing, training and standards for all providers Explicit provision for disadvantaged and vulnerable Partnerships: NGOs, private sector and international agencies Financing: higher spending, targeting and more aid Policy Environment Policy Elements

Quality: what is needed :

34 Quality: what is needed Better training and support for ECCE staff Working directly with parents Minimum standards covering private and public providers Continuity between home, ECCE and primary school Promoting inclusion cultural diversity and gender equality mother tongue learning children with disabilities and other special needs The quality of interaction between carer and child is the single most important determinant of programme success

Financing ECCE: Finding the balance:

35 Financing ECCE: Finding the balance Funding is public and private Less than 10% of public education spending goes to pre-primary Even in OECD countries, parents’ share can run up to 60% Universal coverage + extra support to disadvantaged children (OECD) Income targeting Geographical targeting (remote areas,urban slums) Targeting specific groups: disabled, those in emergency situations How to allocate limited resources to children most in need? A universal policy with targeted spending on most disadvantaged?

ECCE: A low priority for donors:

36 ECCE: A low priority for donors Almost all donors allocate to pre-primary less than 10% of what they give to primary Bilateral donors give priority to centre- based programmes for children from age 3

Aid for EFA Different donors, different priorities:

37 Aid for EFA Different donors, different priorities Five donors contribute 72% of all bilateral aid to education Several donors give high priority to education, but not to the basic level

The Fast Track Initiative: not yet a global EFA finance compact:

38 The Fast Track Initiative: not yet a global EFA finance compact Twenty-three country plans have been endorsed, and a further twelve are expected by the end of 2006 So far, US$106 million has been disbursed to 12 countries [up from $96 million to 11 countries when Report went to press] Total donor contributions amount to almost US$230 million; a further US$450 million pledged to end 2007 The Netherlands, the European Commission and the United Kingdom are responsible for 85% of future pledges

EFA: An aid gap remains:

39 EFA: An aid gap remains Current aid Aid in 2010 if 2005 pledges met Constant 2003 US$ billions Required each year to reach EFA

Action Now!:

40 Action Now! Act on all goals: early childhood,literacy and primary school Act with urgency Emphasize equity and inclusion Increase public spending, and focus it better Increase aid to basic education, and allocate where most needed Move ECCE up national and international agendas Increase public financing for ECCE, and target it Upgrade the ECCE workforce Clear progress but more effort is needed

Contact Information:

41 Contact Information EFA Global Monitoring Report Team c/o UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 France efareport@unesco.org www.efareport.unesco.org

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