Forgig 2

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Training on Forging technology Basics Forging deals with solid flow of material Two types A/ Open Die forging B/ Closed die forging Open die forging A/ Big forgings B/ Small qty C/shorter development time Closed die forging A/high volume B/Accurate profile C/Lower cost

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Types of forging Cold forging Hot forging Warm forging Other classification 1. hammer forging 2. Press forging 3. Upsetter forging 4. Ring rolling 5. Orbital forging Round forging 2. Symmetrical forging 3. Asymmetrical 4. Extrusion 5 . Upset

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Advantages of forging process High strength High repeatability High productivity Surface finish Minimum machining operations Material optimization

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Classification of forging equipment Hammer Press Up setter Others like orbital, swaging , rolling etc. Hammers type Steam/Air Hammer Spring hammer Drop hammer Counterblow hammer Friction board hammers Pneumatic hammers Hydraulic hammers

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Presses Mechanical Screw presses Hydraulic press Up setter Horizontal Vertical Electric up setter Hatebur machines with transfer lines Rotary swages Chase rollers

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Fundamental of Hammer Lift by air/steam or Mechanical lift Drop by gravity or pressure Principle of impact Fundamental of Press Lifted mechanically or hydraulically Drop mechanically not by gravity Principle of squeezing pressure Fundamental Up setter Same as presses Force applied on end of bars

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Fundamental process of forging Cut bar stock A/ shearing, B/ Hexa cutting Heating for hot forging/Warm forging and annealing for cold forging Descaling A..Upset / Blocking/Finishing(Gears) B.. Fuller, roll, block finish Trimming of excess flash Coining if required Fettling/ Grinding Heat treat Shot blast Inspection

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When to select hammer/ press / or upsetter Hammer Low cost Quick development Low volume No additional subsidiary equipment necessary Larger draft angles upto 5-7Degree Complicated profiles Press Near net shape forging Large volume better surface finish Symmetrical forgings Deep extrusion Very low draft angles

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Upsetter Single ended and double ended forging Draftless forging Lower cost forging Forging design fundamental Input machining drawing Develop forging drawing Establish process Identify equipments Calculate raw material requirement Develop die drawing/Trim tool drgs Develop die template drgs and inspection template drgs Develop process plan Develop quality plan

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Calculation of raw material Develop forging drawing as per IS3469 Tolerances Consider machining allowance, Mismatch allowance Punch eccentricity allowance, Scale pit alowance, Heat treat allowance, draft angles . 3. Provide tolerance for mismatch, scaling , dimensions , general tolerances, Flatness, web shifts ,Weight tol,Radii, and other dimension, eccentricity, etc 4. Maching allowance Upto 205=1.5 Upto410=2.5 per surface Upto 610=4 mm persurface 5. Calculate average weight of forging 6. Add heating loss upto 2.5 % for conventional heating0.75% for Induction heating 7.Add flash loss 1.2 to 1.25% 8. Add 5% for cutting losses, end piece loss etc. For gears the gross weight of raw material blank is around 1.25%

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Forging defects 1.Dimensional A.Mismatch B. Punch out C. Flash extention /Burr D. Underfill E. Lap F. Web shift G. Scale pit H. Warpage I. Nick Marks J. Seams/Cracks K Thermal cracks L. Parting line cracks M. Punch marks etc

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Selection of hammer Forging wt Hammer energy Mkg To 1kg 1370 2.25kg 2060 4,5 kg 2740 7 kg 4100 9kg 5460 13kg 8200

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Costing process 1/ Develop forging Drawing 2/ Calculate Finish weight of forging 3/ Calculate gross weight of forging 4/ Calculate Conversion A.. Bar stock Shearing/ Cutting B.. Heating C.. Forging process cost D..Heat treat ment cost E.. Die cost F.. Other costs