cultural heritage

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all India's state culture

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Cultural Heritage

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The culture of India has been shaped not only by its long history, unique geography and diverse demography, but also by its ancient heritages, which were formed during the Indus Valley Civilization and evolved further during the Vedic age, rise and decline of Buddhism, the Golden age, invasions from Central Asia, European colonization and the Indian independence movement.

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India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality. The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old.

Religions and spirituality : 

Religions and spirituality India is the birth place of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers. India is also the birthplace for the Sikh, Jain, Lingayat, and Ahmadiyya faiths.

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India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians.Sikhism, Jainism and especially Buddhism are influential not only in India but across the world. Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people

Society : 

Society According to Eugene M. Makar, traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. He also mentions that from an early age, children are reminded of their roles and places in society.This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and functional role in determining their life. Several differences such as religion divide the , a far more powerful division is the traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations. Strict social taboos have governed these groups for thousands of years. In recent years, particularly in cities, some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. Important family relations extend as far as gotra, the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth.

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Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. For generations, India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. It is a system under which extended members of a family – parents, children, the children’s spouses and their offspring, etc. – live together. Usually, the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. He makes all important decisions and rules, and other family members abide by them. marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. Even today, the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members, with the consent of the bride and groom. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age, height, personal values and tastes, the backgrounds of their families (wealth, social standing), their castes and the astrological compatibility of the couples' horoscopes.

Festivals : 

Festivals India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India, the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Navratri Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals, such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam,"Nuakhai" are also fairly popular.

Clothing : 

Clothing Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture, geography and climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. In India, a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. Most Indian clothes are made from cotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy, majority of Indians wear sandals.

Performing arts : 

Performing arts Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Jharkhand and Orissa, the ghoomar of Rajasthan, the dandiya and garba of Gujarat, the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam

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The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka, some of which go back to the Stone Age. Ancient texts outline theories of darragh and anecdotal accounts was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Cave paintings from Ajanta, Bagh, Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu, Buddhist or Jain. A freshly made coloured flour design (Rangoli) is still a common sight outside the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. Raja Ravi Varma is one the classical painters from medieval India.

Sculpture in India : 

Sculpture in India The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism developed further, India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Sculptures produced in the northwest, in stucco, schist, or clay, display a very strong blend of Indian and Classical Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman influence. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. During the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia.

Architecture : 

Architecture Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time, constantly absorbing new ideas. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600–1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns.

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During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors, several Buddhist architectural complexes, such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Later on, South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur, the Sun Temple, Konark, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, and the Buddha stupa (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Bhattiprolu. Angkor Wat, Borobudur and other Buddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture, as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings.

Sports in India : 

Sports in India Field hockey is India's official national Sport; and the Indian field hockey team won the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, Cricket is the most popular Sport in India; the India national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, and shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. Domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League, a Twenty20 competition

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India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games, played in New Delhi. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturanga. Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include kabaddi, gilli-danda, and kho kho. Traditional southern Indian games include snake boat race and kuttiyum kolum.

Rajasthan Culture : 

Rajasthan Culture Rajasthan has a central place in enriching the Indian culture as a whole. The land of Princes is an enigmatic state where tradition and history blend with contemporary lifestyle. The culture of the state is a result of its five thousand year old history and the varied topography of the Desert land. Rajasthan has a diverse population belonging to different castes, tribes and religions and hence enriching the culture by their unique customs and beliefs. The rich cultural heritage of the state is reflected in its folk music and dances, different languages and dialects, the majestic forts, palaces, mansions and places of religious worship, its fairs and festivals, its cuisines and above all its people. Read further to truly get acquainted with the rich and bewitching culture of Rajasthan

Dances : 

Dances The dances of Rajasthan will surely make you also to tap a foot or two. The dances of Rajasthan are essentially folk dances tracing their origin to rural customs and traditions. What is more interesting is that keeping alive the numerous dance forms are not the professional dancers but the ordinary rural men & women of Rajasthan

Music : 

Music If the majestic forts and palaces are the body of Rajasthan then the folk music is the soul of the land of the princes. The folk music gives the people of Rajasthan a means of forgetting the tough living conditions in the Desert and even adds a charm to the Desert land

Punjab Culture : 

Punjab Culture Punjab has a long history and rich cultural heritage. Artifacts dating back to the Pleistocene Age have been found in the valley of Kangra, Pehalgam, and Hoshiarpur. Archaeological excavations have revealed evidences of the magnificent, 5000 years old, Harappan culture that flourished in Punjab.

Folk Dances : 

Folk Dances Bhangra:- Originated in the Western Punjab, Bhangra reflects the vigour and the cheerfulness infused among the rural folk by the promise of a bumper crop. The Bhangra season starts with the wheat sowing. On every full moon day young men, in every village, dance for hours in open fields. The dancers move around the 'dhol' drummer in a circle. As the tempo increases, their hands, their feet and their whole bodies comes into action.

Music : 

Music Punjab has deep roots connected with music. A glossary of music and Ragas are given at the end of the Guru Granth Sahib. Classical ragas are used in the 'shabad kirtan', gayaki of Punjab. The sixth Guru Hargobind gave patronage to sect of singers who sang only martial songs at shrines and festivals. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a school of classical music known as the Patiala Gharana was established by Ustaad Ali Bux and Ustaad Fateh Ali who were singers in the Patiala Darbar.

Assam Culture : 

Assam Culture Assam - the very mention of this word brings to one’s mind the delightful blend of culture, heritage, faiths and beliefs of the innumerous ethnic tribes and sub-tribes residing in this region. The culture and tradition of the state, its music, dance and literature are all interwoven into the social fabric and cross all barriers of caste, creed and religion. In fact, a mention of the rich tradition of the state, without referring to the diverse lifestyle, arts-crafts, fairs and festival of the people residing therein, would be as good as incomplete

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Assam has the largest number of tribes or races in the whole of India. The main communities of the region include the Aryans and the non-Aryans i.e. Mongoloids and Indo-Iranians. Apart from that, Bodos (or Kachari), Karbi, Kosh-Rajbanshi, Miri, Mishimi and Rabha are the other tribes that have been infused in the rich cultural tapestry of Assam. All these ethnic tribes have their own distinct pattern of dressing, language, festivals, tradition and heritage. In spite of such variations, the people here live in perfect peace and harmony - a unique trait seen only in this part of the world

Kerala Culture : 

Kerala Culture The culture of Kerala is one of its kinds in India. Traditional yet modern, the fascinating aspects of Kerala culture have been covered in our related sections. You will be amused to read about the rich cultural heritage of Kerala, which till date is intact in almost all natives of Kerala. The traditional rituals and sacred practices are very much alive even today. People over there are fiercely protective of their cultural heritage and are very proud of it.

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The traditional dance forms of Kerala that we have covered in our related sections are Kathakali, Krishnattam and Mohiniattam. Apart from the dance forms, Kerala also has an ancient form of martial art known as "kalaripayattu". The music of Kerala is very melodious. There are many forms of music in Kerala, be it vocal or instrumental. People have sets of songs for every occasion. The devotional songs are sung so beautifully that it is no less than a divine experience listening to them attentively.

Tamilnadu Culture : 

Tamilnadu Culture Tamilnadu has a great tradition of heritage and culture that developed over 2,000 years ago and still continues to flourish. This great cultural heritage of the state of Tamilnadu evolved through the rule of dynasties that ruled the state during various phases of history. Many of the ruling dynasties gave patronage to art and culture that resulted into the development and evolution of a unique Dravidian culture that Tamilnadu today symbolizes with.Under the rule of the Pallavas, Cholas and the Pandya kings, there were tremendous growth and development in the field of art, architecture and literature, which reached great heights. The history of Tamil language can be traced back to the age of the Tolkapiyam, the Tamil Grammar text, ascribed to around 500 B.C. Similarly, the Sangam literature dates back to 500 B.C.

Bihar Culture : 

Bihar Culture Bihar has a rich cultural heritage. The predominant themes are from the myths and legends of Hinduism. The Hindu deities, Lord Rama and His consort, Seeta, and Lord Shiva and His consort, Parvati, form the main theme of folk paintings. Bihar, a land of many Buddhist Monasteries is also known as 'The Land of Buddha'. The beautiful stories of the ancient times are depicted in the exquisite handicrafts of Bihar.

Painting : 

Painting Maharanis Painting One of the art forms of Bihar, the Madhubani School of Painting, has lately received much attention and poularity. Madhubani, in the heart of the Mithila region, had a rich tradition of wall paintings done by the village women with vegetable dyes. An artist encouraged them to try their wall paintings on paper and since then Mithila paintings gained ground. These line paintings in primary colors normally depict village scenes, human and animal forms, gods and goddesses. Patna Qalam Patna Qalam is a very popular School of Painting of Bihar. This offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting flourished in Bihar during early 18th to mid 20th century. With the decline of the Mughals, the Delhi artists migrated to Murshidabad. Some of them came to Patna and practiced their craft following a style that gradually came to be known as the Patna Qalam. The style is famous for its soft colors and the use of hand made paper or mica sheets. Most of these paintings depict the life of the people of Bihar.

Folk Arts : 

Folk Arts Chhau Dance The simple tribal people of Bihar express their creative joy through the Chhau dance, which was originally a war dance, preformed in order to perfect fighting techniques. It has, over the years, evolved into a narrative ballet. Jat-Jatin Dance Jat-Jatin Dance of the Mithila region is performed by the Harijans where one person performs the role of Jat (the husband) and Jatin (the wife) wearing masks and goes through the story of their life. Bidesia Bidesia is another form of dance drama that is extremely popular in the Bhojpuri-speaking region of Bihar. Vidyapati Songs The region of Mithilanchal is famous for the songs of Vidyapati (famous poet of early medieval age) those can be heard even now in the evenings from several homes in the region. Bhojpuri folksongs are popular in Bihar and second to none when it comes to beats and rhythm.

Crafts : 

Crafts Villages around Bodhgaya create fascinating handicrafts. Fantastic bamboo articles, leather works, statues made up of white metal, wooden toys and baskets made from cane and bamboo are available in plenty. Bhagalpur is famous for its silk industry and is considered to be one of the best silk producing centres in India, in manufacturing silk yarn and weaving them into lovely products. This silk is of a distinct and special type. It is known as the tussah or tusser silk. Other crafts of Bihar include Sujni embroidery, lac bangle making, and creation of decorative and utility items of Seenki Bihar is also famous for the cotton dhurries and curtains produced by artisans in central Bihar, particularly in the Patna and Bihar-Sharif areas.

Goa culture : 

Goa culture Despite successive onslaughts and the ravages of alien occupation, Goa’s cultural traditions have  displayed amazing resilience with stimulation by every fresh challenge. To a large extent, Goa’s cultural heritage was enriched by a slow but unremitting process of absorption and assimilation of the more congenial features of this alien culture. The focal point being the symbiosis of Latin and local cultural strains.

Music and Dance : 

Music and Dance A Goan is said to be born with music in his blood and music literally accompanies him from the cradle to the grave. Musical traditions run in whole generations. Music itself runs the entire gamut of  sonic versatility; from the rustic Dhangar playing and flutes to sophisticated tabla and sitar or violin and piano soloist thrilling large audiences in concert halls. Music is the time seller at all major social events-feasts, festivals, “zatras”, and marriages. Goan folk music has a lively rhythm and the folk-dances a rugged vitality.  The musical accompaniment for both folk songs and the folk dances is provided by a diversity of musical instruments – Ghumats, Dhols, Cymbals, Flutes, Harmonium, Violins and Guitars. The favorite, however, seems to be the Ghumat. No description in writing can ever do full justice to these dynamic folk art forms. Watching a live performance can elicit to a certain degree its emotional content, rhythmic charm, the colorful variety and vitality. Freedom  brought about a cultural renaissance in Goa along with providing a fresh impetus to the classic literature and fine arts and a revival of the folk arts. Once again the almost forgotten folk dances Dhalo, Fugdi, Corridinho, Mando and performing folk arts, Jagar-perani and many others have come out into their own. Indeed the folk music and folk dances have crossed the borders of the state and become popular in the rest of the country during the past 25 years.

Arts and Crafts : 

Arts and Crafts Goa also has a rich tradition of the classical arts. For many generations, Goans have excelled in poetry, music and the fine arts. The art gallery of the Institute Menezes Braganza has on display, a number of paintings by contemporary Indian (Goan and Non-Goan) artists and some reproductions of the old masters. Goa is a land of crafts and craftsmen where aesthetic quality finds a natural expression. The exquisitely carved rosewood and teak furniture, the terracotta figurines, and the classic brass and gold jewelry all speaks of an age still valuable in this technology obsessed world.

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The folk paintings of Goa have been traced to different places from ancient temples, churches and palatial manors to humble households. They mostly depict episodes from the epics- the Mahabharata and the Ramayana and the Puranas and also scenes from the New Testament. These folk art creations in the form of wall paintings are a striking example of the inner creative urge,  stimulated by piety, patriotic fervor, natural beauty, or just common incidents of daily life. For among Goa’s folk paintings there are, besides wall portraits of mythical and historical heroes like Krishna and Chhatrapati Shivaji a few depicting scenes of rural life, the boundaries of nature and romantic moments.

Maharashtra Culture : 

Maharashtra Culture Maharashtra, being a part of India, boasts of a rich cultural heritage. The culture and legacy of the state is truly reflected though it's numerous forts, palaces, caves, shrines and museum, not to mention its folk music and traditional dances. The saints and philosophers who have graced this great land have also added to its historical inheritance. Maharashtra is like an amalgamation - of different races, of different traditions and of classes. Here, Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated with as much enthusiasm as Diwali and Holi. This section has been provided to acquaint you with the culture of Maharashtra, comprising of its people, its religions, its languages, and the like.

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DancesIt is said that dance is one of the best mediums through which you can express yourself. So, what better way to know about the culture of the state than through exploring its various dance forms. The people of Maharashtra celebrate a large number of fairs and festivals. HistoryWhen we take a look down history, we get to know that the area where Maharashtra stands today has been inhibited since the Paleolithic era. All the archaeological evidences unearthed till now, date the origin of the area to somewhere around 3rd century BC. PeopleMaharashtra is one of the geographically most diverse states in India and this diversity is the best reflected in its people and culture. The people of the state are an amalgamation of different cultures, traditions, religions, etc. You will find Hindus, Muslims, Jews, Buddhist, Zoroastrians, Christians and Sikhs, co-existing peacefully in the state. Religions Maharashtra, with a population of approximately 96,752,247 inhabitants (as per 2001 census), is the second most populous state in India. The large number of people that reside in the state belong to numerous religions and communities. Infact, this huge diversity is what gives Maharashtra a multi-cultural identity.

Culture of Jammu and Kashmir : 

Culture of Jammu and Kashmir The cultural heritage of Jammu & Kashmir cuts across all the regional, religious and ethnic barriers. The three regions may apparently look different keeping in view the geographical factors, but they have so much in common, acquired through age old association amongst the people of the State that it will be a stupendous task to isolate them culturally and politically. The Sindh, Chenab and Jhelum which flow through the three regions of this State, though originating from different sources, have taken along their flow so many upheavals, calamities, pangs and stories that it is simply impossible to reverse their course of flow. The common cultural heritage of the State is reflected in literature, language, religion, arts, crafts, music and pilgrimage centres of the State. The years of give and take amongst the people of the State resulting in cultural amalgamation to such an extent that efforts to study and analyse the people and their culture are stupendous.

Delhi Culture : 

Delhi Culture The cultural diversity and religious unity are the core values of the Indian society. Delhi, being the capital of India, naturally reflects it all, as people from different states come here for best education, best medicinal assistance and good job opportunities. It is a centre stage of Indian politics too and represents all that is best in the country. The metropolitan city with a cosmopolitan outlook, New Delhi boasts of a rich cultural heritage. The ancient city still reflects the remnants of the glorious old-age charm and culture, yet has a very modern and chic lifestyle. The nightlife is interesting and a number of discos beckon the youngsters to sway and dance on enchanting numbers. At the Nizamuddin Shrine, one can still hear the 'Qawwalis'. 'Gurbani' (the verses from the Granth Sahib) and prabhat ferries can be heard in the Gurudwaras, 'bhajans' and 'aartis' in the temples and Sunday masses in Churches. The traditional fairs and festivals like 'Phoolwalo-Ki-Sair' are still being celebrated. With the increasing number of people from different states, the regional festivals like 'Chhath Puja' of Bihar and 'Durga Puja' of Bengal are also being observed. Since Delhi shares its borders with Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, its people and their lifestyle is often influenced greatly by these regions.

Chhattisgarh Culture : 

Chhattisgarh Culture Chhattisgarh, a little paradise in central India, is not only known for its exceptional scenic beauty, but the region also has a history of its own. Famous for its unique and varied tribal populations, including the world-famous Gonds tribes of Bastar region, Chhattisgarh has a rich cultural heritage, dating back to thousands of years. Chhattisgarh has its own unique form of dances, music, religious beliefs (each tribe has their own gods), cuisine, tribal festivals and more, offering a cultural destination with a difference. The Dusshera Festival at Bastar is famous in all over India and celebrated by tribes with great fanfare. Chhattisgarh is also known for its rich and unique architectural monuments including temples, caves, palaces, providing insights into the rich cultural heritage of the region. There are number of important heritage sites, which you can visit on your cultural tour of Chhattisgarh. Bhoramdeo, Dantewada, Deepadih, Dongargarh, Jogibhatta, Rajim, Sirpur, Malhar, Sita Bhengra, and Sheorinarayan are the major sites for heritage tourism in Chhattisgarh. The rock-paintings of Singhanpur, Sita Bhengra, and Kabra mountains are worth visiting on your cultural tour of Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarh is also rich in arts and crafts. The tribes of Bastar were amongst the earliest to work with metal in India. The wooden figurines of gods, animals, oil lamps, carts and bamboo furniture, clay pieces made by tribes are very famous and worth purchasing souvenirs.

Madhya Pradesh Culture : 

Madhya Pradesh Culture No other state in India, but Madhya Pradesh, enmeshes so many different flavors of tradition and culture. The state is a cauldron that incessantly concts the various aspects of its multi-dimensional culture and still upholds a beautifully amalgamated heritage that retains its distinctive zeal. It is home to people professing all the major religions of India, who dwell in perfect harmony and amity. Apart from them, numerous colorful tribes add on to the vibrant cultural collage of the state. In fact, variety finds manifestation in spectacular forms here. The culture of Madhya Pradesh is a harmonious amalgamation of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jains, Christians and Sikhs. Moreover, the tribal communities of the state comprises of different tribes like Bhils, Gonds, Oraons, Kols, Bhilalas, Murias and Korkens, to name a few. These people belonging to numerous religions and ethnic backgrounds reflect the concept of Indian secularism and contribute to the animated cultural effervescence of the state. Go through this article and get a kaleidoscopic glimpse of the cultural heritage of Madhya Pradesh.

Jharkhand Culture : 

Jharkhand Culture Crafts Masks The masks made in this state is very different from those made in the neighboring state of Bihar. The masks are rather primitive and fierce and represent what in India is known as tamasik, a manifestation of the moral elemental passions in which every bodily form as well as facial expression is highly exaggerated. Wood Work Jharkhand abounds in forests that have a variety of wood for producing several articles of household use. The wood craftspersons of this region carve various attractive articles like door panels, boxes and windows, wooden spoons etc. for household use. Bamboo Craft A very thin, flexible and strong variety of bamboo grows in the Jharkhand area. This bamboo lends itself to multifarious uses. Bamboo baskets, containers, hunting equipments and fishing gears are made using this bamboo. Folk Painting The Jharkhand area is famous for a special type of folk painting called the paitkar paintings. This form of painting is one of the earliest forms of tribal paintings in India. These paintings have a scrolling look and depicts life after death. However, due to lack of recognition and promotion, this type of painting is slowly facing extinction. Toy Making near the capital city of Rnchi makes very unusual wooden toys that are completely abstract. They are just pieces of wood painted to look like human figures with angular lines but no separate limbs. Hands are indicated only by painting lines on the body. The toys are always in pairs -- man and woman waering different crowns, costumes and ornaments. they are breathlessly stunning and very original as they are different from any other doll.

Uttar Pradesh Culture : 

Uttar Pradesh Culture Situated in the northern part of India, Uttar Pradesh has been the cultural seat of the country for a very long time. The history of Uttar Pradesh is fascinating, and it has shaped a rich cultural heritage of the state that has emerged as the focal point of the Indian culture. The Mauryans, the Mughals, the British, etc. all brought with them their own cultural traits, and bits and pieces of them were absorbed by the people in the region, forming their own distinct and rich pluralistic culture. The culture of Uttar Pradesh embodies a rich tradition of folk arts, crafts, literature, painting and music. The state has a plethora of holy shrines of various religions, architectural masterpieces- most famous of them being of course the Taj Mahal- and is home to a number of fascinating performing arts and colourful festivities. All these factors have enriched the composite culture of the state. To sum up, the culture of Uttar Pradesh is rich in arts, music, dance, theatrics, folk art, crafts and cuisines. Uttar Pradesh is the place where one of the six foremost classical dances of India, the Kathaka, flourished. The word Katha, from which the name is derived, means story. It originated in northern India, during the 7th century A.D. Kathak has very intricate and complex movements of hands and feet along with facial expressions. The footwork is accompanied by the music of various percussion instruments such as tabla and pakhwaj, which are native to north India.

Culture of West Bengal : 

Culture of West Bengal The state of West Bengal lies in the eastern region of India and is the thirteenth largest state in the country. Having being under the rule of various empires and dynasties, the state has evolved a rich mix of cultures and traditions. The manifestations of the culture of West Bengal can be found in various expressions of arts, and literature is one among them. Its literature has a rich heritage, shared with Bangladesh, which was once a part of the undivided India. The literary heritage of West Bengal has been enriched by Michael Madusudhan Dutt, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, and Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Many eminent modern authors and poets of West Bengal have started from where these greats have left and have further developed the Bengali literature with their quality literary outputs. Besides West Bengal has its own version of fairy tales for children, which is known as Thakurmar Jhuli. These enchanting collections of stories of princes and princesses, flying horses, kings, queens, demons and ogresses have held their sway even in these changing times of Harry Potter. In music, a unique heritage of the Bangla folk music is the baul tradition. Bauls are the folk singers of rural Bengal who wander from village to village singing their songs, which with their simple lyrics manage to capture the complex truths of life. Their livelihood primarily depends upon common people's patronage. Baul singers often play ektara, which is a single stringed instrument, along with their songs.

Andhra Pradesh Culture : 

Andhra Pradesh Culture The rich and varied culture of Andhra Pradesh can be perceived from its melodious music, scintillating dances, delectable cuisine, ingenious arts &crafts, glorious religions and wonderful people. In the earlier times, the state was ruled by several dynasties and empires, which influenced its cultural heritage. Eventually, Andhra Pradesh culture became rich and creative with the touch of diverse civilizations. In the world of creativity, Andhra Pradesh has procured a high position with its work of art. The state is undoubtedly a prized gem in the crown of the Indian glory. The ethnicity of the state is also visible from the different communities and religions followed by them. The relishing dishes of Andhra cuisine boast of the 'Nawabi' style of the royalty. Following links will throw light on the various aspects of Andhra culture. Art and CraftAndhra Pradesh is a multifarious state that has covered each and every aspect of existence, all-embracing from technology to arts and crafts. The arts and crafts of the state comprise of a remarkable range of handicrafts, paintings and handlooms.

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DancesAndhra Pradesh has always been known for its rich culture. This wonderful state has presented a wide range of performing arts, including dance, drama and music, to the world. Dance is the most interesting form of performing arts that has been encouraged from centuries in India. MusicAndhra Pradesh has been known since ages for its rich musical heritage. The state is also known for being the homeland of Thyagaraja, Shyama Sastri and Muthuswami Dixitar - the three prodigies of the Carnatic Music Trinity. The ubiquitous Telugu language of Andhra makes the true essence and spirit of Carnatic music. PeopleAndhra Pradesh has a concoction of various communities, religions, customs, lifestyles and cultures. In broad terms, the people of Andhra are nice and friendly, who live in perfect harmony, in spite of belonging to different castes and following different religions. ReligionsAndhraites are highly pious people, who follow their religion with the highest regard. In Andhra Pradesh, the major religions are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. Around the state, you can find people following different religious practices, along with their own notions and customs.

Karnataka Culture : 

Karnataka Culture Karnataka has a rich cultural legacy dating back to the Roman Empire, and this can be seen from the similarities in the folk culture of Karnataka and ancient Rome. During ancient times, the land of Karnataka had trade dealings with various regions like Persia, China, Turkey and Arabia, and its art and culture spread far and wide across these civilizations. Music, dance and drama are the very lifeblood of Karnataka culture. Ritualistic dances performed in Karnataka are its main cultural treasures. Some of them are Dollu Kunitha, Puja Kunitha, Devare Thatte Kunitha, Yellammana Kunitha, and Suggi Kunitha. Most of these dance rituals take the name after the deity or the symbol or the instruments which the dancers carry on their heads while performing the dance. It was the Vijayanagara kings and the Wodeyars who patronized music in Karnataka and great singers like Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa flourished during their reign. Hindustani music contributed to the culture of Karnataka and many great singers came from this musical genre in Karnataka.

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Another most important aspect of Karnataka culture is its folk theater art called Yakshagana and Byalatta. This Yakshagana theatre form hails from the Uttara Kannada region and they are mainly based on the great epic Mahabharata. In Yakshagana, the dancers wear colourful costumes and perform with a variety of facial expressions. This folk theater is a unique combination of dance, songs, colourful costumes, music and dialogues, which keeps the audience enthralled. Nagamandala is an elaborate ritual performed by the people of Dakshina Kannada and this is conducted extravagantly throughout the night where the dancers are dressed as nagakannikas and perform dances, which resemble the movements of a snake. The nocturnal ritual takes place between December to April. An ancient art form of leather puppetry, which uses stories drawn from the Ramayana and Mahabharata, is known as Togalu Bombeaata. It is an ancient heritage, and is still performed in rural Karnataka. The local village people use this form of puppetry to seek a good harvest and plenty of rainfall and also to get rid of diseases or attacks by pests.

Gujarat Culture : 

Gujarat Culture The state of Gujarat in India is located on the west coast of the country. Having earned the distinction of being the most industrialized state in India, Gujarat is extremely rich in crafts, history and scenic beauty. Gujarat being the home state of Mahatma Gandhi - the Father of the nation, the state boasts of a rich and varied culture and heritage. Indianholiday offers online information on Gujarat Cultural tour. The culture of Gujarat forms an integral part of the Indian culture. Even with extensive modernization, Gujarat and its people have been able to preserve the rich culture and tradition of the ancient past. Noted for their colorful dresses, the people of Gujarat – popularly known as ‘Gujaratis’ - exhibit a very warm and friendly nature and the ‘untouched’ simplicity about them constitute an integral part of the beautiful Culture of Gujarat. Gujarat boasts of an extremely rich Art Architecture and Culture, which is reflected in the day-to-day lives of the local populace. The amiable and peace loving Gujaratis are well known for their concern and affection for all life forms. The diverse ethnic groups constituting the Gujarati population has resulted in the cultural diversity of Gujarat. These ethnic groups can be categorized as Indic (northern-derived) and Dravidian (southern-derived). The Indic group comprises the Nagar Brahman, Bhatia, Bhadela, Rabari, and Mina castes; while the Dravidian origin includes tribes like Bhangi, Koli, Dubla, Naikda, and Macchi-Kharwa. The rest of the populace, including the native Bhil tribe, show mixed characteristics.

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The folklore and folk arts of Gujarat form a major part of the Culture of Gujarat. Most of the art traditions and cultural heritage of Gujarat can be traced back to the ancient period of Lord Krishna. The Gujaratis exhibit a natural penchant for singing and dancing. They have special songs and dances for every occasion and festival celebrated all round the year. They have, till date, successfully preserved Gujarat’s rich tradition of song, dance and drama. Gujarat Cultural Tour The state of Gujarat in India is located on the west coast of the country. Having earned the distinction of being the most industrialized state in India, Gujarat is extremely rich in crafts, history and scenic beauty. Gujarat being the home state of Mahatma Gandhi - the Father of the nation, the state boasts of a rich and varied culture and heritage. Indianholiday offers online information on Gujarat Cultural tour. The culture of Gujarat forms an integral part of the Indian culture. Even with extensive modernization, Gujarat and its people have been able to preserve the rich culture and tradition of the ancient past. Noted for their colorful dresses, the people of Gujarat – popularly known as ‘Gujaratis’ - exhibit a very warm and friendly nature and the ‘untouched’ simplicity about them constitute an integral part of the beautiful Culture of Gujarat. Gujarat boasts of an extremely rich Art Architecture and Culture, which is reflected in the day-to-day lives of the local populace. The amiable and peace loving Gujaratis are well known for their concern and affection for all life forms. The diverse ethnic groups constituting the Gujarati population has resulted in the cultural diversity of Gujarat. These ethnic groups can be categorized as Indic (northern-derived) and Dravidian (southern-derived). The Indic group comprises the Nagar Brahman, Bhatia, Bhadela, Rabari, and Mina castes; while the Dravidian origin includes tribes like Bhangi, Koli, Dubla, Naikda, and Macchi-Kharwa. The rest of the populace, including the native Bhil tribe, show mixed characteristics.

Orissa culture : 

Orissa culture The culture of Orissa, India, makes for an interesting study. Situated along the Bay of Bengal coast, Orissa is an Indian state that exemplifies the unique and commendable blend of ancient glory and modern initiative. Orissa is a place where nature unfurls her one of the most beauteous aspects. Unsullied beaches, rivers, gorgeous waterfalls and majestic hills all contribute in accentuating the appeal of the state as a popular tourist destination. The culture of Orissa also generates considerable interest among both the domestic and the foreign travelers.

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Orissa is largely rural and the traditional values that are still retained form an integral aspect of the Orissa culture. Orissa's strategic geographical location has engendered the assimilation of the culture of the Aryans and the Dravidians. The culture of Orissa can very well be described as an Indo-cultural synthesis. Orissa art and craft constitutes a major portion of the culture of Orissa. The art of Orissa underwent myriad changes and is a product of a number of assimilations and imbibitions. Orissa is known for its sand arts, Patta Chitra, Palm Leaf Paintings, Jhoti, Chita and Muruja. The Orissan artists are unsurpassed in their skill. Orissa boasts of a glorious tradition of dance and music. The figurines of dancers and musicians gracing the walls of the quaint temples in Orissa speak volumes about the rich musical heritage of the state. Odissi music is the classical art that has imbibed the elements common to the Hindustani and Karnatik music. The Odissi dance, Chhau Dance, Mahari dance, the jatra, pala and Daskarhia comprise of an inextricable part of the culture of Orissa

Haryana Culture : 

Haryana Culture Haryana is proud of a rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic times. The state is rich in folklore. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras, are still observed by the masses. The seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. The dance is said to be the mother of all arts. Music and poetry exist in tune, painting and architecture in space. The dance is just not a form of recreation but something needed to release the physical and emotional energy. Folk dances, like other creative art, helps in sublimating the performer's worries and cares.Haryana has always been a state of diverse races, cultures and faiths. It is on this soil that they met and fused into something truly India. The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight.With Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu and English forming the main languages, there are numerous dialects which are spoken in Haryana. However, almost all of them have their base in Hindi with a smattering of Urdu and Panjabi thrown in. Sanskrit is also taught in most of the schools in Haryana. In towns and cities, English is still to be adopted as the household lingo, but is spoken in a hazy mixture of Hindi. The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself; or rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi, Bangaru or Jatu (language of Jats), it is perhaps a bit crude, but full of earthy humor and straightforwardness. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.

Uttarakhand Culture : 

Uttarakhand Culture The culture of a place depends upon its inhabitants, environment and its heritage. Uttarakhand has all the things in abundance. In fact, it has every thing that any tourist could want. The most significant donor for giving mass appeal to tourism in Uttaranchal is the state’s rich culture, an excellent intermingling of exoticism as well as the way of life. Frequently thought-out to be the belt of Hindu culture, the Uttaranchal’s culture is beyond doubt one of the most vital tourist attractions of Uttaranchal.The highlights of the Uttaranchali culture should be its history, people, religion and dances. All of them are a beautiful amalgamation of different influences from all the races and dynasties it has been ruled by. Its history is chequered in comparison to the arts culture but still interesting enough to hold a person’s consideration. Its dances are connected to life and human existence and exhibit myriad human emotions. Any trip to this tranquil will be incomplete unless you explore the wonderful culture and lifestyle of the local people.

Himachal Pradesh Culture : 

Himachal Pradesh Culture With its bounty in beautiful mountains, rivers and flowers , the culture of Himachal Pradesh becomes rich, extravagant and traditional. Due to this rugged terrain the culture and tradition of the Himachal Pradesh thus , remains un scratched by foreign invasions. Its enthnicity and originality are retained. Himachal Pradesh is a `multireligional`, `multicultural` and `multilingual` state. Hindus comprises of almost 90% of the total populace. It is a home of major communities include Rajputs, Brahmins, Rathis , Kannets, and tribes namely Gujjars, Gaddis. Pangawals , Lahaulis. and Kinnars. Thus the culture of Himalayan Pradesh is not only exuberant in the physical attires of the Himachalis but also in their festival celebrations, musical melodies, rhythmic dance forms and simple lifestyle. The Himachal is applauded for its exclusive pieces of arts and handicrafts which are an undeniable part of the culture of Himachal Pradesh. Pashmina shawl and the colourful himalayan caps are in demand in overseas also. Threading, pictures, wooden potteries, carving are part and parcel of Himachal region. The metal wares include the attractive utensils, ritualistic vessels, silver jewellery, idols. Woman of Kulu, Sirmaur, Kinnaur, Pangwati and Bharmor region wear attractive jewellery.

Tripura Culture : 

Tripura Culture Tripura encloses a rich cultural heritage of music, fine arts, performing arts, and handicrafts. Being dominated by the Bengalis, the state’s prevalent culture is Bengali. As it has numerous diverse ethno-linguistic groups, such as, Tripuris, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal, and Uchoi, a composite culture has emerged on the whole. To know more about the art & culture of Tripura, read on. The majority of the state’s population comprises of Bengalis, Manipuris and 19 different tribal communities. In fact, Tripura is also home to thousands of migrants from West Bengal and Bangladesh. The tribal people follow their customs and religion with the highest regard. Tripura, despite having 19 Scheduled Tribes that form about 40% of population, is largely a Bengali community. Regardless of practicing different religions and notions, the people live in harmony with each other.

Meghalaya Culture : 

Meghalaya Culture the main tribes in Meghalaya are the Jaintias, the Khasis and the Garos. One of the unique features of the State is that a majority of the tribal population in Meghalaya follows a matrilineal system where lineage and inheritance are traced through women. The Khasi and Jaintia tribesmen follow the traditional matrilineal norm, wherein the "Kha Khadduh" (or the youngest daughter) inherits all the property and acts as the caretaker of aged parents and any unmarried siblings. However, the male line, particularly the mother’s brother, may indirectly control the ancestral property since he may be involved in important decisions relating to property including its sale and disposal. In the Garo lineage system, the youngest daughter inherits the family property by default; unless another daughter is so named by the parents. She then becomes designated as 'nokna' meaning 'for the house or home'.In case there are no daughters, then a chosen daughter-in -law (bohari) or an adopted child (deragata)comes to stay in the house as well as inherits the property. The tribal people of Meghalaya are therefore a part of what may be the world's largest surviving matrilineal culture.

Puducherry Culture : 

Puducherry Culture The people of Pondicherry wear traditional Indian dresses. Men wear pants and shirts. Women prefer wearing saris, long skirts and blouses. People do not wear beach wear in the city as such dresses will invite unwanted attention. Nudity is banned in Puducherry. There are the presence of Christians,Hindus and Muslims in the territory. All the people of different religions live in harmony here. Puducherry has the presence of a number of temples deicated to Lord Sulramaniar and various forms of ammans viz, Muthumariammam, Angalamman, etc.

Arunachal Pradesh Culture : 

Arunachal Pradesh Culture Arunachal Pradesh, the largest state (in terms of area) of the north-eastern region is a land of numerous tribes with a distinct and fascinating culture. The diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religion is seen all over the state. Broadly, there are three cultural groups known for their distinct socio-religious practices. The first group includes the Monpas and Sherdukpens of Tawang and West Kameng districts. They follow the lamaistic tradition of Mahayana Buddhism. The second group forms with the people of Adis, Akas, Apatanis, Bangnis, Nishis, Mishmis, Mijis, Thongsas etc., who worship Sun and Moon God as their gods. The third group comprises of people of the Noctes and Wanchos tribal communities. They are mostly found in the Tirap district. The people have their strict village society headed by a hereditary chief who plays significant role in varied situations. The Noctes are followers of an elementary form of Vaishnavism.

Nagaland Culture : 

Nagaland Culture Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages, religions, climates and landscapes. The land is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practise their own rituals and traditions which have been existing since centuries.The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, are said to belong to the indo-mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians and fluent in English.

Chandigarh Culture : 

Chandigarh Culture Chandigarh was built in the early 1950s by the internationally renowned architect Le Corbusier. It is the first modern city of post independent India and is laid out on a grid, divided evenly into 57 sectors. The art and culture of Chandigarh is incredible in the nation. The city is conducive to creativity. Chandigarh’s culture is synonymous with the culture and tradition of north Indian states. The city differs from many older cities in the region in this aspect that it has developed a cosmopolitan atmosphere with people from the whole country and even from abroad. The city is studded with numerous temples, mosques, shrines and bhawans located through out the city.Chandigarh is proud for the fact that it has actively promoted the diverse culture of the people from various states to form groups and create social institutions in the city. The presence of the institutions accounts maintaining a peaceful cultural atmosphere in the city. You can see various places of worship which are built in North Indian style of architecture. Still some shrines resemble with the temple architecture of Bengal, Orissa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Mizoram Culture : 

Mizoram Culture Mizoram is home to an extraordinary diversity of tribal people, mainly the Mizos. Though the state is geographically isolated from rest part of India but it has retained its distinct cultural identities which are evident from its celebration of festivals, dances and rich tradition of making various objects of utilities.

Sikkim Culture : 

Sikkim Culture Sikkim is the melting pot of various cultures. Like any other place, its culture is represented by its scrumptious cuisine, lively people, devout religion, jovial language, indigenous art & crafts, melodious music, and vibrant dance. Sikkim has emerged with its own distinct ethnicity even after being influenced by numerous cultures. Besides this, Sikkim boasts of a fusion of different communities, together with their religions. Scroll down to get more information about different facets of Sikkim culture.

Manipur Culture : 

Manipur Culture Manipur, a beautiful northeastern state of India, boasts of a rich culture. In the company of vibrant dances and music, the Manipuris find ample of reasons in their fairs & festivals for celebration. Though the lovely people are superstitious sometimes, their belief in religion and customs is certainly creditable. The people of Manipur are very creative and their artistic abilities are best seen in their handloom & handicrafts.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Culture : 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Culture The indigenous tribes of these islands are distinguished in two groups: The Onge, Sentinelese, Jarawa and Andamanese of Negroid descent living on the Andaman Islands and The Shompen and Nicobarese of Mongoloid descent living in the Nicobar Islands. Most of the tribes are on the verge of extinction. Outsiders attempting to make contact with them are driven away with bows and arrows. They continue to maintain a unique lifestyle living in harmony with nature. Andaman and Nicobar Islands have a unique culture, where is a blended harmony of different religions, languages and ethnic groups. The island is known as Mini India. The capital of the country, Port Blair has a cosmopolitan character. All important festivals are celebrated with equal enthusiasm by all religious groups.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli Culture : 

Dadra and Nagar Haveli Culture The union territory of Dadra & Nagar Haveli has its own distinct tribal culture which includes various rituals, festivals and folk dances. Majority of the population are Hindus although religious observations differ. More than 80% people live in villages and participate in various celebrations of fairs and festivals from time to time.The rituals play a predominant role in the life of tribal communities of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, particularly the Varlis. For these tribals, the Sun and the Moon are the two eyes of God. The stone images of these deities are found in the midst of tree groves which are considered sacred.A bhagat performs rituals singing prayers of deities while playing Ghangal, a musical instrument made from gourd, bamboo and iron strings. Almost every village has a temple of traditional God and a local deity.All popular Hindu, Christian and Muslim festivals are celebrated here with equal fervour. But the tribal festivals have their own distinct features, as this mark the change of season and provide glimpses on social and cultural panorama.The major festivals celebrated in the UT include Diwali, Akha Tij, Divaso and Raksha Bandhan etc. Other annual fairs and festivals include Tarpa Festival & Craft Mela, Kite Festival and Monsoon Magic festival etc.

Lakshadweep Culture : 

Lakshadweep Culture Formerly known as Laccadives, Lakshadweep islands are an archipelago of 36 exquisite coral islands having their own distinct culture and tradition existing for over centuries.Despite the influence of Islam, a caste system still exists based on occupation – landowners, sailors and cultivators. All Madrassas impart religious instruction to school-going children; many individuals bear two names.People recite folk ballads during household occasions and festivals. The theme is based on the arrival of Hazrat Ubaidullah in Lakshadweep, the plunder of the islands by the Portuguese - all these are perpetuated by the balladeer.Two most popular art forms include Kolkali and Parichakali. People celebrate all religious festivals in their own way accompanied by the famous Lava dance. Chief festivals include Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-zuha, Milad- un-Nabi and Muharram. The costumes of the women are as beautiful as the sunsets on the beaches of Lakshadweep. Ladies wear a Kachi with a silver belt round the waist. The silk covers the body below the waist while the upper part is covered with a skin-hugging embroidered jacket.

Daman and Diu Culture : 

Daman and Diu Culture The people of Daman and Diu are similar to the people of the adjoining Gujarat state. Their traditions and customs are very much similar with the Gujarati traditions. Majority of the population is Hindu and Gujarati is widely spoken by the people.Daman preserves a multi faced cultural heritage. Dance and music are essential parts of the Daman culture. People of Daman celebrate all fairs and festivals with great enthusiasm. Daman’s culture is a fusion of tribal, Indian, European culture.The traditional dances are performed by women during special occasions like festivals and marriages. Various Portuguese dances are also well preserved and still widely performed.

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