Slide 1: SUMMER TRAINING
(KBPL, NABIPUR PLANT, PUNJAB)
(MAY 6th’ ‘2009 to JUNE 5th ‘ 2009) INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Coca – Cola, the product which has given the world its best known taste was first introduced by John Styth Pemberton, a pharmacist, in the year 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia when he concocted caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard. JOHN STYTH PEMBERTON Slide 3: The Coca Plant When launched Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the
Coca leaf and the caffeine from
Kola nut, leading to the name
Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was
replaced with a "C " for marketing
purposes). The Kola Nut Slide 4: BEVERAGE INDUSTRY IN INDIA:
A BRIEF INSIGHT BEVERAGES ALCHOHOLIC NON-ALCHOHOLIC CARBONATED NON-CARBONATED COLA NON-COLA NON-COLA Slide 5: KANDHARI BEVERAGES PVT. LTD.
Kandhari beverages Ltd. is one of the largest bottling franchisee of India under license with the coca cola company, U.S.A. Kandhari Beverages set up there first plant in Chandigarh in the year 1967, under the agreement with Parle group.
It has three bottling plants in Chandigarh, Nalagarh Distt. Solan, Nabipur Distt. Fatehgarh.
KBL won a peacock award for environment management in 2002. MANUFACTURING UNIT AT KBPL : MANUFACTURING UNIT AT KBPL PRODUCTS : PRODUCTS In the Cola Section:
In the Lemon Section: Slide 8: In the Orange Section : In the Cola Section : In the Cola Section : SOFT DRINK PROCESSING : SOFT DRINK PROCESSING Soft drinks include all drinks which are made from water or mineral water, sugar, aromas and essences and usually containing carbon dioxide.
Due to the pH, high sugar level, low preservative content and production processes, these drinks are very susceptible to yeast and mold development.
Microbial management is therefore of high importance to prevent contamination and to monitor its presence. Slide 10: Various steps in Soft Drink Processing are:
Sugar Syrup Clarification
Water Microbial Stabilization
Bottle blower and Bottle washer
Production processes differ by the type soft drink and applications Slide 12: Sugar Syrup Clarification:
The mixture of sugar, flavorings, essences and water is
called syrup. Syrup clarification will retain particles and
crystals from your syrup. Water Microbial Stabilization:
Water accounts for the largest proportion
in your beverage and needs to be safe.
The prefiltration has a double role of
protecting the final filter, ensuring the long
life and good economics of your filter train,
as well as reducing the initial bioburden. Final filtration removes microorganisms like bacteria, mold, yeast
and protozoa to achieve the required water quality. Slide 13: Carbonation:
Carbonation is the step of adding carbon dioxide to a drink..The CO2 injected in your beverage must be free of particles and microorganisms.
Bottle blower and bottle washer:
The air used in the bottle blower to turn the pre-forms into the final PET bottle has to be free of contaminants ; its filtration ensures a bottle with low bioburden is produced. The water used to rinse these bottles has to be free of contaminants; its filtration ensures good quality of the bottle prior filling..
Gas filtration can also be used during the filling process of carbonated drinks. In order to make the filling possible the filler bowl has to be pressurized and it is essential that the gas used here is microbiologically stable. Slide 16: BOTTLED WATER
(KINLEY MINERAL WATER) The challenge is to produce a product that is free of pathogenic organisms and protozoa and safe for your customer to consume.
Water is a very sensitive product on a microbiological and chemical level. Therefore, we design the water processing methods and keep it under strict control to avoid any contamination of pathogenic bacteria or protozoa. Slide 17: There are VARIOUS STEPS INVOLVED IN BOTTLED WATER PROCESSING
from filtration to bottle filter. These steps can be explained as:
As it is very sensitive, your water has to free of any contaminants
that will spoil its quality, reduce its shelf life and be a pathogenic
threat to the consumers.
The air in the storage tank has to be free of micro organisms to
ensure that the water stored will not be contaminated.
Carbonation is the step of adding carbon dioxide to a drink. It is
used to produce sparkling water. The CO2 you inject in your water
must be free of particles and microorganisms Slide 18: Bottle Blower and Bottle washer:
The air used in the bottle blower to turn the pre-forms into the
final PET bottle has to be free of contaminants; its filtration
bottle with low bioburden is produced. Bottle blowing is done in
any process using PET bottles.
The water used to rinse these bottles has to be free of
contaminants; its filtration ensures good quality of the bottle prior
filling. A safe and reliable container is essential to maintain the quality of
your drink, and thus its shelf life.
Gas filtration can also be used during the filling process of
carbonated drinks. In order to make the filling possible the filler
bowl has to be pressurized and it is essential that the gas used
here is microbiologically stable. Slide 22: BEVERAGE ANALYSIS Beverage processes need microbial management to provide the highest quality and flavor to the customers. The range of process monitoring tools enables to quickly identify potential contamination ensuring the beverage is safe from microbes and other contaminants, from the earliest point of the process until the release of the product.
The microbiological testing solutions enables to quickly and accurately identify the presence of airborne and liquid microbial contaminants in the raw materials ( microbiological lab) , in-process samples( in processing lab) and final product samples as well as within your environment. Slide 23: Microbial Analysis by MEMBRANE FILTRATION : Microbiological quality attributes are of key interest in soft drink
industries and play a major role in the manufacturing and final
release of products. One of the main techniques for testing Bacteria, Yeast and Mold
contaminations is membrane filtration. Slide 24: PRINCIPLE: To filter the test sample through a micro porous membrane, retaining any microbiological contamination on the top of the membrane. Rinsing removes residual product that might inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
Selecting the right membrane, assembly technology and rinsing fluids is critical.
Once the sample is filtered, nutrient medium is added to promote growth of the microorganisms for recovery.
The medium can be either a broth, a liquid medium in a pad or an agar.
The recovery of the microorganisms is very much dependent on the type of membrane that is selected.
For standard applications, we prefer the use of nitrocellulose-based filters with a nominal pore size of 0.45 µm. These membranes have been shown to provide the best recoveries. Slide 25: RAPID MICROBIOLOGY : Rapid detection of microbial contamination in beverage environments demands highly sensitive and reliable technologies.
Today using rapid detection methods for routine testing is still a challenge for many industries . This is because:
Culturing and plating methods are the oldest bacterial detection techniques yet continue as the standard detection methods.
These methods require several days for results because they rely on the time it takes for microorganisms to grow and to multiply in order to be visible colonies.
Moreover, culture media preparation, inoculation of plates and colony counting make these methods labor intensive and time consuming. Slide 26: Over the two past decades, many technologies are in use such as: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), impedence, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have developed in the field of rapid detection. Slide 27: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology: ATP is found only in living cells and is a direct indicator of cell viability. ATP is also a universal energy molecule stored in all microorganisms. Methods based on ATP bioluminescence have been developed and widely used to monitor surface contamination and to detect contaminants in raw materials, intermediates and final products. Nucleic acid technologies (NAT):These non-culture based methods are highly sensitive and specific. One bacterial cell can contain up to 10,000 copies of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as opposed to the single or several copies of DNA. The abundance of rRNA translates into assay robustness and a greater potential for single cell detection. As an example the Real-Time Transcription-Mediated Amplification (TMA) technology is a nucleic acid based method that amplifies rRNA to detect targeted microbial contamination within 4 hours. Slide 29: FIELD TESTING WATER AND WASTE WATER SAMPLING: Slide 30: 2. FILTERATION : Slide 31: 3. CULTURING : Slide 32: SUGAR-FREE SOFT DRINKS Sugar-Free Soft Drinks also called “DIET” drinks are either reduced calorie or low calorie. Highly calorific sugar is completely or partially replaced by artificial sweeteners.
Quality control in the production of these diet drinks poses a new challenge for the manufacturers of soft drinks because the total concentrations of the ingredients used is very low and concentration fluctuations are therefore more difficult to detect then is the case with sugared products. Slide 33: INGREDIENTS OF REDUCED CALORIE SOFT DRINKS:
The “diet” drinks using sweeteners are only partially digestible
so that they contribute little to the calorie content of the drink.
The average sweetening strength of the most commonly used
sweeteners: Slide 34: Manufacturing carbonated soft drinks:
The main manufacturing step is the mixing of water with beverage syrup and subsequent carbonization followed by filling into bottles or cans.
The process water used is cleaned and sterilized in treatment plants. In the syrup room, the beverage syrup is made from water, flavorings, sweetener and additives.
The syrup is usually mixed with process water to a ratio of 1:5. The mixing is performed either in batches or continuously via controllable dose pumps and dose valves . Slide 35: QUALITY CONTROL:
During the filling process, samples are taken regularly from the filling line and examined.
The routine tests include sugar content, CO2 content, taste. pH value, acid and color as well as microbiological tests.
Laboratory measurements are usually used as reference measurements. The time required for these measurements, from taking the sample to obtaining the result, can be up to 30 minutes depending on the method.
In this time, up to 50,000 cans have been filled by modern filling plants the test results reveal that the product does not comply with the specifications, and then this finished product must be destroyed.