DRAINAGE SYSTEM : DRAINAGE SYSTEM INDIA DRAINAGE : DRAINAGE Drainage System :
Origin and Development of mainstreams and their tributaries.
South Asia is blessed with 100’s of large and small river.
drains vast stretch of sub continent. DRAINAGE : DRAINAGE Importance :
Source of irrigation domestic and industrial water supply.
Generation of Hydro Electric Power.
Inland fishing and navigation. RIVERS OF SUBCONTINET : RIVERS OF SUBCONTINET It can be divided into :
1. Rivers of North India.
2. Rivers of Peninsular India. RIVERS OF SUBCONTINET : RIVERS OF SUBCONTINET Rivers of North India:
Also known as Himalyan rivers.
Important river systems:
The Brahmaputra with their tributaries. THE INDUS RIVER : THE INDUS RIVER Rises in Mt. Kailash (Tibet) at an elevation of 5180 Mts.
Total length 2897 kms.
In India 709 kms.
Catchment area 596800 km2.
Between Tibet and ladakh flows in North west direction and is called as Singgekhabab.
Crosses Himalayas through Indus gorge. THE INDUS RIVER : THE INDUS RIVER Gilgit, Dras and Hazra – Himalayan tributaries.
After crossing gorge enters Pakistan near Attock.
enters plain area and is joined by Kabul river.
Near Mithankot(Pak) Panjanad (Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj) joins.
Empties itself into Arabian sea.
Forms big delta south of Karachi THE GANGA SYSTEM : THE GANGA SYSTEM Largest river system in India.
Length 2525 kms. (In India 2071km).
Drains 951600 km2
Main stream has two headstream, Alaknanda (River near Garhwal) and Bhagirathi (Gangotri Glacier at Gomukh).
Meet at Devprayag and continue as Ganga.
Enters plains at Haridwar. THE GANGA SYSTEM : THE GANGA SYSTEM Flows South East direction for 770 kms and joins Yamuna at Allahabad.
Bifurcates into Bhagirathi – Hugli in West Bengal and Padma – Meghna in Bangaldesh.
Joins River Jamuna (Brahmaputra) and flows as River Padma.
Further south joins with River Meghna and enters Bay of Bengal as Meghna THE GANGA SYSTEM : THE GANGA SYSTEM Along with Brahmaputra forms worlds largest delta known as Sundarbans.
Major Tributaries :
Gomathi - Left Bank
Yamuna & son – Right bank. THE BRAHMAPUTRA : THE BRAHMAPUTRA Rises from chemayndung glacier near manasarovar.
Known as Tsang Po (purifier) in Tibet.
Total length 2580 kms.
Enters India through Dihang or Siang gorge in Arunachal Pradesh.
Here it is known as Brahmaputra (Son of Brahma).
Has braided channel. THE BRAHMAPUTRA : THE BRAHMAPUTRA Constant shifting of river channel prevails.
In this process has swallowed towns of Palasbari in Kamrup district.
Now is in process of nibbling Goalpura and Dibrugarh town.
Floods during monsoon.
Has an excellent inland water route.
Bends southwards and enters Bangladesh near Dhubri. THE BRAHMAPUTRA : THE BRAHMAPUTRA Here known as Jamuna.
Joins Ganga at Goalundo reffered as Padma.
The Padma joins Meghna and combined river flow as Meghna.
Forms broad estuary.
Enters Bay of Bengal.
Dihang, Dibang, Subansiri, Dhansiri, Kameng,Kopoli, Bareili, Tista and Luhit. RIVERS OF SOUTH INDIA : RIVERS OF SOUTH INDIA Known as Peninsula rivers.
Most rivers rise in Wn Ghats.
Are non perennial
Velocity and load carrying capacity is low.
General direction of flow is W to E. RIVERS OF SOUTH INDIA : RIVERS OF SOUTH INDIA Careful study reveals three main directions:
Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri flow in S.E.
Narmada and Tapti flow in W.
Tributaries of Ganga and Yamuna viz., Chambal, Betwa, Son, Ken and Damodar flow N.E.
Generally classified into
East flowing rivers
West flowing rivers. EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS Includes Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri.
MAHANADI: means Big river.
Source: Nn foothills of Dandakaranya near Siwaha in Raipur dist(chattishgarh)
Length – 857km.
Joins Bay of Bengal near Cuttack.
Irrigation dams: Niraj, Hirakud, Tikarapara. EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS GODAVARI: Largest river system of Peninsula India.
Length – 1465km.
Rises @ Triambak near Nasik (Maharastra).
Falls – Dudma falls.
Divides into two below Rajahmundy as Goutami Godavari and Vashishta Godavari.
Imp. Tributaries: Penganga, Wainganga, Wardha, Indravati.
Enters Bay of Bengal near Kakinada. EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS KRISHNA:
Second largest East flowing river.
Rises near Mahabaleshwar in Wn Ghats.
Imp. Falls – Gokak falls.
Imp. Tributaries – Koyna, Yerla, Panchganga, DhudhGanga, Bhima, Gataprapha, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra and Musi.
Tungabhadra and Bhima are most important EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS Tungabadhra is formed by two head streams namely Tunga and Bhadra.
Rise @ Gangamula in chikmagalur district.
Meet at Kudli in Shimoga.
Joins Krishna at Alampur in Andhra Pradesh.
Krishna enters Bay of Bengal near Divi. EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS KAVERI:
Known as ‘Ganga of South India’.
Rises @ Talakaveri in Brahmagiri hills of Kodagu.
Length – 805km.
Uniqueness – Upper catchment area receives R.F during S.W monsoon and Lower catchment area receives R.F through N.E monsoon EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS Encloses three islands along its course viz., Srirangapatnam, Shivasamudram and Srirangam.
3 main waterfalls:- Chunchunakatte, Hogenakkal and Shivasamudram (Gaganachukki & Barachukki).
Divides into two near Tiruchirappalli – Nn branch is called Coleroon (Kollidam) and Sn branch continues as Kaveri.
Joins Bay of Bengal near Kaveripatnam. EAST FLOWING RIVERS : EAST FLOWING RIVERS Other East flowing Rivers:
Tamaraparani WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS Rivers are fewer & smaller as compared to East flowing rivers.
Periyar and Pamba
Short and swift flowing, runs through rugged terrain. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS SABARMATI:
Rises in Aravalli range.
Length 238 km.
Joins Arabian Sea through Gulf of Khambat.
Rajasthan and Gujarat. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS MAHI :
Rises in Vindhyas.
Join Arabian Sea through Gulf of Khambat Length 583 kms.
Flows through Rajasthan, Gujrat and Madhya Pradesh.
Luni : Salt river – Source Aravallis.
Flows through Thar desert enters Rann of Kachchh.
Length 482 kms. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS NARMADA :
Largest West flowing river.
Rises in Amarkantak Hills in Maikala Range (M.P).
Length 1312 kms.
Flows into to Gulf of Khambat.
Flows in narrow gorge known as Marble gorge near Jabalpur.
River is navigable by country boats. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS Tapti :
2nd largest West flowing river.
Rises near Multai in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
Flows parallel to Narmada.
Length 724 kms.
Forms Estuary before flowing into Gulf of Khambat. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS SHARAVATI :
Rises at Ambuthirtha in Shimoga.
Length 132 kms.
Join Arabian Sea near Honnavar.
Has magnificent waterfall JOG FALLS.
Rises near Supa in North Kanara.
Flows through narrow gorge.
Length 161 kms.
Waterfall – Lalaguli.
Join Arabian Sea near Karwar. WEST FLOWING RIVERS : WEST FLOWING RIVERS NETHRAVATHI:
Rises near Ballarayanadurga in Kudremukh ranges (Chikmagalur).
Length – 160km.
Join Arabian Sea at Bunder in Mangalore.
Largest river in Kerala.
Rises in Sivagiri forest.
Join Arabian Sea near Pallipuram COMPARISON BETWEENN & S INDIAN RIVERS : COMPARISON BETWEENN & S INDIAN RIVERS North Indian Rivers
Perennial, long broad and deep .
Flows through plains.
Poor in Hydro Electric Power generation.
More useful for Irrigation.
They are navigable. South Indian Rivers:
Non Perennial, Narrow, Short and Swift.
Flows through rocky and sleep valleys.
Quite suitable for Hydro Electric Power generation.
Not much only lower course.