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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT distance locator : UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT distance locator UNDER ESTEEM GUIDANCE BY HARI NATH REDDY GARU (ASST. PROFESSOR) ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING RRS COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH BY G.GNANESWAR 11244-EE-021 B.JAYA VARDHAN BABU 11244-EE-010 M.ANIL KUMAR 11244-EE-042 N.NARASIMHACHARY 11244-EE-036 K. KALYAN DAS 11244-EE-048 Contents: Contents INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLE BLOCK DIAGRAM COMPONENT LIST SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilometers. The underground cable system is a common practice followed in many urban areas. While a fault occurs for some reason, at that time the repairing process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault. The proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault. PRINCIPLE: PRINCIPLE The project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor. The current would vary depending upon the length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG etc. The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller would display the same in Kilo meters. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same. BLOCK DIAGRAM: BLOCK DIAGRAM POWER SUPPLY: POWER SUPPLY COMPONENTS : COMPONENTS STEPDOWN TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER VOLTAGE REGULATOR 8051 MICROCONTROLLER ANALOG DIGITAL CONVERTOR(ADC) RELAY LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD ) AC TO DC CONVERSION : AC TO DC CONVERSION The 230V AC supply is first stepped down to 12V AC using a step down transformer. This is then converted to DC using bridge rectifier. The AC ripples is filtered out by using a capacitor and given to the input pin of voltage regulator 7805. At output pin of this regulator we get a constant 5V DC which is used for MC and other ICs in this project. RECTIFIER: RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electronic device that changes alternating current into direct current. This process is called rectification. In this supply we use bridge rectifier A rectifier is an electronic device that changes alternating current into direct current. This process is called rectification . VOLTAGE REGULATOR: VOLTAGE REGULATOR A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedbackcontrol loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages . MICRO CONTROLLER : MICRO CONTROLLER I A micro controller is an integrated circuit or a chip with a processor and other support devices like program memory, data memory, I/O ports, serial communication interface etc integrated together. Unlike a microprocessor (ex: Intel 8085), a microcontroller does not require any external interfacing of support devices. Intel 8051 is the most popular microcontroller ever produced in the world market. Now lets talk about 8051 microcontroller in detail. WHY THE ADC IC IS USED?: WHY THE ADC IC IS USED ? Analog to digital converters find huge application as an intermediate device to convert the signals from analog to digital form. These digital signals are used for further processing by the digital processors. Various sensors like temperature, pressure, force etc. convert the physical characteristics into electrical signals that are analog in nature . PowerPoint Presentation: ADC0804 is a very commonly used 8-bit analog to digital convertor. It is a single channel IC, i.e. , it can take only one analog signal as input. WHY RELAY IS USED?: WHY RELAY IS USED ? A relay is an electrically operated switch . Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and have double throw ( changeover ) switch contacts as shown in the diagram. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (lcd): LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY ( lcd ) Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates directly with the LCD. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families. Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code. Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors. PowerPoint Presentation: i.e., the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer). For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source code into object code . ADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES Cable fault location instruments and systems are applicable to all types of cables ranging from 1 kV to 500 kV and all types of cable faults such as: Short circuit faults Cable cuts Resistive faults Intermittent faults Sheath faults Water trees Partial discharges Less maintenance Less faults Higher efficiency DISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES • Cost, must consider life time costs not just initial • Cost differential decreasing with time • Cost of losses (30-60% less than OH), maintenance and repair • Outage time, locate fault and repair(OH one day, UG 7-10 days) • Fault location instantaneous, can have longer repair time • Undergrounding all of the lines would increase the cost of electricity by 16% CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION Further this project can be enhanced by using capacitor in an ac circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate the open circuited cable, unlike the short circuited fault only using resistors in DC circuit as followed in the above proposed project. 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