managing group and team

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Chapter 12 Lecture Outlines:

Managing Groups and Teams Chapter 12 Lecture Outlines

Chapter Objectives:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 2 Chapter Objectives Define the term group , and explain the significance of cohesiveness, roles, norms, and ostracism in regard to the behavior of group members. Identify and briefly describe the six stages of group development. Summarize the relevant research insights about organizational politics, and explain how groupthink can lead to blind conformity. Define and discuss the management of virtual teams .

Chapter Objectives (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Discuss the criteria and determinants of team effectiveness. Explain why trust is a key ingredient of teamwork and discuss what management can do to build trust.

Fundamental Group Dynamics:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 4 Fundamental Group Dynamics What Is a Group? Two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose. Types of Groups Informal groups: a collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs. Formal groups: a collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization.

Figure 12.1 What Does It Take to Make a Group?:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 5 Figure 12.1 What Does It Take to Make a Group?

Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 6 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Attraction to Groups Attractiveness of the group Cohesiveness of the group Roles Socially determined ways of behaving in a specific position. A set of expectations concerning what a person must, must not, or may do in a position. The actual behavior of a person who occupies the position.

Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 7 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Norms The standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that help individuals judge what is right or good or bad in a given social setting. Are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another. Are usually unwritten, yet have a strong influence on individual behavior. May go above and beyond formal rules and written policies.

Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 8 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Reasons that groups enforce norms To facilitate the survival of the group. To simplify or clarify role expectations. To help group members avoid embarrassing situations. To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity. Ostracism Rejection by the group for violation of its norms.

Group Development:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 9 Group Development Characteristics of a Mature Group Members are aware of each other’s assets and liabilities. Individual differences are accepted. The group’s authority and interpersonal relationships are recognized. Group decisions are made through rational discussion. Conflict is over group issues, not emotional issues. Members are aware of the group’s processes and their own roles in them.

Six Stages of Group Development:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 10 Six Stages of Group Development Stage 1: Orientation Uncertainty about most everything is high. Stage 2: Conflict and change Subgroups struggle for control; roles are undefined. Stage 3: Cohesion Consensus on leadership, structure, and procedures is reached. Stage 4: Delusion Members misperceive that the group has reached maturity.

Six Stages of Group Development (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 11 Six Stages of Group Development (cont’d) Stage 5: Disillusion Subgroups form; disenchantment, diminished cohesiveness and commitment to the group. Stage 6: Acceptance A trusted and influential group member steps forward and moves the group from conflict to cohesion so that it becomes highly effective and efficient. Member expectations are more realistic.

Organizational Politics:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 12 Organizational Politics What Does Organizational Politics Involve? The pursuit of self-interest at work in the face of real or imagined opposition. Impression management: trying to influence how others perceive you. Political infighting is a primary impediment that slows down change in organizations. Political maneuvering: all self-serving behavior above and beyond competence, hard work, and luck.

Organizational Politics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 13 Organizational Politics (cont’d) Positive Effects Exchanging favors “Touching bases” Forming coalitions Seeking sponsors Overcoming internal barriers Negative Effects Hinders organizational and individual effectiveness. Is an irritant to employees. Can have significant ethical implications.

Organizational Politics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 14 Organizational Politics (cont’d) Research on Organizational Politics The perception that the higher the level of management, the greater amount of politics. The larger the organization, the greater the politics. Staff personnel are more political than line managers. Marketing people are the most political; production people were considered the least political. 61% of employees believed organizational politics helps advance one’s career. 45% of employees believed that organizational politics detracts from organizational goals.

Organizational Politics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 15 Organizational Politics (cont’d) Political Tactics Posturing: “One upmanship” and taking credit for others work. Empire building: gaining control over human and material resources. Making the supervisor look good: engaging in “apple polishing.” Collecting and using social IOUs: exchanging reciprocal political favors by making someone look good or covering up their mistakes.

Organizational Politics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 16 Organizational Politics (cont’d) Political Tactics Creating power and loyalty cliques: facing superiors as a cohesive group rather than alone. Engaging in destructive competition: sabotaging the work of others through character assassination.

Organizational Politics (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 17 Organizational Politics (cont’d) Antidotes to Political Behavior Strive for a climate of openness and trust. Measure performance results rather than personalities. Encourage top management to refrain from political behaviors. Strive to integrate individual and organizational goals through meaningful work and career planning. Practice job rotation to encourage broader perspectives and understanding of the problems of others.

Groupthink:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 18 Groupthink Groupthink (Irving Janis) A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. Symptoms of Groupthink Excessive optimism An assumption of inherent morality Suppression of dissent A desperate quest for unanimity

Groupthink (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 19 Groupthink (cont’d) Preventing Groupthink Avoid using of groups as rubberstamps. Urge each group member to think independently. Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives. Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate. Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action.

Team, Teamwork, and Trust:

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 20 Team, Teamwork, and Trust Cross-Functional Teams Task groups staffed with a mix of specialists from various organizational areas who are focused on a common objective. May or may not be self-managed. Membership is assigned, not voluntary. Challenge is getting specialists to be boundary spanners.

Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 21 Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) Virtual Teams Task groups with members who are physically dispersed yet linked electronically to accomplish a common goal. Face-to-face contact is minimal or nonexistent. Primary forms of communication are electronic interchanges (e-mail, voice mail, web-based project software, and videoconferences).

Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 22 Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) Building a Virtual Team Identify the team’s sponsors, stakeholders, and champions. Develop a team charter that includes its purpose, mission, and goals. Select team members. Contact team members and introduce them to each other. Conduct a team orientation session. Develop a team process.

Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 23 Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) What Makes Workplace Teams Effective? Innovative ideas Goals accomplished Adaptability to change High person/team commitment Being rated highly by upper management

Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 24 Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) Trust: A Key to Team Effectiveness Trust: a belief in the integrity, character, or ability of others. The primary responsibility for creating a climate of trust falls on the manager. Trust is the key to establishing productive interpersonal relationships. Trust encourages self-control, reduces the need for direct supervision, and expands managerial control.

Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d):

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Lecture Outlines , 12– 25 Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) Six Ways to Build Trust Communication: keep people informed. Support: be an approachable person. Respect: delegate important duties and listen. Fairness: evaluate fairly and objectively. Predictability: be dependable and consistent. Competence: be a good role model.

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