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Slide 1:

The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior

What is Organizational Behavior?:

What is Organizational Behavior? OB is the study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction between people and the organization, and the organization itself. The goals of OB are to explain, predict, and control behavior.

Research methods in OB:

Research methods in OB Case study (subjective but provides loads of information) Experiment (the most scientific method) Field experiment (experimental method applied to live situation) Meta-analysis (quantitative review of studies that is widely used today)

Slide 4:

The essence of conducting an experiment is to make sure that the variable being modified (the independent variable) is influencing the results. The independent variable influences the dependent variable (such as productivity). Field experiments attempt to apply the experimental method to real-life situations. A meta-analysis is a quantitative or statistical review of the literature on a particular subject, and is also an examination of a range of studies for reaching a combined results or best estimate.

Slide 5:

Data Collection and Research Methods in Organizational Behavior Methods of data collection. Three frequently used methods of collecting data in organizational behavior are surveys, interviews, and direct observation of behavior. The type of survey questionnaire used by an organizational behavior specialist is prepared rigorously .

Why study OB?:

Why study OB? Development of soft (interpersonal) skills Personal growth via insight into others Enhancement of individual and organizational effectiveness Sharpening and refining common sense (common sense is often wrong)

Slide 7:

BENEFITS OF STUDYING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Organizational behavior relates to the process—rather than the content—of conducting managerial work. Skill Development An essential requirement for entering into, surviving, and succeeding in the modern workplace is to have appropriate skills. Organizational behavior skills have gained in importance in the modern workplace. Soft skills generally refer to interpersonal skills such as motivating others, communicating, and adapting to people of different cultures. Hard skills generally refer to technical skills.

Slide 8:

Personal Growth through Insight Into Human Behavior Understanding others leads to personal fulfillment, and can also lead to enhanced self-knowledge and self-insight. Insight is useful for such purposes as selecting people for jobs and assignments, communicating, and motivating.

Slide 9:

Enhancing Organizational and Individual Effectiveness An important goal of organizational behavior is to improve organizational effectiveness, the extent to which an organization is productive and satisfies the demands of its interested parties. People-oriented management practices enable workers to use their wisdom and to receive appropriate training. If a person develops knowledge about subject such as improved interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork, he or she will become more effective .

Slide 10:

Sharpening and Refining Common Sense Organizational behavior sharpens and enlarges the domain for common sense. Organizational behavior knowledge also refines common sense by challenging you to reexamine generally accepted ideas that may be only partially true—such as inactivity reduces stress for everybody

A Brief History of OB :

A Brief History of OB Classical approach to management (scientific management and administrative management) Hawthorne studies (workers respond to attention) Human relations movement (treat workers well to boost productivity)

A Brief History of OB (continued) :

A Brief History of OB (continued) The contingency approach (examine individual and situational differences before taking action) Positive organizational behavior (focus on measurable strengths of workers to improve performance)

Slide 13:

The classical approach. The focus of scientific management was the application of scientific methods to increase individual worker’s productivity. According to the principles of scientific management, there is a division of work between managers and workers. Administrative management was concerned primarily with how organizations should be managed and structured. The core of management knowledge lies within the classical school, including the framework of planning, organizing, and controlling.

Slide 14:

The Hawthorne Studies The first Hawthorne study examined the effects of lighting on productivity. A second study conducted in a relay assembly room examined the relationships among rest, fatigue, and productivity. A major conclusion from these studies was the workers reacted positively because management cared about them (the Hawthorne effect ). The Hawthorne effect is the tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention because they respond to the demands of the situation. The Hawthorne studies also led to many other conclusions, such as the fact that effective communication with workers is critical to managerial success.

Slide 15:

The Human Relations Movement The human relations movement was based on the belief that an important link exists among managerial practices, morale, and productivity. Key points of the movement are that satisfied workers are more productive and that, given the proper working environment, virtually all workers would be highly productive. A cornerstone of the human relations movement is Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. Theory X is the somewhat stern and pessimistic traditional assumptions about worker capabilities. Theory Y is an alternative, and optimistic, set of assumptions

Slide 16:

The Contingency Approach The contingency approach to management emphasizes there is no one best way to manage people or work. The contingency approach is derived from the study of leadership styles. The strength of the contingency approach is that it encourages managers and professionals to examine individual and situational differences before deciding on a course of action.

Slide 17:

Positive Organizational Behavior An emerging movement in organizational behavior is a focus on what is right with people. Positive organizational behavior as the study and application of human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement. Positive organizational behavior focuses on developing human strengths, making people more resilient, and cultivating extraordinary individuals, work units, and organizations .

Skill Development in OB:

Skill Development in OB Experiential exercises (learn by doing) Conceptual information and examples Feedback on skills and performance Conceptual knowledge and behavioral guidelines Frequent practice

Slide 19:

A FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The three levels of study in organizational behavior are: individual level groups and interpersonal relations level organizational system and the global environmental level.


Individual Individual differences Learning, perception and attribution Attitudes, values and ethics Creativity Motivation

Group and Interpersonal:

Group and Interpersonal Communication Group dynamics Teams Leadership Power, politics and influence Conflict, stress and well-being

Organizational System:

Organizational System Structure and design Culture Change and knowledge management Cultural diversity

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