MENTAL RETARDATION:: MENTAL RETARDATION: Introduction:: Introduction: Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Continued…..: Continued….. Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. PowerPoint Presentation: Doctors have found many causes of mental retardation. The most common are: Genetic conditions Problems during pregnancy Problems at birth Health problems Causes: Genetic conditions: : Genetic conditions: Sometimes mental retardation is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. In the rarest of cases, abnormalities with the X or Y chromosome may also cause disability. Problems during pregnancy: : Problems during pregnancy: Mental retardation can result when the baby does not develop inside the mother properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the baby's cells divide as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with mental retardation. Problems at birth: : Problems at birth: If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have mental retardation. Health problems:: Health problems: Diseases like whooping cough, the measles, can cause mental retardation. Mental retardation can also be caused by extreme malnutrition (not eating right), not getting enough medical care, or by being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury. Symptoms: : Symptoms: Failure to meet developmental milestones such as sitting, crawling, walking, or talking, in a timely manner Persistence of childlike behavior, possibly demonstrated in speaking style, or by a failure to understand social rules or consequences of behaviors Decreased learning ability and ability to think logically Trouble remembering things An inability to meet educational demands required by school. Levels of mental retardation:: Levels of mental retardation : Mental retardation can be classified into four different degrees : mild, moderate, severe , and profound . These categories are based on the person's level of functioning. Mild M.R 50-55 IQ to less 70 IQ Moderate M.R 35-40 IQ to 50-55 IQ Severe M.R 20-25 IQ to 35-55 IQ Profound M.R Below 20 or 25 IQ Classification of MR: : Classification of MR: Term IQ Range Educable M.R 70-50 IQ Trainable M.R 50-25 IQ Severly AND PROFOUNDLY M.R Below 25 IQ Dignoses:: Dignoses: It may be difficult to assess very young children for MR, so most clinicians will not give a definitive diagnosis of mental retardation to children under the age of two unless their symptoms are extremely severe and/or they have a condition that is highly associated with this condition (such as Down's Syndrome). Continued…: Continued… A complete medical, family, social, and educational history is compiled from existing medical and school records (if applicable) and from interviews with parents. Children are given intelligence tests to measure their learning abilities and intellectual functioning. For infants, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development may be used to assess motor, language, and problem-solving skills. Treatment:: Treatment: Treatments for Mental Retardation are not designed to "cure" the disorder. Rather, therapy goals include reducing safety risks (e.g., helping an individual maintain safety at home or school) and teaching appropriate and relevant life skills. Interventions should be based on the specific needs of individuals and their families, with the primary goal of developing the person's potential to the fullest. Continued….: Continued…. Infant/Toddler services for the treatment of MR might be home or center based, and will likely focus on obtaining an appropriate diagnosis and developing relevant and realistic goals for the family and child. Pre-School or School Aged services may also be home or center-based, and often include an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). The IEP is developed in collaboration with your child's school administrators and/or counselor, and will detail the goals for improving the child's skills, particularly within the academic setting. PowerPoint Presentation: Thankyou!