logging in or signing up Rubber plantations and Mosquito borne Diseases sumodan Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 334 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: April 28, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description How rubber plantations enhance the potential of mosquito borne diseases Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Rubber Plantations and Mosquito Borne Diseases: An experience from Kerala, India: Rubber Plantations and Mosquito Borne Diseases: An experience from Kerala, I ndia Dr. P.K. Sumodan Assistant Professor Post Graduate Department of Zoology Government College Madappally, Kerala, IndiaPowerPoint Presentation: About KeralaThe Legend: Kerala was reclaimed from the ocean by ‘Parasurama,’ The 6 th incarnation of Hindu God Vishnu using his Axe The LegendThe land of coconut: The land of coconutPolitical map of Kerala: Political map of KeralaVital statistics: Kerala is one of the 28 states in India. Area - 38,863 sq km Lies between longitudes 74° 52' and 76° 07' E and latitudes 11° 40' and 12° 48' N. Population in 2011: 33,387,677 (33.33 million) Bordered by Western Ghats on the east and Arabian Sea on the west Vital statisticsPowerPoint Presentation: Rubber plantations in KeralaHistory: First rubber plantation- 1902 at Thattekkadu in Central Kerala by Europeans (Periyar syndicate owned by JJ Murphy, J A Hunter, K E Nicoll and CMF Ross) They used Para Rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) By 1914 it replaced all other species ( Tharian George et al, 1988 ) Indigenous species Ficus elastica HistoryMalabar migration: Starting from 1914, there was a massive migration from south central Kerala (Central Tranvancore) to North Kerala (Malabar) in search of virgin land Majority of them were Christians Migration peaked in the 1950s They spread rubber plantations to north Kerala Malabar migrationStatistics (2009): Total area: 517475 (0.5 million) Hectares Holdings (20 hectares and below): 480240 (92.80%) Estates: (Above 20 hectares ): 37235 (7.20%) Tapped area: 401706 hectares (77.63%) (Source: Indian Rubber Statistics Vol. 33, 2010) Statistics (2009)Rubber vs Coconut (Hectares): Rubber vs Coconut (Hectares)PowerPoint Presentation: Mosquito Borne Diseases in KeralaAverage number of cases per year (2006-2010): Average number of cases per year (2006-2010) Lymphatic filariasis (reliable data not available)First outbreaks: Malaria – Not known Lymphatic filariasis- Not known Japanese Encephalitis- 1996 Dengue- 1997 Chikungunya-2006 First outbreaksVectors: Malaria- Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis Lymphatic filariasis- Culex quinquefaciatus, Mansonia uniformis, Mansonia annulifera Mansonia indiana Dengue- Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti Chikungunya- Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti Japanese Encephalitis- Culex vishnui group VectorsPowerPoint Presentation: Mosquito borne Diseases and Rubber PlantationsPotential Mosquito breeding sites in rubber plantations: Plastic containers (300-500 ml) are used for collecting rubber latex There are 500 trees per hectare Potential Mosquito breeding sites in rubber plantationsPowerPoint Presentation: During south west monsoon (June-September) two types of rubber plantations are observed in Kerala 1. Under active tapping using rain guards and 2. Where tapping is suspendedRainfall in Kerala inmm-2010(Source: India Meteorological Department): Rainfall in Kerala inmm-2010(Source: India Meteorological Department)Latex collecting containers with rainwater : Latex collecting containers with rainwaterFactors promoting mosquito breeding: Source of food: Carbohydrates present in the latex and decaying leaves promote bacterial growth Attraction: Black color of the containers are attractive to mosquitoes Blood source in the vicinity Factors promoting mosquito breedingMosquito breeding: Mosquito breedingMosquito breeding in rubber plantations (Based on studies in 3 districts from 2005-07): DISTRICT NO. OF BREEDING SITES SURVEYED NO. POSITIVE FOR BREEDING (%) KANNUR 4832 4768 (98.7) WAYANAD 2466 2178 (88.7) KOZHIKODE 3862 2822 (73.1) Mosquito breeding in rubber plantations (Based on studies in 3 districts from 2005-07)PowerPoint Presentation: S.No . Mosquito sp. Breeding status Kannur Wayanad Kozhikode 1 Aedes . ( Stegomyia ) albopictus Y Y Y 2 Ae .( Stegomyia ) subalbopictus N Y N 3 Ae . ( Finlaya ) chrysolineatus N Y 4 Ae . ( Finlaya ) cogilli Y Y Y 5 Ae . ( Finlaya ) gubernatoris Y Y N 6 Ae . ( Finlaya ) harveyi Y N Y 7 Armigeres . ( Armigeres ) subalbatus Y Y Y 8 Culex ( Eumelanomyia ) brevipalpis Y Y Y 9 Cx . ( lophoceraomyia ) uniformis Y N Y 10 Heizmannia ( Heizmannia ) chandi Y N Y 11 Toxorhynchites ( Toxorhynchites ) splendens Y N N 12 Verrallina sp. N Y NVector species: Aedes . ( Stegomyia ) albopictus - Dengue and Chikungunya Armigeres ( Armigeres ) subalbatus - 1 . Incrminated as vector of Wuchhreria bancrofti (Tanaka et al 1979) 2. Susceptible to JE virus (Wei-June et al, 2000) 3. Vector of Dog heart worm, Dirifilaria immitis (Cheong et al, 1981) Vector speciesAedes albopictus: Aedes albopictusOutbreaks near rubber plantations: 1997- Dengue outbreak in Kottayam district 2001- Dengue cases in Kannur district 2008- Chikungunya outbreak in Kottayam district 2007- Dengue cases in Kozhikode district 2007- Chikungunya outbreaks in Malappuram and Kozhikode districts In all the above cases Aedes ( Stegomyia ) albopictus was the vector Outbreaks near rubber plantationsReasons for suspension of tapping: Heavy rainfall Price of rubber Productivity Cost effectiveness (Productivity, labor charge, cost of rain guard, rubber price) Tappers employed on daily wage in small plantations versus regular tappers in estates Possibility of fungal diseases Belief of the planters that tapping during rainy season could reduce the life span of the trees Reasons for suspension of tappingSuspension of tapping vs productivity and type of plantations : Suspension of tapping vs productivity and type of plantationsSuspension of tapping vs Rubber price (Kozhikode dist.): Suspension of tapping vs Rubber price (Kozhikode dist.)PowerPoint Presentation: Possible control strategiesPowerPoint Presentation: 1. Encouraging tapping during rainy seasons using rain guards 2. Source reduction by Educating the planters 3. Biological control using predator and competing mosquito speciesEffect of Toxorhynchites splendens on the mosquito immature densities in Nilappuram estate of Kannur district : S.No . Species No. positive Average Per site density of Toxorhynchites splendens Per site density of other mosquitoes Larva Pupa Larva Pupa 1 Tx . splendens alone 43 1.5 0.1 0 0 2 Tx . splendens along with other mosquitoes with other species 19 1.0 0.1 14 0.1 3 Without Tx . splendens 25 0 0 42 8 Effect of Toxorhynchites splendens on the mosquito immature densities in Nilappuram estate of Kannur districtDominant species: District Dominant mosquito species Contribution to per site density of immature stages Dominant species Aedes albopictus Kannur Heizmannia chandi 44-66% 31-41% Wayanad Aedes chrysolineatus 68-74% 21-32% Kozhikode Culex uniformis 47-50% 18-39% Heizmannia chandi 32-70% 18-24% Dominant speciesPublished works: Published works Mosquito- Breeding in the Rubber Plantations of Kerala, India: A study based on Ecosystem Approach , VDM VERLAG, 2010, Germany pp 64 Potential of Rubber Plantations as breeding source for Aedes albopictus in Kerala, India. Dengue Bulletin. 2003, 27: 197-198.PowerPoint Presentation: Thank you firstname.lastname@example.org You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.