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Pharm (Quality Assurance) i.s.f . college of pharamcy , moga 1 Drug Targeting: Drug Targeting The activity of most of the drugs suffers from inability to accumulate at the site of action. Drug targeting is the delivery of the drugs to receptors or organs or any specific part of the body to which one wishes to deliver exclusively. 2 Approaches For Drug Targeting: Approaches For Drug Targeting Physical Approach Biological Approach Chemical Approach 3 Principles Of Magnetic Targeting: : Principles Of Magnetic Targeting: In this technique, drug is bound to a magnetic compound , injected into a patient’s blood stream, and stopped with a powerful magnetic field in the target area. Depending upon the type of drug , it is then slowly released from the magnetic carriers. Very high concentrations of drugs can be achieved near the target site ,without any toxic effects to surrounding tissue or to the whole body. 4 PowerPoint Presentation: 5 Comparing Systemic Drug Delivery with Magnetic targeting: : Comparing Systemic Drug Delivery with Magnetic targeting: 6 Magnetic Particles: : Magnetic Particles: Magnetic carriers receive their magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field from incorporated materials such as magnetite, maghemite, iron, nickel, cobalt, neodymium– iron–boron or samarium–cobalt. For biomedical applications, magnetic carriers must be water-based, biocompatible, non-toxic, and non- immunogenic. Magnetic particles in the range of 10–500 nm are usually called magnetic nanospheres and any particles of just below 1–100 micro meters are magnetic microspheres. 7 Types Of Magnetic carriers: : Types Of Magnetic carriers: Magnetic microspheres Magnetic liposomes Magnetic nanoparticles Magnetic resealed erythrocytes Magnetic emulsions 8 Magnetic Microspheres: Magnetic Microspheres They are supramolecular particles that are small enough to circulate through capillaries without producing embolic occlusion (<4 µm) but are sufficiently susceptible(ferromagnetic) to be captured in microvessels & dragged into the adjacent tissues by magnetic fields of 0.5-0.8 Tesla. Widder et al. first reported on the use of magnetic albumin microspheres . 9 Magnetic Nanoparticles/Carriers: Magnetic Nanoparticles/Carriers Magnetite Core Starch Polymer Coating Bioavailable Phosphate in coating for functionalization Chemo Drug attached to Coating Mitoxantrone Drug Delivered to Rabbit with Carcinoma 10 Magnetite Core Starch Polymer M M M M M M M R. Jurgons. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter v 18. (2006) S2893-S2902 PowerPoint Presentation: 11 Magnetite Cationic Liposomes (MCL): Magnetite Cationic Liposomes (MCL) Why Cationic? Interaction between + liposome and – cell membrane results in 10x uptake. 12 Shinkai, Masashige. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 194 (1999) 176-184 Preparation : Preparation Entrapment of Ferro fluid within core of liposomes . Can also be produced by covalent attachment of ligands to the surface of the vehicles or by incorporation of target lipids in the matrix of structural phospholipids. 13 Magnetic Emulsion: Magnetic Emulsion Magnetically responsive oil in water type of emulsion bearing a chemotherapeutic agent which could be selectively localized by applying an external magnetic field to specific target site. 14 Magnetic Resealed Erythrocytes: Magnetic Resealed Erythrocytes Came into existence which contains ferrofluids(magnetite) along with loaded drugs within the Red blood cells . Technique : Preswell technique Application : Local thrombosis in animal arteries was prevented by means of magnetic targeting of aspirin loaded red cell. Example : Magnetically responsive ibuprofen-loaded erythrocytes were prepared and characterized in vitro by Vyas and Jain 15 Delivery Magnetic nanoparticles: Delivery Magnetic nanoparticles Magnetite nanoparticles encapsulated in liposomes (1) Antibody conjugated (AML) (2) Positive Surface Charge (MCL ) Sprague-Dawley rats injected with two human tumors. Lipsomes injected into 1 tumor (black) and applied Alternating Magnetic Field 16 Ito A., Honda H., Kobayashi T. Cancer Immunol Immunother Res 2006 55; 320-328 Effect of Hyperthermia: 17 Effect of Hyperthermia Treated Tumor Untreated Tumor Rectum After Treatment Before Treatment Functionalization Of Magnetic Carriers: : Functionalization Of Magnetic Carriers: The surface of the magnetic carriers can be modified by various coating materials . Without the coating , they have hydrophobic surfaces with large surface to volume ratios and a property to agglomerate. A proper surface coating allows them to be dispersed uniformly into ferrofluids and also the stability is improved . 18 Release Of The Drug From Magnetic Carriers: : Release Of The Drug From Magnetic Carriers: Diffusion Degradation Swelling 19 Advantages: : Advantages: Delays reticuloendothelial clearance. Prolongs the systemic action of drug. Adaptable to any part of the body. Avoidance of acute drug toxicity Controlled drug release within target tissues for intervals of 30 min to 30 hrs, as desired. 20 Applications : : Applications : Magnetic target drug delivery system has many applications in various fields. Magnetic delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to treat tumors Magnetic targeting of radioactivity Treatment of tumors with magnetically induced hyperthermia Magnetic control of pharmacokinetic parameters and drug release. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) Magnetic systems for cell separation 21 PowerPoint Presentation: 22 PowerPoint Presentation: 23 Limitations : : Limitations : Expensive, technical approach & requires specialized manufacture & QC. Needs specialized magnet for targeting Trained personnel. Only near skin surface. 24 Conclusion: : Conclusion: In spite of certain drawbacks, still play an important role in the selective targeting, and the controlled delivery of various drugs. It is a challenging area for future research in the drug targeting so more researches, long term toxicity study, and characterization will ensure the improvement of magnetic drug delivery system. The future holds lot of promises in magnetic micro carriers and by further study this will be developed as novel and efficient approach for targeted drug delivery system. 25 References: : References: 1.1.Lancava G M. et al ,J Magn Mater, 1999,201,434 2.Vyas S P., Khar R k., Targeted & controlled Drug Delivery, 2004, CBC Publisher & distributors, New Delhi ,459-463. 3.D Bahadur & Jyotsnendu Giri, Sadhana, Vol.28, parts 3 & 4, June/August 2003,. 639-656. 4.Shinoda, Kozo and Stig Friberg. Emulsions and Solubility. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1986. 5.Widder K.J., Senyei A.E. and Scarpelli D.G.1978 Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 58,141 6.Gupta P.K.. and Hung C.T. 1989, J. Pharm. Sci, 78 , 745. 26 PowerPoint Presentation: 27 THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.