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File Systems 10.1 Basic Functions of File Management 10.2 Hierarchical Model of a File System 10.4 File Directories Hierarchical Directory Organizations Operations on Directories Implementation of File Directories 10.5 Basic File System File Descriptors Opening and Closing of Files 10.6 Physical Organization Methods Contiguous Organization Linked Organization Indexed Organization Management of Free Storage Space 10.7 Distributed File Systems Directory Structures and Sharing Semantics of File Sharing 10.8 Implementing DFS Basic functions of FS : ICS 143 2 Basic functions of FS present logical (abstract) view of files and directories hide complexity of hardware devices facilitate efficient use of storage devices optimize access, e.g., to disk support sharing provide protection Hierarchical model of FS : ICS 143 3 Hierarchical model of FS Figure 10-1 abstract user interface present convenient view directory management map logical name to unique Id, find descriptor basic file system open/close files physical organization methods map file data to disk blocks User view of files : ICS 143 4 User view of files file name and type valid name number of characters lower vs upper case extension tied to type of file used by applications file type recorded in header cannot be changed (even when extension changes) basic types: text, object, load file; directory application-specific types, e.g., .doc, .ps, .html User view of files : ICS 143 5 User view of files logical file organization fixed or variable-size records addressed implicitly (sequential access to next record) explicitly by position (record#) or key Figure 10.2 memory mapped files map file contents 0:(n1) to va:(va+n1) read virtual memory instead of read(i,buf,n) Operations on files : ICS 143 6 Operations on files create/delete create/delete file descriptor modify directory open/close modify open file table read/write (sequential or direct) modify file descriptor transfer data between disk and memory seek/rewind modify open file table File directories : ICS 143 7 File directories tree-structured Figure 10-3 simple search, insert, delete operations sharing is asymmetric (only one parent) File directories : ICS 143 8 File directories DAG-structured Figure 10-5 sharing is symmetric, but what are semantics of delete: any parent can remove file only last parent can remove it: need reference count must prevent cycles Figure 10-6 search is difficult (infinite loops) deletion needs garbage collection (reference count not enough) File directories : ICS 143 9 File directories symbolic links compromise to allow sharing but avoid cycles Figure 10-7 for read/write access: symbolic link is the same as actual link for deletion: only symbolic link is deleted File directories : ICS 143 10 File directories file naming: path names concatenated local names with delimiter ( . or / or \ ) absolute path name: start with root (/) relative path name: start with current dir (.) notation to move upward (..) Operations on file directories : ICS 143 11 Operations on file directories create/delete list sorting, wild cards, recursion, info displayed change directory path name, home directory (default) move rename change protection create/delete link (symbolic) find/search routines Implementation of directories : ICS 143 12 Implementation of directories what information to keep in each entry only symbolic name and pointer to descriptor needs an extra disk access to descriptor all descriptive information directory can become very large how to organize entries within directory fixed-size array of slots or a linked list easy insertion/deletion search is sequential hash table B-tree Basic file system : ICS 143 13 Basic file system open/close files retrieve and set up descriptive information for efficient access file descriptor (i-node in Unix) owner id file type protection information mapping to physical disk blocks time of creation, last use, last modification reference counter Basic file system : ICS 143 14 Basic file system open file table (OFT) open command: verify access rights allocate OFT entry allocate read/write buffers fill in OFT entry initialization (e.g., current position) information from descriptor (e.g. file length, disk location) pointers to allocated buffers return OFT index Basic file system : ICS 143 15 Basic file system close command: flush modified buffers to disk release buffers update file descriptor file length, disk location, usage information free OFT entry Basic file system : ICS 143 16 Basic file system Example: Unix Figure 10-11 unbuffered access fd = open(name, rw, …) stat = read(fd, mem, n) stat = write(fd, mem, n) buffered access fp = fopen(name, rwa) c = read(fp) Physical organization methods : ICS 143 17 Physical organization methods contiguous organization Figure 10-12a simple implementation fast sequential access (minimal arm movement) insert/delete is difficult how much space to allocate initially external fragmentation Physical organization methods : ICS 143 18 Physical organization methods linked organization Figure 10-12b simple insert/delete, no external fragmentation sequential access less efficient (seek, latency) direct access not possible poor reliability (when chain breaks) variation 1: keep pointers segregated Figure 10-12c may be cached Physical organization methods : ICS 143 19 Physical organization methods variation 2: link sequences of adjacent blocks, rather than individual blocks Figure 10-12d indexed organization index table: sequential list of records simplest implementation: keep index list in descriptor Figure 10-12e insert/delete is easy sequential and direct access is efficient drawback: file size limited by number of index entries Physical organization methods : ICS 143 20 Physical organization methods variations of indexing multi-level index hierarchy primary index points to secondary indices problem: number of disk accesses increases with depth of hierarchy incremental indexing fixed number of entries at top-level index when insufficient, allocate additional index levels Example: Unix -- 3-level expansion Figure 10-13 Free storage space management : ICS 143 21 Free storage space management similar to main memory management linked list organization linking individual blocks - inefficient: no block clustering to minimize seek operations groups of blocks are allocated/released one at a time linking groups of consecutive blocks bit map organization analogous to main memory Distributed file systems : ICS 143 22 Distributed file systems directory structures differentiated by: global/local naming: single global structure or different for each user location transparency: does the path name reveal anything about machine or server location independence when a file moves between machines, does its path name change Global directory structure : ICS 143 23 Global directory structure combine local directory structures under a new common root Figure 10-14(a,b) problem: using “/” for new root invalidates existing local names solution (Unix United): use “/” for local root use “..” to move to new root Example: reach u1 from u2: ../../../S1/usr/u1 or /../S1/usr/u1 names are not location transparent Local directory structures : ICS 143 24 Local directory structures mounting subtree on one machine is mounted over a directory on another machine contents of original directory invisible during mount structure changes dynamically each user has own view of FS Figure 10-14c Shared directory substructure : ICS 143 25 Shared directory substructure each machine has local file system one subtree is shared by all machines Figure 10-14d Semantics of file sharing : ICS 143 26 Semantics of file sharing Unix semantics all updates are immediately visible generates a lot of network traffic session semantics updates visible when file closes simultaneous updates are unpredictable (lost) transaction semantics updates visible at end of transaction immutable-files semantics updates create a new version of file Implementing DFS : ICS 143 27 Implementing DFS basic architecture client/server Figure 10-15 virtual file system: if file is local, access local file system if file is remote, communicate with remote server Implementing DFS : ICS 143 28 Implementing DFS caching reduces network delay disk access delay server caching - simple no disk access on subsequent access no cache coherence problems but network delay still exists client caching - more complicated when to update file on server? when/how to inform other processes? Implementing DFS : ICS 143 29 Implementing DFS client caching write-through allows Unix semantics but overhead is significant delayed writing requires weaker semantics server propagate changes to other caches violates client/server relationship clients need to check periodically requires weaker semantics Implementing DFS : ICS 143 30 Implementing DFS stateless versus stateful server stateful: maintain state of open files Figure 10-16a client passes commands and data between user process and server problem when server crashes: state of open files is lost client must restore state when server recovers Implementing DFS : ICS 143 31 Implementing DFS stateless server: client maintains state of open files Figure 10-16b commands are idempotent (can be repeated) when server crashes: client waits until server recovers client reissues read/write commands Implementing DFS : ICS 143 32 Implementing DFS file replication improves availability multiple replicas available reliability multiple replicas help in recovery performance multiple copies remove bottlenecks and reduce network latency scalability multiple copies reduce bottlenecks Implementing DFS : ICS 143 33 Implementing DFS problem: file replicas must be consistent replication protocols read any/write all problem: what if a server is temporarily unavailable quorum-based read/write read quorum r, write quorum w r+w > N any read will see at least one current replica Figure 10-17 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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