perception

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“ WE DON ’ T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE. ”

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2 Organizational Behavior / Perception Perception “ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

The Perceptual Process:

3 Organizational Behavior / Perception The Perceptual Process Sensation An individual ’ s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “ storage. ” Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

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4 Organizational Behavior / Perception Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

Factors influencing perception:

5 Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver , in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

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6 Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Perception Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

Shortcuts in judging others:

7 Organizational Behavior / Perception Shortcuts in judging others Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Halo Effect : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single charecteristics.

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8 Organizational Behavior / Perception Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a person ’ s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Projection : Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of one ’ s perception of the group to which that persons belongs.

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9 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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10 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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11 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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12 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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13 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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14 Organizational Behavior / Perception

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