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Mrs.sumathigopinath ACN lecturer

Introduction :

Introduction Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally . the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Neurons normally generate electrochemical impulses that act on other neurons, glands, and muscles to produce human thoughts, feelings, and actions. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior, or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness.

What Is Epilepsy? :

What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain's electrical system. Abnormal electrical impulses cause brief changes in movement, behavior, sensation, or awareness. These interruptions, known as seizures, may last from a few seconds to a few minutes. People who have had two or more seizures are considered to have epilepsy.

causes :

causes Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity -- from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development -- can lead to seizures . an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters. Genetic Factors- Abnormalities in the genes that control neuronal migration -- a critical step in brain development -- can lead to areas of misplaced or abnormally formed neurons, or dysplasia, in the brain that can cause epilepsy.


4. Other Disorders-For example, brain tumors, alcoholism, and Alzheimer's disease frequently lead to epilepsy because they alter the normal workings of the brain. 5. Meningitis, AIDS, viral encephalitis, and other infectious diseases can lead to epilepsy, 6. hydrocephalus -- a condition in which excess fluid builds up in the brain. 7. Epilepsy also can result from intolerance to wheat gluten (also known as celiac disease), or from a parasitic infection of the brain called neurocysticercosis .


8. Head Injury 9. Poisoning- exposure to lead, carbon monoxide 10.

Pathophysiology :

Pathophysiology Group of neurons lose afferent stimulation(ability to transmit impulses from the periphery toward the CNS and function as a seizure focus.

Seizures are divided into two major categories :

Seizures are divided into two major categories focal seizures and generalized seizures

Focal seizures :

Focal seizures Focal seizures, also called partial seizures, occur in just one part of the brain. In a simple focal seizure , the person will remain conscious but experience unusual feelings or sensations that can take many forms. The person may experience sudden and unexplainable feelings of joy, anger, sadness, or nausea. He or she also may hear, smell, taste, see, or feel things that are not real.

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In a complex focal seizure , the person has a change in or loss of consciousness. His or her consciousness may be altered, producing a dreamlike experience. examples are repetitious behaviors such as blinks, twitches, mouth movements, or even walking in a circle. These repetitious movements are called automatisms

Generalized Seizures :

Generalized Seizures Generalized seizures are a result of abnormal neuronal activity on both sides of the brain. These seizures may cause loss of consciousness, falls, or massive muscle spasms. These seizures are sometimes referred to as petit mal seizures, which is an older term. 1) Tonic seizures cause stiffening of muscles of the body, generally those in the back, legs, and arms.

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2) Clonic seizures cause repeated jerking movements of muscles on both sides of the body. 3) Myoclonic seizures cause jerks or twitches of the upper body, arms, or legs. 4) Atonic seizures cause a loss of normal muscle tone

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Tonic-clonic seizures cause a mixture of symptoms, including stiffening of the body and repeated jerks of the arms and/or legs as well as loss of consciousness. Tonic-clonic seizures are sometimes referred to by an older term: grand mal seizures.

Risk factors :

Risk factors Babies who are born with abnormal brain structures Bleeding into the brain Abnormal blood vessels in the brain Serious brain injury or lack of oxygen to the brain Brain tumors Infections of the brain: abscess, meningitis, or encephalitis Stroke resulting from blockage of arteries Cerebral palsy

Types of seizures:

Types of seizures Generalized Seizures (Produced by the entire brain) Symptoms "Grand Mal" or Generalized tonic-clonic Unconsciousness, convulsions, muscle rigidity Absence Brief loss of consciousness Myoclonic Sporadic (isolated), jerking movements Clonic Repetitive, jerking movements Tonic Muscle stiffness, rigidity Atonic Loss of muscle tone


Types seizures are divided into two broad categories: generalized and partial (also called local or focal). Classifying the type of seizure helps physicians diagnose whether or not a patient has epilepsy .

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