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The embeded system and microcontroller


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L S R First Design Key board

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A B Second Design

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A B C D C D B Key board Third Design

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

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Microcontroller 8051


Contents: Introduction Block Diagram and Pin Description of the 8051 Registers Memory mapping in 8051 Stack in the 8051 I/O Port Programming Timer Interrupt

Why do we need to learn Microprocessors/controllers? :

Why do we need to learn Microprocessors/controllers? The microprocessor is the core of computer systems. Nowadays many communication, digital entertainment, portable devices, are controlled by them. A designer should know what types of components he needs, ways to reduce production costs and product reliable .

Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller:

Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller Hardware :Interface to the real world Software :order how to deal with inputs

The necessary tools for a microprocessor/controller:

The necessary tools for a microprocessor/controller CPU: Central Processing Unit I/O: Input /Output Bus: Address bus & Data bus Memory: RAM & ROM Timer Interrupt Serial Port Parallel Port


CPU General-Purpose Micro-processor RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Data Bus Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System Microprocessors: CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself Example : Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0 Many chips on mother’s board General-purpose microprocessor

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RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Microcontroller CPU A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example : Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X A single chip Microcontroller :

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Microprocessor CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expansive versatility general-purpose Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and space are critical single-purpose Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller

Block Diagram:

Block Diagram CPU On-chip RAM On-chip ROM for program code 4 I/O Ports Timer 0 Serial Port OSC Interrupt Control External interrupts Timer 1 Timer/Counter Bus Control TxD RxD P0 P1 P2 P3 Address/Data Counter Inputs

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Pin Description of the 8051 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD)P3.0 (TXD)P3.1 (T0)P3.4 (T1)P3.5 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND (INT0)P3.2 (INT1)P3.3 (RD)P3.7 (WR)P3.6 Vic P0.0(AD0) P0.1(AD1) P0.2(AD2) P0.3(AD3) P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P0.6(AD6) P0.7(AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7(A15) P2.6(A14) P2.5(A13) P2.4(A12) P2.3(A11) P2.2(A10) P2.1(A9) P2.0(A8) 8051 (8031) 

Figure (b). Power-On RESET Circuit:

Figure (b). Power-On RESET Circuit 30 pF 30 pF 8.2 K 10 of + Vcc 11.0592 MHz EA/VPP X1 X2 RST 31 19 18 9 

Port 0 with Pull-Up Resistors:

Port 0 with Pull-Up Resistors P0.0 P0.1 P0.2 P0.3 P0.4 P0.5 P0.6 P0.7 DS5000 8751 8951 Vcc 10 K Port 0

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Registers A B R0 R1 R3 R4 R2 R5 R7 R6 DPH DPL PC DPTR PC Some 8051 16-bit Register Some 8-bitt Registers of the 8051

Stack in the 8051:

Stack in the 8051 The register used to access the stack is called SP (stack pointer) register. The stack pointer in the 8051 is only 8 bits wide, which means that it can take value 00 to FFH. When 8051 powered up, the SP register contains value 07. 7FH 30H 2FH 20H 1FH 17H 10H 0FH 07H 08H 18H 00H Register Bank 0 (Stack) Register Bank 1 Register Bank 2 Register Bank 3 Bit-Addressable RAM Scratch pad RAM

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Thursday, February 23, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Timer ::

Timer : : Timer:

Interrupt ::

Interrupt :

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Numerical Bases Used in Programming Hexadecimal Binary BCD

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Hexadecimal Basis Hexadecimal Digits: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F A=10 B=11 C=12 D=13 E=14 F=15

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Decimal, Binary, BCD, & Hexadecimal Numbers (43) 10 = (0100 0011) BCD = ( 0010 1011 ) 2 = ( 2 B ) 16

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Register Addressing Mode MOV Rn, A ;n=0,..,7 ADD A, Rn MOV DPL, R6 MOV DPTR, A MOV Rm, Rn

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Direct Addressing Mode Although the entire of 128 bytes of RAM can be accessed using direct addressing mode, it is most often used to access RAM loc. 30 – 7FH. MOV R0, 40H MOV 56H, A MOV A, 4 ; ≡ MOV A, R4 MOV 6, 2 ; copy R2 to R6 ; MOV R6,R2 is invalid !

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Immediate Addressing Mode MOV A,#65H MOV R6,#65H MOV DPTR,#2343H MOV P1,#65H

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SETB bit ; bit=1 CLR bit ; bit=0 SETB C ; CY=1 SETB P0.0 ;bit 0 from port 0 =1 SETB P3.7 ;bit 7 from port 3 =1 SETB ACC.2 ;bit 2 from ACCUMULATOR =1 SETB 05 ;set high D5 of RAM loc. 20h Note: CLR instruction is as same as SETB i.e.: CLR C ;CY=0 But following instruction is only for CLR: CLR A ;A=0

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DEC byte ;byte=byte-1 INC byte ;byte=byte+1 INC R7 DEC A DEC 40H ; [40]=[40]-1

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LOOP and JUMP Instructions JZ Jump if A=0 JNZ Jump if A/=0 DJNZ Decrement and jump if A/=0 CJNE A,byte Jump if A/=byte CJNE reg,#data Jump if byte/=#data JC Jump if CY=1 JNC Jump if CY=0 JB Jump if bit=1 JNB Jump if bit=0 JBC Jump if bit=1 and clear bit Conditional Jumps :

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Call instruction SETB P0.0 . . CALL UP . . . CLR P0.0 . . RET UP:

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