Methods of pregnancy diagnosis in Mare

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

Clinical, Management , Laboratory Methods for pregnancy diagnosis in Mare

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Methods of pregnancy diagnosis Mare:

Methods of pregnancy diagnosis Mare By Dr.Sulake Fadhil Abbas

PowerPoint Presentation:

Management methods -Failure to return to oestrus which should commence 16 days after service and continue for a further 6 days. False positives will occur: ● if the mare has a silent heat, a common problem when the foal is at foot ● if the mare becomes anoestrous as a result of lactation or environmental factors ● if the mare has a prolonged dioestrus yet has not conceived ● if the mare has a prolonged luteal phase associated with embryonic death; this is referred to as ‘pseudopregnancy False negatives will occur in a few mares which will show oestrus at this time although they are pregnant.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Clinical methods Vaginal examination. The vaginal mucosa is pale pink, the mucus is scant and sticky, and the cervix small and tightly closed. False positives can occur in early pregnancy because the vagina is indistinguishable from that seen in dioestrus . Errors can also be made as a result of prolonged luteal phase and pseudopregnancy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rectal palpation Follicles are normally present during the first 3 months of gestation. Uterine tone is marked at 17–21 days of pregnancy, when the uterine cornua can be palpated as resilient tubular organs . If no conceptual swelling is palpable, then this tone should only be interpreted as suggestive of pregnancy. The uterine body and non-pregnant horn remain tonic until at least day 50 of gestation. Marked uterine tone may also be found in: the puerperal mare covered at the foal heat; acute endometritis ; and pseudopregnancy , that is when early embryonic death is followed by autolysis or expulsion of the conceptus but the uterus retains the texture of pregnancy because of the persistent CL.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Palpation of the conceptus is first possible at 17–21 days, when it is a small soft swelling of 2.4–2.8 cm in diameter or is an apparent ‘gap’ It is more easily felt between 21 and 30 days, but still only the cranioventral portion of the distension can be appreciated. At 25 days, the conceptual swelling is 3–3.4 cm. At 30 days, its dorsoventral diameter is 3–4 cm. At 35 days, it is 4.5–6 cm and At 40 days 6–7 cm in diameter –about the size of a tennis ball. By 60 days, it is becoming oval in shape and measures approximately 13 × 9 cm, whilst by 90 days it has increased to approximately 23 × 14 cm. Twin conceptuses can be identified up to 60 days.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The chorionic vesicle is distinct and spherical and approximate sizes are: 28 d (4 wks) pullet egg 35 d (5 wks) lemon 42 d (6 wks) orange 49 d (7 wks) grapefruit 56 d (8 wks) cantaloupe -By 90 d it is hard to delineate the cranial margin of uterus. -Fetal Ballotment per rectum becomes consistent after 150d. -Aging fetus by size, as in the cow, is imprecise.

PowerPoint Presentation:

False positive results by rectal palpation can be obtained either when, in rare instances, it is pyometra , or when, in the very early stages , the uterine tone due to incomplete involution might be assumed to be due to pregnancy in mares which have been served at the foal heat, and in those that have developed a pseudopregnancy. It should also be remembered that mares may suffer embryonic or fetal death with resorption or abortion after they have been confirmed pregnant. False negative results can be obtained if there is confusion over the service date, i.e. later than the one recorded, or if the uterus is not palpated completely.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Laboratory methods Milk or blood progesterone

PowerPoint Presentation:

Blood or milk samples collected 16–22 days after service should have elevated progestogen concentrations in pregnant mares, whilst in non-pregnant mares the levels would be low and typical of those obtained at oestrus. False positive results occur with a prolonged luteal phase, and, in general, the method is not very reliable.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Identification of eCG. -Blood samples should be collected, preferably between 50 and 90 days after service, although it is possible to identify the hormone between 40 and 120 days. The test is performed on serum. -The most frequently used method was the injection of serum into 3/ 1–2 -week-old immature mice, a positive result being the production of ripe follicles in the ovaries and the presence of a swollen enlarged uterus.

PowerPoint Presentation:

False negative results are obtained if the blood sample is taken either too early or too late , and for this reason it is important to sample at the optimum times stated above. Some mares produce low levels of eCG that are briefly sustained and which cannot be detected using the method. False positive results are obtained as a result of embryonic or fetal death, either after the blood sample was collected or in some cases before. Once the endometrial cups have formed, they will persist and still secrete eCG, even if the fetus has died.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Blood oestrogens A method of detecting pregnancy by determining the concentration of total oestrogens in the peripheral blood By 85 days of gestation the concentration should exceed the maximum values obtained in non-pregnant mares. Urinary oestrogens Oestrogens (oestrone and oestradiol-17β) are present in the urine of pregnant mares in sufficient amounts for accurate detection by a chemical method between 150 and 300 days of gestation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Serum early pregnancy factor Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive glycoprotein associated with early pregnancy, Using the rosette inhibition test it has been possible to detect the presence of EPF in the serum from peripheral blood from as early as 7–10 days after ovulation

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mare

authorStream Live Help