ROLE OF STUDENTS IN PBL (first session of PBL) ppt

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Role of students in Problem-Based Learning :

Role of students in Problem-Based Learning Dr. Issam Dr. Ghaus

Acknowledgement:

Acknowledgement Sources used for this open discussion : Prof. Hugh Pross , formerly of Queens University Canada PBL Handbook for Students & Tutors downloaded from the website of Queens University Canada ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: Problem based learning by Diana F Wood Two slides from Dr. Khadija’s presentation

Open discussion on Role of the Group in a PBL tutorial:

Open discussion on Role of the Group in a PBL tutorial Objectives: To discuss and understand clearly, what are the responsibilities of the group of students in PBL sessions To discuss and understand some of the pitfalls that may occur in PBL sessions and suggest ways to avoid them

PowerPoint Presentation:

All participants have a role to play Scribe Leader Group member Follow the steps of the process in sequence • Participate in discussion • Listen to and respect contributions of others • Ask open questions • Research all the learning objectives • Share information with others Record points made by group • Help group order their thoughts • Participate in discussion • Record resources used by group Lead the group through the process • Encourage all members to participate • Maintain group dynamics • Keep to time • Ensure group keeps to task in hand • Ensure scribe can keep up and is making an accurate record

The student's responsibilities/duties:

The student's responsibilities/duties

Characteristics of the PBL process:

Characteristics of the PBL process Usually based on clinical cases, relevant Cases are characterized by “progressive disclosure” Students come in “cold” to the first tutorial Students determine the learning issues Sessions are open-ended to allow learning in the interval The tutor is a facilitator and not necessarily an “expert”, except in the process

PowerPoint Presentation:

All participants have a role to play Scribe Leader Group member Follow the steps of the process in sequence • Participate in discussion • Listen to and respect contributions of others • Ask open questions • Research all the learning objectives • Share information with others Record points made by group • Help group order their thoughts • Participate in discussion • Record resources used by group Lead the group through the process • Encourage all members to participate • Maintain group dynamics • Keep to time • Ensure group keeps to task in hand • Ensure scribe can keep up and is making an accurate record

Group dynamics: four stages:

G roup dynamics: four stages Forming: The silent (exploratory) stage, where members of the group attempt to discover more about other members Storming: during which members of the group may confront each other—may lead to conflicts Norming: r ules are formulated to minimize any other conflicts--rules may be specific to each group Performing: The group in this stage focus on the task. This is the productive period.

Fundamental fact about the role of students:

Fundamental fact about the role of students Problem-based learning is a student centred process and it is “the responsibility of the individual student to participate fully, not only for his or her learning, but also to aid the learning of the others in the group” Although much of the student’s time may be spent alone in the library or at the computer, the full benefits of PBL cannot be realized in isolation

The first group session:

The first group session Be sure you have the necessary information : Bring your handbook to the session, especially at first The tutors will ensure that you have the information relevant to the case to be discussed that day

PowerPoint Presentation:

Seating arrangements : Be sure that conversation can flow easily, and be sure that everyone can establish eye contact with everyone else in the group If this is not the case, suggest seating changes during this first session.

Starting the Problem:

Starting the Problem After the introductions between students and the tutor, the tutor distributes the first page (only) to each student. The process begins with the students electing a Leader The leader with the help of his friends select a Scribe

Starting the Problem:

Starting the Problem The leader will then ask one of the students to read the problem Reading the case aloud keeps the group focussed, as well as revealing some interesting pronunciations of medical terms that need to be corrected, hopefully by other members of the group ??? Silent reading - a bad practice ? Why

Role of the Scribe:

Role of the Scribe The importance of the scribe is often not understood by students Scribe will write down the terms and words unknown to students Scribe must use the board ?? Why

“the process of PBL”:

“the process of PBL” What are the issues? Identify the important issues in the problem. Include population, behavioural and biological aspects Do not ignore population and behavioural aspects- these issues have been deliberately included (or should be included) in the problems and are integral to the comprehensive discussion that follows

What the students MUST do:

What the students MUST do Think aloud !!! Should not worry about their ideas being right or wrong Ask questions from themselves and from each other

Consider the basic mechanisms:

Consider the basic mechanisms Try to understand the basic structural and/or functional mechanisms that may contribute to the presentation of the problem Use the collective skills and experiences of group members to explore or explain these phenomena Don’t be superficial -- "really understand the basic principles“ If you know something that will help the group to progress, then volunteer it! Diagnosis of the disease itself is not the most important issue

PowerPoint Presentation:

Spend considerable time brainstorming Keep to brainstorming 'rules' (if someone thinks it, he/she must say it (BRIEFLY); Discuss, justify suggestions Should write all suggestions down verbatim (on the board) even if they appear to be overlap May go back through the problem after a short break thinking about something else

PowerPoint Presentation:

Think Big! Are there broader principles that you can derive from this problem that will help you to understand a class similar, but not identical, to this problem?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Learn from each other : Share your own knowledge, expertise, or ability to reason and synthesize information Be receptive and appreciative of the contribution of your small group members The group should be like ONE person

Determine priorities for learning::

Determine priorities for learning : Consider time, resources and objectives and set priorities regarding the relative importance of each learning issue Remember that the primary task of each problem is to provide a springboard to learning, not to make a quick diagnosis and work out a management plan.

Use the problem as a stimulus::

Use the problem as a stimulus: For discussion, asking questions For making a framework for organizing your knowledge For allowing you to acquire essential information, & development of sound concepts and lead to the establishment of principles which will apply throughout your medical career Use the “abnormal” to focus on the “ normal”and then come back to the “abnormal”

Ask questions::

Ask questions: Questioning is one of the most important means of facilitating learning, not only for the individual asking the question, but for the group as a whole It can serve to keep the group focused, and prevent it from getting bogged down It also can help other group members by forcing them to present information and concepts more precisely The only question that can be considered "stupid" is the one that is not asked

PowerPoint Presentation:

Use the group to develop effective communication skills It is important for everyone to communicate effectively ---- not only of technical information, but also of feelings at a personal level Remember, some of you may be having personal problems Share Information

PowerPoint Presentation:

Traditional Tutorial “Tutor ” “Students”

PowerPoint Presentation:

PBL Tutorial “Tutor ” “Students” Maintain eye contact with each other When talking, look at everyone, not just to the tutor or to the leader

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